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Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse

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Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse

  1. 1. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse Comenius-Regio-Tag Nürnberg, 12.3.2013
  2. 2. learning is always mobile
  3. 3. sometimes learning gets de-mobilised (for good reasons)
  4. 4. good reasons: shelter (safe environment) focusing and synchronising attention enabling various forms of communication achieving a learning community and culture
  5. 5. (Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Archäologischen Instituts, Berlin 1892, Taf. 2) http://archive.org/stream/jahrbuchdeskaise07kaisrich#page/n431/mode/2up
  6. 6. promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  7. 7. promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  8. 8. „Smartboards are more powerful/ versatile than chalkboards.“ „Beamers are more powerful/versatile than overhead projectors.“ „Smartpad s are more powerful/ versatile than paper books and exercise books.“ etc. …
  9. 9. But in fact, dig ital, networked med ia are not merely powerful new too ls. They demand and enforce a change in the way that schools organise … learning learning culture school culture and, particularly, scho o l‘s organisational culture.
  10. 10. Why so?
  11. 11. School as a „typographic educational culture“, normatively bound to literality, thus structurally excluding non-linear media. Böhme, Jeanette: Schule am Ende der Buchkultur. Bad Heilbrunn 2006.
  12. 12. Linearisation is a main property of text
  13. 13. Linearisation is a main property of text letter after letter word after word sentence after sentence paragraph after paragraph chapter after chapter book after book
  14. 14. Linearisation is also a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions
  15. 15. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions files lists reports protocolls documented processes (i.e. scripts for routines and decision making) …
  16. 16. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space organisation of time differentiation of differentiation of school classes school subjects governance of the governance of the order of communication order of knowledge
  17. 17. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space hierarchically divided
  18. 18. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of space hierarchically divided demand for a complete spatial separation (i.e., walls)
  19. 19. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of time divided and normalised
  20. 20. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions organisation of time divided and normalised demand for a synchronised time management
  21. 21. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions differentiation of spatial separation + school classes age separation
  22. 22. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions differentiation of temporal separation school subjects
  23. 23. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions pre-defined types of social settings governance of the order of communication
  24. 24. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for social boundaries pre-defined types of social settings governance of the order of communication
  25. 25. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions preselection/ hierarchisation of fields of knowledge/competencies governance of the order of knowledge
  26. 26. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for controllable media preselection/ hierarchisation of fields of knowledge/competencies governance of the order of knowledge
  27. 27. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for demand for controllable media social boundaries demand for a demand for a complete synchronised time spatial separation management (i.e., walls)
  28. 28. Linearisation is a main pattern of complexity reduction in literal educational institutions demand for demand for controllable media social boundaries naturalisation of linearisation demand for a demand for a complete synchronised time spatial separation management (i.e., walls)
  29. 29. new media challenge the linearisation of learning
  30. 30. (And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
  31. 31. (And here is where our trojan horse trots in.)
  32. 32. control of sources social boundaries and content synchronisation spatial separation
  33. 33. control of sources social boundaries and content asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  34. 34. control of sources social boundaries and content no control (but individual filters) asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  35. 35. control of sources social boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & polychronous structures synchronisation spatial separation
  36. 36. control of sources social boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility synchronisation spatial separation
  37. 37. deliberate control deliberate social of sources boundaries and content no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility deliberate deliberate spatial synchronisation separation
  38. 38. no control networks (but individual without defined filters) boundaries asynchronous & unified spaces, polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility
  39. 39. ne cu ed no control networks ltiv fo (but individual without defined filters) boundaries ati r asynchronous & unified spaces, on polychronous ubiquity, structures mobility
  40. 40. So, how do you train a trojan horse?
  41. 41. So, how do you train a trojan horse? (You don‘t.)
  42. 42. (But you‘ll probably learn how to ride it.) (Scottish writer Marty Ross mounted on a Trojan Rocking Horse, London Architecture Biennial 2004) http://bit.ly/trojanhorseride
  43. 43. Dr. Benjamin Jörissen http://joerissen.name benjamin@joerissen.name Mobile learning in formal education or: How to train a trojan horse Slides are online via slideshare.com (or ask me for the keynote file)

Notizen

  • promise of power seemingly serving traditional purposes carrying forces that disrupt the traditional order
  • For good reasons
  • For good reasons
  • (Trojan horse on corintian aryballos) What are the structural properties of a trojan horse? - it seems to be a gift – beautiful, attractive, powerful, „for the gods“ – but as a fake gift for the gods, it only seems to serve the ancient powers – in opposite, it has forces inside that disrupt the old order.
  • Some views on new media eventually follow this patterns. …
  • Which is true. But: The usual approach to understand something unknown and new is to try to subsume it by means of the well-known old. This implies to miss (underestimate or misunderstand) the emergent qualities of media innovations.
  • … and it has to be so, because literality is not only an education goal and ideal, but also the basis of organisational practices such as organising the conveyance of knowledge.
  • Files, lists, reports, protocolls are at the heart of classical organisations.
  • As sociologist Niklas Luhmann pointed out, systems, such as educational organizations, can only process their operations one step after another, that is: linearly. (While of course there is a kind of multitasking and pluralisation of time through establishing subsystems such as school classes).Linearisation strategies are key to handling the multiple complexities organizations (such as schools) have to deal with.
  • Project-based learning means to partially override the temporal separation of aspects of the everyday world.
  • class community – workgroups – individual (as good as) no networks, neither within the school community nor with other schools. classroom boundary as paradigm for learning community
  • class community – workgroups – individual (as good as) no networks, neither within the school community nor with other schools. classroom boundary as paradigm for learning community
  • curricula,
  • (media which are able to perpetuate given curricula)
  • Governing an educational organisation by means of the administrative tools of the 18th and 19th century (basically) is not only bound to linearise non-linear complexities, but moreover, to naturalise linearisation.
  • Non-linear, complex media such as digital networked media are a challenge to the demands of nowadays schools in terms of control and boundaries.
  • A tool? An e-book „plus“? A thing to work with your moodle-course? and more lightweight than books, too!
  • Or is it something which, in the end, will bring the plethora of chances and challenges of digital networked environments right into the classroom?
  • These are some of he major transformations caused by digital, networked media: - asynchronous and polychronous structures are enabled by the persistence of information, which stretches the boundaries of „presence“.
  • - source and content control transforms into an individual task of choosing and building up filter mechanisms in order to separate valuable from less valuable, reliable from less reliable information, and to avoid the distraction of informational abundance as well as the redundance of an informational echo chamber.
  • - traditional social forms like communities and groups transform into the multitude of shapes that social networks can take (not talking about social networking platforms, but about networks of acquaintances as personal, i.e. knowledge resources).
  • - all this happens ubiquitously and mobile within the unified spaces and locations of the social web, pluralising our common notions of „space“ as one unity.
  • The „old“ order has not vanished: it now becomes an option of deliberate choice. Controlled, closed, synchronised learning environments are a subset among many other options.
  • Deliberation implicates freedom of choice. Freedom of choice, though, implicates power of judgement, a competence in making „good“ decisions.
  • This means, the multiplicity of options ubiquitously brought by digital networked media still demand the development and cultivation of good, helpful, efficient ways to use those options. This is a central task and educational challenge of our time. Institutions of formal education, such as schools and universities, have a special obligation in this regard. Mobile learning media may serve as trojan horses, allowing schools to adapt to nonlinear structures in the long run, because they allow for both: relatively traditional use of controlled content in linear modes and innovative networked use.
  • Trojan horses can‘t be trained (but people can be trained to ride them).
  • The open, uncontrolled structure of new media will not be changed to fit school‘s demands.
  • Not only teachers as professionals and students as learners, but educational organisations have to change in order to integrate the non-linear structures of new media, and to seek and cultivate good uses.
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