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Schutz des freien Austausches grenzüberschreitender
Dienste-Angebote durch das General Agreement on Trade
in Services (GAT...
Besonderheiten des Dienstleistungshandels
• Schwierigkeit der statistischen Erfassung
- unterschiedliche Meldepflicht
- ke...
Leading exporters in world trade in commercial services
Gesamt 1997: US$1,3 Billionen (Quelle: WTO)
United States 17,8 %
F...
Gliederung der Dienstleistungen nach dem Standortkriterium
• cross-border-supply (aus Land A nach Land B).
Bsp.: internati...
Zielsetzung
• Schaffung eines multilateralen Regelwerks für den internationalen
Dienstleistungshandel
• Durch Transparenz ...
Grundprinzipien und Ausnahmen
• Alle Dienstleistungen
• Most-Favoured-Nation
-Status (MFN)
• Marktöffnung
• Inlandgleichbe...
Bedeutung des Abkommens
Auf multilateraler Ebene
• Unzureichend: Freizügigkeit natürlicher Personen und
„kritische“ Sektor...
Master of Business Administration (MBA)
Deutsch-britischer, berufsbegleitender Studiengang der Fachhochschule für Wirtscha...
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Schutz des freien Austausches von Diensten durch das GATS

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Schutz des freien Austausches von Diensten durch das GATS

  1. 1. Schutz des freien Austausches grenzüberschreitender Dienste-Angebote durch das General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)
  2. 2. Besonderheiten des Dienstleistungshandels • Schwierigkeit der statistischen Erfassung - unterschiedliche Meldepflicht - kein quantifizierbarer Grenzübertritt  Statistiken beruhen teilweise auf Schätzungen! • Starke Heterogenität macht Verhandlungen schwierig: - Art der Dienstleistungen - Entwicklungsstand und Regulierungen • Handelshemmnisse oft nicht an Grenzen, sondern in Form landesinterner Vorschriften (Bsp. Telekommunikation, wo Investitionen oder Lizenzen / Beteiligungen notwendig sind). • Betrifft auch Grenzüberschreitung von Kapital und Personen. 2
  3. 3. Leading exporters in world trade in commercial services Gesamt 1997: US$1,3 Billionen (Quelle: WTO) United States 17,8 % France 6,3 % United Kingdom 6,5 % Germany 5,6 % Italy 5,5 % Japan 5,3 % Wer profitiert vom GATS? 3
  4. 4. Gliederung der Dienstleistungen nach dem Standortkriterium • cross-border-supply (aus Land A nach Land B). Bsp.: internationale Telefonanrufe. • consumption abroad (Erbringung im Land A bei gleichzeitiger Nutzung durch Nachfrager aus Land B). Bsp.: Tourismus. • commercial presence (Erbringung durch A im Land B mittels kommerzieller Präsenz). Bsp.: Niederlassung von ausländischen Banken. • presence of natural persons (Erbringung durch A im Land B). Bsp.: Fotomodelle und Consultants. Im GATS erfasste Dienstleistungen 4
  5. 5. Zielsetzung • Schaffung eines multilateralen Regelwerks für den internationalen Dienstleistungshandel • Durch Transparenz und Liberalisierung  Handelsausweitung und Wirtschaftswachstum Spezifische Merkmale • Handelsfreiheit für Dienstleistungen  automatisch für dazu notwendige Kapitaltransfers und Investitionen • Integraler Bestandteil: Anhänge  Ausnahmen für einzelne Sachbereiche und Sektoren Das Abkommen - Ziel und Merkmale 5
  6. 6. Grundprinzipien und Ausnahmen • Alle Dienstleistungen • Most-Favoured-Nation -Status (MFN) • Marktöffnung • Inlandgleichbehandlung • Z.B. im Luftverkehr, Seeverkehr (11% Anteil!) • allgemein (Integrationsräume, öffentliche Aufträge) • spezifisch (Negativlisten, begrenzt auf 10 Jahre) • Positivlisten (Monopole?, neue Dienstleistungen?) Prinzipien Ausnahmen 6 6
  7. 7. Bedeutung des Abkommens Auf multilateraler Ebene • Unzureichend: Freizügigkeit natürlicher Personen und „kritische“ Sektoren (Finanzen, Telekommunikation, Luftverkehr) • Offen: Subventionen, Beschaffung der öffentlichen Hand, technische Standards, Lizenzerfordernisse • Aber: Vertrag ist bewusst der Beginn einer längerfristigen Entwicklung. Erster Schritt ohne Ausnahmen nicht möglich! Für die Unternehmenspraxis • Transparenz (Offenlegung von Hemmnissen, Rechtssicherheit) • Mehr Möglichkeiten für grenzüberschreitende Beteiligungen  Zunehmender Wettbewerb und Standardisierung  international branding und noch stärkere Kostenorientierung 7
  8. 8. Master of Business Administration (MBA) Deutsch-britischer, berufsbegleitender Studiengang der Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft (FHW) Berlin und Anglia Polytechnic University (APU) Cambridge Referat zum Abschluss des Prüfungsfaches Rahmenbedingungen internationaler Unternehmensführung, SS 98. Link zur Seminararbeit Almut Stielau Berlin, August 1998

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