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The Reflective Practitioner –
in angewandten Disziplinen
unterrichten
10.7.2018
Jutta Pauschenwein
ZML – Innovative Lernszenarien
FH JOANNEUM, Graz, Austria
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- Beweggründe meiner Auseinandersetzung
- The reflective practitioner
- Wie arbeite ich selbst eigentlich?
- Educating the reflective practitioner
- Und: was heißt das für meine Lehre?
2
Agenda
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- Ich bin als E-Learning Frau und als Lehrende eine Praktikerin
- Ich bin überzeugt davon, dass Reflexionsprozesse Lernprozesse
stärken und verbessern
- Meine Training Designs beruhen auf dem Konzept learning-per-doing
- Ich nehme an meinen Studierenden, an meinen Trainingsteil-
nehmerInnen und an mir wahr, wie hilfreich Reflexionen sind
- Es gibt auch Widerstände gegen das Reflektieren
Ich wollte mehr über reflective practitioners wissen!
3
Beweggründe
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- To meet challenges of their work, professionals rely less on
theory than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice.
- Professional education should be centered on enhancing the
practitioners reflection-in-action
Schön, Donald, A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in
action. Basic Books.
Schön, Donald A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design
for teaching and learning in the professions. Jossey-Bass.
4
Schön’s Bücher
The reflective practitioner: How
professionals think in action
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- industrial movement contributed to an increased importance
of the profession
- Professionals as doctors, lawyers, managers, teachers,
military professionals… shape our society
- Professionals are expected to define and solve our problems
- Society depends on the work of professionals.
6
Background
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- in the last century many professional actions failed
- professionally designed solutions to public problems often
didn’t work
- they had negative side-effects as pollution, poverty, shortage
of energy, …
- New technology couldn’t fix the problems and often created
new problems.
7
Crisis of Confidence
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- situations of complexity, uncertainty, instability, uniqueness
and value conflicts
- the professional knowledge cannot catch up with these new
demands
- professionals are confronted with “messes” – dynamically
changing, complex and connected problems
- professional pluralism and competing theories
8
Professional practice
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Nevertheless practitioners of all fields somehow succeed
- to make sense of complexity and
- to reduce uncertainty in their day-to-day practice.
The art of practice appears to be learnable for individuals :)
9
Professional practice (2)
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- professional pluralism reduces the teachability of this
practice.
- educators struggle to describe manifold processes in terms
of the model of professional knowledge
10
Challenges for teachers
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- professional activity consists in instrumental problem solving
made rigorous by the application of scientific theory and
technique (Schön, 1983, p. 21)
- Professional work is based on general principles with respect
to specific (standardized) problems.
Therefore: educators train specialized skills based on an
underlying theory.
11
Model of Technical Rationality
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- focus on problem solving
- gap between professional knowledge and demands of real world
practice
- Within the model of Technical Rationality professionals resolve
problems by cutting the practice situation to fit professional
knowledge (Schön, 1983, p. 44)
- In this way professionals are misreading situations or manipulating
them
- The model of Technical Rationality is incomplete and limited and
therefore not entirely useful for the education of professionals.
12
Model of Technical Rationality (2)
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
When ends are confused and conflicting
there is as yet no problem to solve”
(Schön, 1983, p 41).
13
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- Our knowing is ordinarily tacit and implicit in our actions
- knowing-in-action is the characteristic mode of ordinary
practical knowledge (Schön, 1983, p54)
- professional practice also includes repetition => practitioners
develop a repertoire of expectations, images, and techniques
- In this way the knowing-in-action becomes increasingly tacit,
spontaneous, automatic.
14
Knowing-in-action
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- Ordinary people and professionals think about what they are doing
- often stimulated by surprises they reflect their action
- Through reflection a practitioner scrutinizes the tacit understandings
and can make new sense of new situations.
- When someone reflects-in-action he/she becomes a researcher in the
practice context (Schön, 1983, p 68)
- Nevertheless, because professionalism is still mainly identified with
technical expertise, reflection-in-action is not generally accepted as a
legitimate form of professional knowledge. (p 69)
- Uncertainty is a thread (p69)
15
Reflection-in-action
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- Ordinary people and professionals think about what they are
doing
refective conversation with the situation (p 268)
- problem of making/understanding something
- open to discover phenomena incongruent with initial
problem
- reframe problem => frame experiment
- draw on elements of the familiar repertoire
- formulate new hypothesis
16
Pattern in reflection-in-action
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- media and language to describe the discipline (the repertoire),
- the appreciative system (*) with respect to problem setting,
evaluation of inquiry and reflection (ähnlich wie Wertehaltung,
Kultur in einem Fachgebiet),
- the underlying theories how to make sense of phenomena and
- the role frames – based on their institutional settings – seen as
filter that influences how practitioners define their professional
responsibilities.
(*) The term appreciate system was defined by Geoffrey Vickers
17
Constants of a discipline
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Example
- As former theoretical physicist my appreciative system is based on
logic and mathematical proofs.
- My approach has further developed after many years in the field
of university teacher training and doing research in online
pedagogy
- Now my appreciative system is broader and less logic.
- When I have to solve a problem the mindset of the physicist
comes first and it is conscious work to include the mindset of a
pedagogue as well
18
Are you a reflective practitioner?
Jutta Pauschenwein: WUS-WS: Online-Lernen, 25.4.2018
19
Educating the reflective practitioner
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Reflective practitioner
Learning per doing AND coaching in the artistry of reflection-in-
action (Schön, 1987, p 41).
Hands-on activities (John Dewey)
Zwei wesentliche Aspekte der Reflexion
Unterschiedliche Perspektiven einnehmen
Empathie für das Gegenüber, sich einfühlen - auch in die
Situation, was da passiert (Emotion spielt eine Rolle)
(Gespräch mit Gert Lyon, Juli 2018)
20
Zwischenstopp
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Definition: to experiment is to act in order to see what follows
(Schön, 1987, p 72)
- exploratory experiment - without predictions / expectations
- move-testing experiment - affirmed when happens what was
intended
- hypothesis testing
21
Experimenting
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- practice context is different from the research context
- researcher wants to understand things
- practitioner wants to change things
Test hypothesis
- by a move to effect a desired change or
- by a probe to explore the situation (Bezug zu Complexity Theory)
- hypothesis testing is limited in practice - the practitioner changes
the phenomena during experimenting (p 74-75)
- useful: virtual worlds
22
Difference practitioner/researcher
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Telling and listening
- instructions are always incomplete
- instructions are ambigous, strange
=> vary the strategy of description
Demonstrating and Imitating
- students copy
- attend to the process of action and reflect-in-action - in comparison with
the skillful performer
Combining telling/listening with demonstrating/imitating
23
Dialogue between coach and student
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
- designing / doing
- description of designing - appreciation, advice, criticism,
references
- reflection on description of designing - what does you / she mean ,
when you/she says ..
- reflection on reflection on description of designing - reflect the
dialogue itself
A sucessful dialogue need not end with the student’s compliance.
The student may discover that she does not want to learn what the
teacher has to teach.
24
Ladder of reflection
Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018
Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!
Jutta Pauschenwein
zml.fh-joanneum.at
zmldidaktik.wordpress.com
oer.fh-joanneum.at/zml
Herzliche Einladung zum 17. E-Learning Tag der FH JOANNEUM – Keynote
Speaker – Gilly Salmon
25

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The Reflective Practitioner – in angewandten Disziplinen unterrichten

  • 1. The Reflective Practitioner – in angewandten Disziplinen unterrichten 10.7.2018 Jutta Pauschenwein ZML – Innovative Lernszenarien FH JOANNEUM, Graz, Austria
  • 2. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - Beweggründe meiner Auseinandersetzung - The reflective practitioner - Wie arbeite ich selbst eigentlich? - Educating the reflective practitioner - Und: was heißt das für meine Lehre? 2 Agenda
  • 3. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - Ich bin als E-Learning Frau und als Lehrende eine Praktikerin - Ich bin überzeugt davon, dass Reflexionsprozesse Lernprozesse stärken und verbessern - Meine Training Designs beruhen auf dem Konzept learning-per-doing - Ich nehme an meinen Studierenden, an meinen Trainingsteil- nehmerInnen und an mir wahr, wie hilfreich Reflexionen sind - Es gibt auch Widerstände gegen das Reflektieren Ich wollte mehr über reflective practitioners wissen! 3 Beweggründe
  • 4. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - To meet challenges of their work, professionals rely less on theory than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice. - Professional education should be centered on enhancing the practitioners reflection-in-action Schön, Donald, A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Basic Books. Schön, Donald A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. Jossey-Bass. 4 Schön’s Bücher
  • 5. The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action
  • 6. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - industrial movement contributed to an increased importance of the profession - Professionals as doctors, lawyers, managers, teachers, military professionals… shape our society - Professionals are expected to define and solve our problems - Society depends on the work of professionals. 6 Background
  • 7. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - in the last century many professional actions failed - professionally designed solutions to public problems often didn’t work - they had negative side-effects as pollution, poverty, shortage of energy, … - New technology couldn’t fix the problems and often created new problems. 7 Crisis of Confidence
  • 8. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - situations of complexity, uncertainty, instability, uniqueness and value conflicts - the professional knowledge cannot catch up with these new demands - professionals are confronted with “messes” – dynamically changing, complex and connected problems - professional pluralism and competing theories 8 Professional practice
  • 9. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Nevertheless practitioners of all fields somehow succeed - to make sense of complexity and - to reduce uncertainty in their day-to-day practice. The art of practice appears to be learnable for individuals :) 9 Professional practice (2)
  • 10. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - professional pluralism reduces the teachability of this practice. - educators struggle to describe manifold processes in terms of the model of professional knowledge 10 Challenges for teachers
  • 11. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - professional activity consists in instrumental problem solving made rigorous by the application of scientific theory and technique (Schön, 1983, p. 21) - Professional work is based on general principles with respect to specific (standardized) problems. Therefore: educators train specialized skills based on an underlying theory. 11 Model of Technical Rationality
  • 12. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - focus on problem solving - gap between professional knowledge and demands of real world practice - Within the model of Technical Rationality professionals resolve problems by cutting the practice situation to fit professional knowledge (Schön, 1983, p. 44) - In this way professionals are misreading situations or manipulating them - The model of Technical Rationality is incomplete and limited and therefore not entirely useful for the education of professionals. 12 Model of Technical Rationality (2)
  • 13. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 When ends are confused and conflicting there is as yet no problem to solve” (Schön, 1983, p 41). 13
  • 14. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - Our knowing is ordinarily tacit and implicit in our actions - knowing-in-action is the characteristic mode of ordinary practical knowledge (Schön, 1983, p54) - professional practice also includes repetition => practitioners develop a repertoire of expectations, images, and techniques - In this way the knowing-in-action becomes increasingly tacit, spontaneous, automatic. 14 Knowing-in-action
  • 15. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - Ordinary people and professionals think about what they are doing - often stimulated by surprises they reflect their action - Through reflection a practitioner scrutinizes the tacit understandings and can make new sense of new situations. - When someone reflects-in-action he/she becomes a researcher in the practice context (Schön, 1983, p 68) - Nevertheless, because professionalism is still mainly identified with technical expertise, reflection-in-action is not generally accepted as a legitimate form of professional knowledge. (p 69) - Uncertainty is a thread (p69) 15 Reflection-in-action
  • 16. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - Ordinary people and professionals think about what they are doing refective conversation with the situation (p 268) - problem of making/understanding something - open to discover phenomena incongruent with initial problem - reframe problem => frame experiment - draw on elements of the familiar repertoire - formulate new hypothesis 16 Pattern in reflection-in-action
  • 17. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - media and language to describe the discipline (the repertoire), - the appreciative system (*) with respect to problem setting, evaluation of inquiry and reflection (ähnlich wie Wertehaltung, Kultur in einem Fachgebiet), - the underlying theories how to make sense of phenomena and - the role frames – based on their institutional settings – seen as filter that influences how practitioners define their professional responsibilities. (*) The term appreciate system was defined by Geoffrey Vickers 17 Constants of a discipline
  • 18. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Example - As former theoretical physicist my appreciative system is based on logic and mathematical proofs. - My approach has further developed after many years in the field of university teacher training and doing research in online pedagogy - Now my appreciative system is broader and less logic. - When I have to solve a problem the mindset of the physicist comes first and it is conscious work to include the mindset of a pedagogue as well 18 Are you a reflective practitioner?
  • 19. Jutta Pauschenwein: WUS-WS: Online-Lernen, 25.4.2018 19 Educating the reflective practitioner
  • 20. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Reflective practitioner Learning per doing AND coaching in the artistry of reflection-in- action (Schön, 1987, p 41). Hands-on activities (John Dewey) Zwei wesentliche Aspekte der Reflexion Unterschiedliche Perspektiven einnehmen Empathie für das Gegenüber, sich einfühlen - auch in die Situation, was da passiert (Emotion spielt eine Rolle) (Gespräch mit Gert Lyon, Juli 2018) 20 Zwischenstopp
  • 21. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Definition: to experiment is to act in order to see what follows (Schön, 1987, p 72) - exploratory experiment - without predictions / expectations - move-testing experiment - affirmed when happens what was intended - hypothesis testing 21 Experimenting
  • 22. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - practice context is different from the research context - researcher wants to understand things - practitioner wants to change things Test hypothesis - by a move to effect a desired change or - by a probe to explore the situation (Bezug zu Complexity Theory) - hypothesis testing is limited in practice - the practitioner changes the phenomena during experimenting (p 74-75) - useful: virtual worlds 22 Difference practitioner/researcher
  • 23. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Telling and listening - instructions are always incomplete - instructions are ambigous, strange => vary the strategy of description Demonstrating and Imitating - students copy - attend to the process of action and reflect-in-action - in comparison with the skillful performer Combining telling/listening with demonstrating/imitating 23 Dialogue between coach and student
  • 24. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 - designing / doing - description of designing - appreciation, advice, criticism, references - reflection on description of designing - what does you / she mean , when you/she says .. - reflection on reflection on description of designing - reflect the dialogue itself A sucessful dialogue need not end with the student’s compliance. The student may discover that she does not want to learn what the teacher has to teach. 24 Ladder of reflection
  • 25. Jutta Pauschenwein: WS: The reflective practitioner, 10.7.2018 Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! Jutta Pauschenwein zml.fh-joanneum.at zmldidaktik.wordpress.com oer.fh-joanneum.at/zml Herzliche Einladung zum 17. E-Learning Tag der FH JOANNEUM – Keynote Speaker – Gilly Salmon 25