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2018-10-19-pressefruehstueck-iran-sanktionen

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Der Bankenverband hat am 19. Oktober 2018 in einem Pressegespräch über "Herausforderungen im Geschäft mit Bezug zum Iran" informiert. In der folgenden Berichterstattung hieß es, Bankgeschäfte mit dem Iran haben auf absehbare Zeit nur wenig Aussicht auf Wiederbelebung. Dies berichten die "Börsen-Zeitung", "handelsblatt.com" und "spiegel.de", unter Berufung auf eine interne Analyse des Bankenverbands. Die Risiken seien enorm hoch, heiße es darin. Dies liege weniger an den US-Sanktionen als an allgemeinen Compliance-Regeln und Vorgaben im Kampf gegen Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung. Für Iran-Geschäfte würden "nach wie vor die passenden Rahmenbedingungen fehlen" zitiert "Die Welt" Markus Becker-Melching, Mitglied der Geschäftsführung des Bankenverbands. "Nytimes.com" schreibt, deutsche Exporte in den Iran seien in den ersten acht Monaten des Jahres um vier Prozent gesunken. Dies würden Daten des Bankenverbands zeigen.

Veröffentlicht in: Wirtschaft & Finanzen
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2018-10-19-pressefruehstueck-iran-sanktionen

  1. 1. Herausforderungen im Geschäft mit Bezug zum Iran Iris Quade Hintergrund-Pressefrühstück 19. Oktober 2018
  2. 2. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. 2 Iran-Sanktionen: Engagement des Bankenverbands Nach Implementation DayVor Implementation Day Aug Sep Nov 2015 2016 2017 2018 Treffen BMWi mit DK Positionspapier BdB für BMWi Gesammelte Fragen für US- Guidance ans BMWi Treffen BMWi mit DK Treffen mit US State Department Treffen BMWi mit DK, deutschen und iran. Banken BdB-Telco OFAC BdB-Treffen OFAC und Treasury Treffen BMWi mit DK, deutschen und iranischen Banken und deutscher Wirtschaft DK-Papier zu Hindernissen DK-Papier zu iran. Projektliste Jan Feb Mär Apr Sep Okt DK-BMF- Konferenz mit iranischen Banken Teil- nahme (HGF für DK) an der Reise von Minister Gabriel in den Iran Verbände- gespräch im BMWi zum Iran Jun US-Präsidentschaftswahl Nov NovFeb Mai Juni Aug BdB mit US- Kongress DK- OFAC 1. Stufe US- Sanktionen 2. Stufe US- Sanktionen Aufkündigung des Nuklearabkommens durch Präsident Trump
  3. 3. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Allgemeine Rahmenbedingungen 3 Im Umfeld des Irans  Korrespondenzbankbeziehungen werden weltweit verringert anstatt ausgebaut  Steigende Risiken  Höhere Eigenkapital- und Liquiditätsanforderungen  Gestiegene AML/CFT-Vorschriften  2016: Bestehende, abweichende US- und EU- Sanktionen  2018: Wiederaufleben weiterer US-Nuklear-Sanktionen  Einstufung auf „Hell-Schwarze Liste“ (FATF) zur Geldwäsche  Fehlende Informationen Global Compliance-Risiken mit nicht quantifizierbaren Folgen Mangelnde Attraktivität vor allem in Ländern mit schwacher Regulierung und Aufsicht
  4. 4. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Besonderheiten bei US-Sanktionen Alt-Geschäft Keine Schutzklauseln wie in EU (Grandfathering), sondern Rückabwicklung in festem Zeitrahmen gefordert. Ausnahmen sehr vom Goodwill der US-Aufsichtsbehörden abhängig. Rechtsrahmen Sehr komplex/vielschichtig durch unpräzise US-Gesetze (Kongress), OFAC-Auslegungen (FAQs), Executive Orders oder Ausnahmen/befristete Aufhebungen des Präsidenten (Waiver) und (General- oder Einzel-)Lizenzen. Extraterritorialität Differenzierung zwischen Primärsanktionen (US-Nexus: US- Person, US-Dollar, US-Warenanteil etc.) und darüber hinaus wirkenden Sekundärsanktionen (nicht in allen Sanktions- regimen vorhanden, aber speziell Iran, Russland). Verschiedene Aufsichtsbehörden Bund und Staat Regulierung und Aufsicht findet nicht nur auf Bundes- sondern auch auf Staatenebene statt. Z. B. für in NY ansässige Banken: OFAC, DoJ, FED NY, DFS (NY), DANY*. 4 *Office of Foreign Assets Control (U.S. Treasury), U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York State Department of Financial Services, District Attorney New York
  5. 5. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Ausgewählte US-Strafzahlungen/Vergleiche 5 8,9 1,9 1,45 0,787 0,669 0,619 0,536 0,25 Strafzahlungen u.a. wegen Iran-Geschäften (in Mrd. US-$) Quellen: Financial Times, 02/2016, eigene Recherchen
  6. 6. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Iran-Geschäft ist und bleibt für Banken riskant 6  Risiko gegen Compliance-Vorschriften zu verstoßen  Keine Expertise über die Risikostruktur iranischer Banken  Mangel an zuverlässigen Informationen über Privatkunden und Unternehmen
  7. 7. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Aktuelle Entwicklung im Bankgeschäft mit dem Iran 7 Korrespondenz- bankbeziehungen  vereinzelter Aufbau von Korrespondenzbankbeziehungen zum Erliegen gekommen Finanzierungs- zusagen  Hermes seit 20. Juni 2016 verfügbar, offiziell auch weiterhin  Seit 2016 Deckungen ausschließlich im Kurzfristbereich  Seit Juni 2018 haben faktisch sämtliche Banken ihr „Trade and Export Finance“-Geschäft eingestellt Zahlungsverkehr u. Akkreditive  Zahlungsverkehr schleppend und störungsanfällig, kommt zunehmend zum Erliegen  Einzelne Akkreditive – kein Neugeschäft Hohe Anfangsinvestitionen bei zunächst geringer Profitabilität und (hohem) Risiko begründeten das zurückhaltende Engagement deutscher Banken
  8. 8. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Wie geht es weiter? 8  Irangeschäft bleibt für Banken eine große Herausforderung – unter Kosten-Nutzen-Aspekten wenig attraktiv  Alle Banken – bis auf wenige Ausnahmen – zeigen Zurückhaltung bzw. stellen Geschäft ein  Humanitäres Geschäft wird nach Einzelfallprüfung weiter begleitet  Nachfrage ebenfalls rückläufig – Iran schont Devisen, deutsche Unternehmen ziehen sich zurück  Keine Anstrengungen in Iran zu erkennen, Finanzinfrastruktur zu verbessern Fazit: Fortschritte nur durch Iran zu erzielen
  9. 9. ©BundesverbanddeutscherBankene.V. Autor: Funktion: E-Mail: Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit Bundesverband deutscher Banken Iris Quade Direktorin iris.quade@bdb.de

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