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Sustainable Open Source Business Models

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Sustainable Open Source Business Models

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Beschreibung

Dirk Rhiele

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  1. 1. Sustainable Open Source Business Models Prof. Dr. Dirk Riehle, M.B.A. Friedrich Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg OGD 2012 – 2012-06-26
  2. 2. Open Source Definition Legal Process ● Open source license [1] “Open source is a development ● Free use allowed method for software that har- nesses the power of distributed ● Source code available peer review and transparency of ● Modification of code allowed process. The promise of open ● Distribution of modifications OK source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower ● Open source initiative cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.” [2] ● Approves open source licenses ● Permissive vs reciprocal licenses ● Permissive code growing [3] [1] See http://www.opensource.org/osd.html [2] See http://www.opensource.org/ [3] See http://bit.ly/xbYEYP ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Economic Significance and Growth ● Open source is in wide use in enterprises ● In a large 2009 survey, Forrester Research found that 46% of all responding enterprises were using or implementing open source software [4] ● Most software firms use open source in products ● In 2009 Gartner Group estimated that by 2012, at least 80% of all software product firms will use open source software in their products [5] [4] Jeffrey S. Hammond. “Open Source Software Goes Mainstream.” Forrester Research: 2009. [5] Mark Driver. “Key Issues for Open Source Software, 2010.” Gartner Research: 2010. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Who Wrote Linux 2.6.20? “At least 65% of the code which went into 2.6.20 was created by people working for companies.” [6] [6] See http://lwn.net/Articles/222773/ ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Sustainable Open Source Business Models For Profit (“Commercial”) 1. Single-Vendor Open Source Firms 2. Open Source Distributors Not-for-Profit (Subsidized) 3. Developer Foundations 4. User Foundations ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. 1. Single-Vendor Open Source Firms “Single-vendor commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software.” [8] “By 2012, at least 50% of direct commercial revenue attributed to open-source products or services will come from projects under a single vendor's patronage.” [5] [8] Dirk Riehle. “The Single-Vendor Commercial Open Source Business Model.” - 2012-05-31 ETAS GmbH Information Systems and e-Business Management. Springer Verlag, Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved © 2012 2010. 6
  7. 7. Why Pay for Open Source Products? “Some people spend time to save money, some spend money to save time.” [9] [9] Marten Mickos. “Open for Business.” Talk at PARC Forum, 2010. Abstracted: http://bit.ly/bmSUga ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Commercial Open Source Products [10] DOC documentation Web Store Direct Sales incident-based Open Source INC Community support DOC INC UTIL UTIL utilities commercial LIC Customers Enterprise license LIC UPD UTIL update DOC TRN 24x7 UPD service TRN training ISV/OEM LIC UTIL ... DOC TRN 24x7 24x7 24x7 hotline [10] Florian Weikert. Product Features in Commercial Open Source Software. Bachelor ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 Thesis, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg: 2012. Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved © 2012 8
  9. 9. Community vs. Commercial Edition Community Edition Commercial Edition ● Core product ● Core product ● Open source license ● Commercial license ● No warranties, no indemnification ● “Dual-license” strategy ● Whole product ● Whole product ● Enterprise features missing ● Enterprise features ● “Open core” model ● Operational comfort ● Operational comfort ● None or limited ● Subscription, updates ● Various support contracts ● Consulting services ● Consulting services ● None or limited ● Various consulting services ● Second-level support ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 9
  10. 10. Sales Best Practice: Create Champions Market Engage in Product Comp. Sales Win Sale! Provide Open Source Generate Leads Track Users From Behavior Connect Users Identify Make Sales of Organization Champion Call / Visit ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. 2. Open Source Distributors [12] g bu w fix ne t. backport g fea bu w fix ne t. fea g 10.10 10.10 bu EOL backport w fix commercial ne t. backport g fea features bu fix es tur backport w fea ne 10.04 10.04 EOL commercial features [12] Dirk Riehle. “The Economic Motivation of Open Source.” IEEE Computer vol. 40, no 4 (April 2007). Page 25-32. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. 3. Open Source Developer Foundations Definition Purpose 1. A developer foundation is ● Lower development costs a non-profit organization ● Increase share of wallet (foundation, consortium) ● Reach more customers 2. with the purpose of ● Grow addressable market managing and performing ● Reduce strategic lock-in 3. the development of (non-differentiating) Downsides open source software ● Higher engagement made available to foundation members (and the general public). ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 12
  13. 13. Examples of Developer Foundations ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 13
  14. 14. Increase Share of Wallet [15] money spent on bundled solution $$$$ customer cost savings business $$$$$ application business $$$$ application closed-source operating system $$ open-source operating system without open source with open source [15] Dirk Riehle. “The Economic Case for Open Source Foundations.” IEEE Computer vol. 43, no. 1 (January 2010). Page 86-90. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 14
  15. 15. Reach More Price-Sensitive Customers money spent on bundled solution cus $$$$$ tom er emd potential profits for an business application vendor dc urv e $$ cost of providing business application $$ cost of providing open source operating system number of customers sold to ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 15
  16. 16. Grow Addressable Market market 2 total market size customer cost savings market 1 market 2 $$$$$$$ $$$$ $$$$$$ market 1 applications $$ applications applications applications $$$$ $$$$ closed-source closed-source platform open-source platform open-source $$ platform $$ platform two competing platforms dominant open source platform with equal total market size with larger total market size ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 16
  17. 17. 4. User Foundations Definition Purpose 1. A user foundation is ● Lower TCO a non-profit organization ● More flexibility (foundation, consortium) ● More predictability 2. with the purpose of ● Reduced vendor lock-in sponsoring (financing and managing) Downsides 3. the development of ● Higher engagement (non-differentiating) open source software made available to foundation members (and the general public). ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 17
  18. 18. Ecosystem of User Foundations 1/2 UF UF M owns s ele sA c y ts plo +p em OSS ay UF de s ls ve tro lop SD n co s AM manages SV AM SD UF: User Foundation AM: Alliance Management SD: Software Developer ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 18
  19. 19. Ecosystem of User Foundations 2/2 SU SU e ns pa ice uses ys l CP for (OSS) or CP f CP ys c cu us pa s sto lop mi tom ve ze SU de s . collaborate SV CF SU: Software User SV: Software Vendor CF: Consulting Firm ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 19
  20. 20. Conclusions 1. Open source is here to stay 2. Four sustainable business models 3. Open source simplifies consortia ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 20
  21. 21. Thank you! Questions? dirk.riehle@cs.fau.de – http://osr.cs.fau.de dirk@riehle.org – http://dirkriehle.com – @dirkriehle ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 21 DR

Beschreibung

Dirk Rhiele

Transkript

  1. 1. Sustainable Open Source Business Models Prof. Dr. Dirk Riehle, M.B.A. Friedrich Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg OGD 2012 – 2012-06-26
  2. 2. Open Source Definition Legal Process ● Open source license [1] “Open source is a development ● Free use allowed method for software that har- nesses the power of distributed ● Source code available peer review and transparency of ● Modification of code allowed process. The promise of open ● Distribution of modifications OK source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower ● Open source initiative cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.” [2] ● Approves open source licenses ● Permissive vs reciprocal licenses ● Permissive code growing [3] [1] See http://www.opensource.org/osd.html [2] See http://www.opensource.org/ [3] See http://bit.ly/xbYEYP ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. Economic Significance and Growth ● Open source is in wide use in enterprises ● In a large 2009 survey, Forrester Research found that 46% of all responding enterprises were using or implementing open source software [4] ● Most software firms use open source in products ● In 2009 Gartner Group estimated that by 2012, at least 80% of all software product firms will use open source software in their products [5] [4] Jeffrey S. Hammond. “Open Source Software Goes Mainstream.” Forrester Research: 2009. [5] Mark Driver. “Key Issues for Open Source Software, 2010.” Gartner Research: 2010. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Who Wrote Linux 2.6.20? “At least 65% of the code which went into 2.6.20 was created by people working for companies.” [6] [6] See http://lwn.net/Articles/222773/ ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Sustainable Open Source Business Models For Profit (“Commercial”) 1. Single-Vendor Open Source Firms 2. Open Source Distributors Not-for-Profit (Subsidized) 3. Developer Foundations 4. User Foundations ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 5
  6. 6. 1. Single-Vendor Open Source Firms “Single-vendor commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software.” [8] “By 2012, at least 50% of direct commercial revenue attributed to open-source products or services will come from projects under a single vendor's patronage.” [5] [8] Dirk Riehle. “The Single-Vendor Commercial Open Source Business Model.” - 2012-05-31 ETAS GmbH Information Systems and e-Business Management. Springer Verlag, Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved © 2012 2010. 6
  7. 7. Why Pay for Open Source Products? “Some people spend time to save money, some spend money to save time.” [9] [9] Marten Mickos. “Open for Business.” Talk at PARC Forum, 2010. Abstracted: http://bit.ly/bmSUga ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Commercial Open Source Products [10] DOC documentation Web Store Direct Sales incident-based Open Source INC Community support DOC INC UTIL UTIL utilities commercial LIC Customers Enterprise license LIC UPD UTIL update DOC TRN 24x7 UPD service TRN training ISV/OEM LIC UTIL ... DOC TRN 24x7 24x7 24x7 hotline [10] Florian Weikert. Product Features in Commercial Open Source Software. Bachelor ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 Thesis, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg: 2012. Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved © 2012 8
  9. 9. Community vs. Commercial Edition Community Edition Commercial Edition ● Core product ● Core product ● Open source license ● Commercial license ● No warranties, no indemnification ● “Dual-license” strategy ● Whole product ● Whole product ● Enterprise features missing ● Enterprise features ● “Open core” model ● Operational comfort ● Operational comfort ● None or limited ● Subscription, updates ● Various support contracts ● Consulting services ● Consulting services ● None or limited ● Various consulting services ● Second-level support ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 9
  10. 10. Sales Best Practice: Create Champions Market Engage in Product Comp. Sales Win Sale! Provide Open Source Generate Leads Track Users From Behavior Connect Users Identify Make Sales of Organization Champion Call / Visit ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. 2. Open Source Distributors [12] g bu w fix ne t. backport g fea bu w fix ne t. fea g 10.10 10.10 bu EOL backport w fix commercial ne t. backport g fea features bu fix es tur backport w fea ne 10.04 10.04 EOL commercial features [12] Dirk Riehle. “The Economic Motivation of Open Source.” IEEE Computer vol. 40, no 4 (April 2007). Page 25-32. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. 3. Open Source Developer Foundations Definition Purpose 1. A developer foundation is ● Lower development costs a non-profit organization ● Increase share of wallet (foundation, consortium) ● Reach more customers 2. with the purpose of ● Grow addressable market managing and performing ● Reduce strategic lock-in 3. the development of (non-differentiating) Downsides open source software ● Higher engagement made available to foundation members (and the general public). ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 12
  13. 13. Examples of Developer Foundations ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 13
  14. 14. Increase Share of Wallet [15] money spent on bundled solution $$$$ customer cost savings business $$$$$ application business $$$$ application closed-source operating system $$ open-source operating system without open source with open source [15] Dirk Riehle. “The Economic Case for Open Source Foundations.” IEEE Computer vol. 43, no. 1 (January 2010). Page 86-90. ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 14
  15. 15. Reach More Price-Sensitive Customers money spent on bundled solution cus $$$$$ tom er emd potential profits for an business application vendor dc urv e $$ cost of providing business application $$ cost of providing open source operating system number of customers sold to ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 15
  16. 16. Grow Addressable Market market 2 total market size customer cost savings market 1 market 2 $$$$$$$ $$$$ $$$$$$ market 1 applications $$ applications applications applications $$$$ $$$$ closed-source closed-source platform open-source platform open-source $$ platform $$ platform two competing platforms dominant open source platform with equal total market size with larger total market size ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 16
  17. 17. 4. User Foundations Definition Purpose 1. A user foundation is ● Lower TCO a non-profit organization ● More flexibility (foundation, consortium) ● More predictability 2. with the purpose of ● Reduced vendor lock-in sponsoring (financing and managing) Downsides 3. the development of ● Higher engagement (non-differentiating) open source software made available to foundation members (and the general public). ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 17
  18. 18. Ecosystem of User Foundations 1/2 UF UF M owns s ele sA c y ts plo +p em OSS ay UF de s ls ve tro lop SD n co s AM manages SV AM SD UF: User Foundation AM: Alliance Management SD: Software Developer ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 18
  19. 19. Ecosystem of User Foundations 2/2 SU SU e ns pa ice uses ys l CP for (OSS) or CP f CP ys c cu us pa s sto lop mi tom ve ze SU de s . collaborate SV CF SU: Software User SV: Software Vendor CF: Consulting Firm ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 19
  20. 20. Conclusions 1. Open source is here to stay 2. Four sustainable business models 3. Open source simplifies consortia ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 20
  21. 21. Thank you! Questions? dirk.riehle@cs.fau.de – http://osr.cs.fau.de dirk@riehle.org – http://dirkriehle.com – @dirkriehle ETAS GmbH - 2012-05-31 © 2012 Dirk Riehle - All Rights Reserved 21 DR

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