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The Future Perspective of the Electricity Market – Unbundling and Market Integration: A German Perspective

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The Future Perspective of the Electricity Market – Unbundling and Market Integration: A German Perspective

  1. 1. The Future Perspective of the Electricity Market – Unbundling and Market Integration: A German Perspective International Symposium “Towards YR2030 and Beyond” Japan Renewable Energy Foundation (JREF) Dr. Felix Chr. Matthes Tokyo, 6 September 2012
  2. 2. The German context: Energiewende Ambitious and long term targets GHG Renewable Energies Energy efficiency Nuclear emissions Gross final Power Primary Space Final Power power consump- generation energy heating Energy consump- tion tion 2011 -41% 2015 -47% 2917 -54% 2019 -60% 2020 -40% 18% 35% -20% -20% -10% -10% 2021 -80% 2022 -100% 2030 -55% 30% 50% 2040 -70% 45% 65% -80 to 2050 60% 80% -50% -80% -40% -25% -95% Base 1990 2008 2008 2005 2008 2010 year Source: BReg (2010/2011)
  3. 3. Significant share of renewables It’s reality Transparency data for power generation Day ahead prognosis 6 September 2012 •A sunny, low-wind day •Renewables share at noon ~ 40% Source: EEX Transparency Platform
  4. 4. Power generation from renewables Challenges & policy approaches 600 Main Challenges Take-off, technology, cost cuttings System & market integration Storage System services European Integration 500 Main policies Financial support scheme (FiT) Market design (conventional & renewables & storage) Obligation for network connection Enabling framework for massive infrastructure roll-out (T & D & S) Priority network access European convergence 400 National targets TWh 300 Historical data Binding target (EU) Geothermal Waste (biogenic) 200 Landfill gas Biomass Photovoltaics 100 Wind - offshore Wind - onshore Hydro 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Source: BReg (2012), Öko-Institut (2012)
  5. 5. Medium- and long-term challenges for system & market integration (1) • The recent German support scheme (Feed-in Tariff) was the key policy for the take-off phase  Fixed and long-term feed-in tariffs, based on costs  Obligation for connection to the (existing) network  Priority access to the network and the market • The next phase will require a broader policy approach  Today’s liberalized (EU) electricity (energy only) market creates neither a solid basis for integration of renewables nor a sufficient economic framework for the necessary conventional investments • Price formation based on short-term marginal costs (~0 for wind & solar) • No long-term contracts • No capacity markets/payments  Market integration of renewables requires a reform of todays power markets and a (stepwise) reform of the support scheme
  6. 6. Medium- and long-term challenges for system & market integration (2) • The next phase will require a broader policy approach (ctnd)  Significant shares of renewables require new approaches to infrastructure design, operations & development • Massive upgrading of transmission and distribution networks is necessary (= significant investments) • Unbiased network operators  In planning processes  With regard to the necessary (long-term) investments  Within network operations (access, system services etc.) • Independent regulators with a clear mandate  Creating an enabling framework  Avoiding abuse of market power from infrastructure monopolies • This presentation is about infrastructure integration only. However, market integration is another challenging issue
  7. 7. Recent phase of infrastructure integration benefited from EU market liberalization • EU market liberalization  First package (1996): opening national markets • Networks: legal, functional and accounting unbundling for TSOs and DSOs (>100,000 customers)  Second package (2003): further opening of national markets, regulation of cross-border trades • Networks: legal, functional and accounting unbundling of TSOs and DSOs (>100,000 customers)  Third package (2009): development of regional/European markets, institutions for European co-operation, European guidelines and network codes • Transmission Networks: ownership unbundling for TSOs or Independent System/Transmission Operator (ISO/ITO) • Distribution networks: legal, functional and accounting unbundling for DSOs (>100,000 customers) • High-standard medium-term network planning
  8. 8. Rapidly changing structures in the German electricity supply system • Starting point  Four major vertically integrated utilities (generation, transmission, distribution, sales): RWE, E.ON, Vattenfall, EnBW  Regional & municipal vertically integrated utilities • Recent status  Four major unbundled utilities • Separate entities for generation and sales • Unbundled transmission system  Full ownership unbundling: 50 Hertz (formerly Vattenfall), TenneT (formerly E.ON)  Partly ownership unbundling: Amprion (formerly RWE which still owns 25%)  No ownership unbundling: Transnet BW (formerly EnBW which still owns 100%)  Regional & municipal utilities, the larger ones legally unbundled
  9. 9. Experiences from unbundling The German case • The German government and significant parts of the German electricity industry opposed all mandatory unbundling provisions when the respective EU legislative proposals were discussed • Ironically, German utilities often went beyond the minimum requirements for unbundling, after these has been approved • What has changed since further steps of unbundling were implemented?  Much more unbiased activities, network companies are a more accepted and reliable partner for policy  Significantly more investments in network infrastructure  Network companies became a key player on medium- and long- term infrastructure planning with broad and intensive consultations of assumptions, methodologies and results • However, this results from the structure of the network companies as well as a (new) effective regulatory body
  10. 10. Infrastructure planning in Germany The recent Network Development Plan Source: NEP 2012 as of August 2012, www.netzentwicklungsplan.de
  11. 11. Power system structures Lessons learned • An ambitious and comprehensive support scheme for renewables (financing, network connection, dispatch) as primary instrument is key for the take-off phase • Beyond the take-off phase broader approaches are essential  More complex financing for renewables is essential to optimize investments and operations  Creating market structures which are more appropriate  Creating an infrastructure industry (transmission and distribution) • which is supportive for infrastructure upgrades and roll-out • which has an self-interest in infrastructure investments and the ability for implementation of these investments • Far-reaching (ownership) unbundling has been effective  Creating an effective regulatory body • Effective oversight on infrastructure monopolies • Effective planning for major infrastructure upgrades & roll-out
  12. 12. Thank you very much Dr. Felix Chr. Matthes Energy & Climate Division Büro Berlin Schicklerstraße 5-7 D-10179 Berlin f.matthes@oeko.de www.oeko.de

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