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E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES
Tutorial by Martin Ebner, Martin Schön and Sandra Schön
CC BY SA BIMS e.V. | Martin Ebner, Martin ...
Introduction
Welcome to the tutorial “e-Learning Technologies”!
Within this tutorial you will deepen your knowledge about ...
Overview
Unit 1: Introduction into technologies for learning and teaching....................................................
Unit 1: Introduction into technologies for learning and teaching
At the end of this unit you will:
• have reflected your t...
Are you a techie? Even so, we think that some of our questions and tasks will also be challenging for top
techies. Technol...
Presentation and interaction tools for classroom and lecture hall learning
After our – hopefully entertaining and not ofen...
• Let’s start with the “blackboard”. Okay, this is no electronic device, but besides, it is a
former “technology”. The tra...
tele-communication led to more interaction between learners and tutors. This also led to a bigger vari-
ance of learning m...
ers are influenced from “new” and “hot” devices and should carefully reflect, how this influence their
decisions to buy an...
Of course, we do not know, what your next job will be and where it is settled. Nevertheless, we want to
ask you some quest...
Unit 2: Foundations of the Web and Social Media
At the end of this unit you will:
• know more about the evolution and tech...
The second necessary innovation was that communication should be transported in small „packages“
that are able to fnd thei...
The history of the Internet is full of such stories as mentioned in the above fgure. Additionally, people
are seen as inve...
The main idea of hypertext is to link referring content with similar, more or other ftng content at other
pages. With the ...
Vannevar Bush and the other men mentioned in the last paragraphs are just some of these smart people
who created ideas and...
Within html, users have to “mark-up” text by using small marks in brackets (< >). Such marks are usually
starting with one...
ENTERTAINMENT
Watch this video by Michael Wesch, Assistant Professor of Cultural Anthropology, Kan-
sas State University f...
“Web 2.0” idea is still evolving in new tools. The key technological making this development possible is
sketched in the n...
RSS was the foundation, and API is the modern follower technology for the core of the Web 2.0 and so-
cial networks and en...
For experts: If you already edited Wiki pages and run your own Website or Weblog, you are probably
good in mark-up languag...
Unit 3: Learning with Information Systems: LMS and Co.
At the end of this unit you will:
• know key functionalities of inf...
to the logic of a Content Management System (CMS) and thus has for example several
editor rights, a repository is a databa...
• A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) supports the central, cockpit-orientated man-
agement of individuals’ learning. Th...
The information system is stored at the server in so-called client-server architectures. As long the server
is available v...
Whereas proprietary software was dominant in the late 1990ies, there are nowadays many established
Open Source products, f...
Free Information Systems for Learning – Business Models
In light of the technical tasks, free usage of Web based informati...
Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies
• Further reading on information systems for learning...
Unit 4: Functionalities and Selection of Learning Management Systems
At the end of this unit you will:
• know key function...
Functionalities of LMS
Learning management systems has the following functionalities.
• First of all, they support the adm...
Learning management systems manages learning activities in course setngs. This includes Web Based
Trainings (WBT, for sing...
• Capacity: First of all you have to think about system requirements, due to the fact that
you (or your server administrat...
(The following examples are from Lorenz, A.; Safran, C. & Ebner. M., 2013, Informationssysteme. In: L3T,
http://l3t.eu).
(...
As you have seen, it is not easy to decide for a LMS, as there are many options and available.
Creating a personal checkli...
Unit 5: Tools for Authoring and Standards
At the end of this unit you will:
• know functionalities of an authoring system
...
Some authoring tools have own (simple) programming languages (or use extensions). They describe for
example how and when t...
As mentioned above, authoring tools are available as desktop solutions, but also as Web application. If
the content develo...
In the following, we will give you some short explanation of the acronyms used in the fgure.
• Standard for Metadata - Lea...
Rapid e-Learning Methodology
Developing e-Learning materials in short time is called “rapid e-Learning methodology”. Of co...
The variety of possibilities of free Web based tool is really funny and exploring them defnitely takes
time. Beside, it wi...
as pdf and upload it to http://slideshare.com. Additionally, capture some sentences of
your as .mp3. This tutorial will he...
Unit 6: Mobile Learning Technologies
At the end of this unit you will:
• be able to list mobile devices
• decode a QR code...
E-Learning with notebooks is already a part of the other units of this tutorial. So, we will concentrate on
(media enriche...
Learning with SMS
SMS stands for “short messaging service”. Such short messages with 140 signs per message are a wide
spre...
• First of all, smart phones have a motion sensor that can be addressed. Smartphone can
be used to control movements (if t...
pro, if you like to use the smart phone as device for spare time or waiting. It is a con, if the learner does
not like to ...
this phenomena. “Bring your own device” or in short BYOD refers to the usage of personal mobile digital
equipment for lear...
Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies
This is a small collection of interesting contributio...
Unit 7: Development of technologies and future trends
At the end of this unit you will:
• see how fast technology get norm...
Innovations for e-Learning
When you develop e-Learning materials or use technologies in classrooms, you should at least re...
ENTERTAINMENT
Top Ten Future Technologies that already exist by HEK TV – URL: http://www.youtube.-
com/watch?v=cYPqZ_SJCjw...
Glossary
Application Programming Interface or short API is an interface ofering content and functionalities from
one appli...
Inline switching see circuit switching. See unit 1.
Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) helps to edit, store and ma...
Sharable Content Reference Model (SCORM) is a standard for learning content format. See unit 5.
Short Messaging Service (S...
Self Assessment Test
Test
Please select all statements that are appropriate!
1. Which are prototypical statements of compu...
5. What is correct html to set a hyperlink?
<p>A correct html <http://giz.de> hyperlink </http>.</p>
A correct html <a hre...
To make e-Learning content searchable and interchangeable.
To make learning objects work on diferent information systems.
...
Solution
Correct answers are highlighted with green.
1. Which are prototypical statements of computer engineers when discu...
A correct html <a href=”http://www.giz.de”>hyperlink</a>.
A correct html <hyperlink> hyperlink</hyperlink>.
A correct html...
To support non-commercial international standardization organizations.
10. What is important when selecting an author tool...
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E-learning technologies - FREE TUTORIAL

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E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES
Tutorial by Martin Ebner, Martin Schön and Sandra Schön
CC BY SA BIMS e.V. | Martin Ebner, Martin Schön, Sandra Schön | April 2014
URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/de/

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E-learning technologies - FREE TUTORIAL

  1. 1. E-LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES Tutorial by Martin Ebner, Martin Schön and Sandra Schön CC BY SA BIMS e.V. | Martin Ebner, Martin Schön, Sandra Schön | April 2014 URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/de/ Please not: All images available under CC BY Sandra Schön here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/24120891@N02/sets/72157640966865605/ This tutorial is a modified version of a tutorial developed for GIZ. This is a PDF version and potentially with some spelling errors. Please feel free to use and enhance our material! A short message would be nice: sandra.schoen@l3t.eu 1/59
  2. 2. Introduction Welcome to the tutorial “e-Learning Technologies”! Within this tutorial you will deepen your knowledge about e-Learning technologies. How does an engi- neer think? What was the main invention of the World Wide Web? What are potential future technolo- gies? – These are some of the question we want to discuss here. Throughout this seven-unit tutorial, you will gain a deeper knowledge of technologies and technological issues of e-Learning. You can work through the tutorial texts chronologically, or, you can jump around from unit to unit as you prefer. Please note that in various sections of the course, like in “Explore” or “Entertainment”, you can fnd complementary instruments and additional resources that help support the tutorial topics. Beside the main assessment we developed some small challenges and tasks and we would love to see you dealing with it. Learning Outcome At the end of this tutorial you will be able to identify, develop and structure efective concepts for the tutoring of virtual communities. Specifcally, you will be able to: 1. identify the diferent technology tools used for learning and teaching 2. list Web based tools for diferent learning requirements and activities 3. Select appropriate information systems for learning 4. Know functionalities of learning management systems 5. Use selected tools for e-learning content production 6. list of variants of mobile technologies for learning 7. be aware of development and future trends After fnishing this tutorial you will be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are current technologies used in learning and teaching? 2. How can I evaluate and select the appropriate tool or technology? 3. Which are typical functionalities of learning management systems? Usage of the tutorial This script of an tutorial was meant as one module for an online course for e-learning developer. You may use it for your own learning, or as part of your (online) course as well. Additional tasks may be help- ful and the test should be made interactive. 2/59
  3. 3. Overview Unit 1: Introduction into technologies for learning and teaching................................................................4 Unit 2: Foundations of the Web and Social Media.................................................................................... 12 Unit 3: Learning with Information Systems: LMS and Co...........................................................................22 Unit 4: Functionalities and Selection of Learning Management Systems.................................................. 29 Unit 5: Tools for Authoring and Standards................................................................................................ 35 Unit 6: Mobile Learning Technologies....................................................................................................... 42 Unit 7: Development of technologies and future trends........................................................................... 49 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 52 Self Assessment Test................................................................................................................................. 55 3/59
  4. 4. Unit 1: Introduction into technologies for learning and teaching At the end of this unit you will: • have reflected your technological backgrounds; • be able to list devices for presentation in classrooms; • be able to list some devices for learning and teaching; • know a frst list of arguments when thinking about a new device. How techie are you? This tutorial is about TECHNOLOGY. We do not know if you make this perspective curious, enthusiastic or thrilled. But we know, that it is tricky to make a helpful tutorial for people with diverse backgrounds. Perhaps you are a computer scientist or a network administrator? Perhaps you are a professional Inter- net user and media protagonist? Perhaps you are an experienced educator and the course was your frst step into a new world, into the World Wide Web and e-Learning? To get you along with us let us do the following. If you are a starter or advanced user: We always will give you a introduction into technological back- grounds. For some of you this would be easy, perhaps daily business. For all the others, especially if this tutorial challenges, we want to start with a: RELAX! It is not the idea that you will be technological ex- perts. Our aim is to give you the idea of technological backgrounds, questions and an engineer’s per- spective. You should be able to communicate with someone with a strong technological background af- ter this unit. At least you should do this on a more advanced level as before ☺. 4/59
  5. 5. Are you a techie? Even so, we think that some of our questions and tasks will also be challenging for top techies. Technological decisions, adaptions or developments have dynamic and fluent factors. Technolo- gies, software development and devices are a vivid business. Decisions are sometimes not easier to made with a profound technological background. And if technology is not challenging you: We would love to see you communicating and tutoring your peers within the course. Technologists talking compre- hensively about learning technologies would be another great result of this course. Thinking in technologies: Problem solution as task of engineers By now, the whole course was from the perspective of teachers: How do I teach? How do I develop learning content? These were two typical questions. The common thing of educational practitioners and engineers is just following: We have a problem and we want to solve it. Both are application-oriented disciplines and working habits. Even so, we have the impression, that for educational science and prac- tice a decision for the best teaching method (e.g., for a majority of students) is not easy. So if you ask an engineer for a solution (s)he wants to have a precise, concrete list of requirements. And then, (s)he tries to give you one (ONE! Not two, three, four, ... ONE!) ftng solution. Perhaps two and you may decide. But not more. And most probably: One. A technological solution is not something, we may discuss. Of course, you may discuss if your requirements are the most important and the right one, but the solution itself is not a matter of personal choice or a dialectic compromise. (Of course, we are exaggerating. Of course, also engineers have interests or hobbies when they develop a solution for you.) If you talk to an engineer to fnd a technical solution for your e-Learning scenario, (s)he will probably ask you for a very well defned requirement analysis. On a very general level this includes: • What tools and techniques are available for your students? • What tools are available for you as teacher and organization? • What form of maximal data transfer and (minimal needed) interactions are planned? • How many users are there, when and how often? It does not include: • A long list of potential interactions and scenarios. • A special image that you would love to present in unit 3. • A discussion on pedagogical ambitions and storytelling. • And of course, even not: A discussion about good teaching or motivating aspects. We will prepare you for even more detailed conversation. But, at this point we hope you got the point, what information is needed when talking to an (typical) engineer. 5/59
  6. 6. Presentation and interaction tools for classroom and lecture hall learning After our – hopefully entertaining and not ofending – introduction into engineer’s thinking we want to start with technologies for learning. Therefore, we give you a short overview of some – not all! – tech- nologies that had been or are in use in today’s classrooms and lecture halls. Perhaps you have never seen some of them – and perhaps you even know others and more? 6/59
  7. 7. • Let’s start with the “blackboard”. Okay, this is no electronic device, but besides, it is a former “technology”. The traditional chalkboard, black or green colored, is describable with chalk and you can re-use it after cleaning with a damp sponge. Most of us use(d) it, as it is standard equipment in schools all over the world. Interestingly, the invention of the blackboard was not welcomed by teacher several hundreds years ago, as it forces the teacher to show his/her back to the pupils. Teachers’ association argued that this could lead to subversive incidents in classrooms. From our current point of view, this seems to be a old (but still true) story. The blackboard is a basic tool in classrooms, as they are easy to handle: You need no electrics and it is easy to use by teachers and also by pupils. • A further development of blackboards is whiteboards. A white board is describable with special whiteboard markers. The surface is cleanable with a dry flannel, so no chalk dust is produced or water needed. • Besides, this unit is about technologies, which refers to electronic devices. The frst one is an electronic blackboard, so-called “interactive whiteboard”. This is a big display con- nected with a computer. Typically, notes with “electronic” markers enrich prepared presentations. With them you “write” on the whiteboard, but only virtual. Every annota- tion can be saved at the computer. If you have never seen such a tool in action, we rec- ommend looking for a tool presentation in video format (e.g. at youtube.com). • In modern face-to-face learning setngs typically video projectors are in use for presen- tations. This device is connected with presenter’s computer and it projects the comput- er screen on a canvas or white wall. • An older presentation tool is the slide projector, also called diascope. It projects dias (small transparent framed photos) on a canvas or white wall. The slide projector is in use, when bright and high-defnition photo presentations are done. Even so, this tool is not a digital one and builds on a photo technology that is outdated. • Quite often in use are still overhead projectors. They projects printed or written plastic sheet on a canvas or wall. It is easy to change sheets or to present a sheet just made by participants with a special marker. Still, our selected tools are not a complete list of presentation tools (or technologies). We are sure, you know more tools that you had used in your school, at university or are also still in use there. What are these tools? Technologies for tele-teaching and self organized learning Perhaps you already stumbled about the fact, that there are many more technologies that influenced learning. We try to list them in our following introduction to technologies in mission for tele-teaching or self-organized learning. Going back more than a century, self-organized learning was bound to books, magazines or mail corre- spondence with a tutor or teacher. Even so, there are frst records with spoken tutorials, for example for language learning. A milestone in tele-teaching was 1875 the foundation of the frst distance university. UNISA, located in Pretoria, South Africa, is still the biggest distance university of the world. Electronic 7/59
  8. 8. tele-communication led to more interaction between learners and tutors. This also led to a bigger vari- ance of learning materials and setngs. The last development, the spread of computers as well as the Internet enabled a broad variety of dis- tance learning and teaching scenarios. We will explain the technologies behind this, for example the foundation of the World Wide Web, in the following units in more details. Evaluation of Tools: What device is the best for me and my learners? When thinking about a new device, several aspects should be considered: • Does the new device ft to my needs as teacher or as learner? • Which new or diferent learning and teaching arrangements are possible with the new device? • What will be improved compared the current state? • Which competencies are necessary to use the new device? • What does the device cost? • What additional purchases are needed, e.g. extension cables, mobile Internet connec- tion? • Considering future developments will this device be the appropriate one? • How lifelike are my ideas possibly done with the device? • Are there any other related efects, such as other personal or professional usages of the device? From research we know, that new devices in classrooms are always potentially drivers for learning, as they are “new”. From pedagogical perspectives, such efects are completely okay, for example if it leads to an engagement of people with low learning interest before. Nevertheless, also managers and teach- 8/59
  9. 9. ers are influenced from “new” and “hot” devices and should carefully reflect, how this influence their decisions to buy and use a new device. ENTERTAINMENT New technologies are always challenging! Within our video recommendation, you will see how the book might be introduced in north Europe in middle age. The video has English subtitles. See here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQHX-SjgQvQ - Source: Original taken from the show "Øystein og jeg" on Norwegian Broadcasting (NRK) in 2001. With Øystein Backe (helper) and Rune Gokstad (desperate monk). Written by Knut Nærum. Available via Youtube Channel of NRK. Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) The aim of the tutorial is not only to get knowledge about some tools or some technologies, it should also train your competency to come to well-founded decisions for or against a special tool or product. According to the technologies we mentioned in the frst unit, we give you a challenge. 9/59
  10. 10. Of course, we do not know, what your next job will be and where it is settled. Nevertheless, we want to ask you some questions about your decision: • Which equipment is needed to use your devices (chalk, water, transparencies, a PC, plug-ins) and is this available? • Is your device helpful for co-operative learning setngs? For example a video projector is not a clever solution to show co-operative developed results, or only, if all learners can use laptops for their co-operative work. • How much does it cost? How much cost the other devices? How would this influences your or the organizer’s decision? Do our arguments influence your decision? Perhaps you also see additional arguments and questions that influence your decision. Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies This is a small collection of interesting contribution about technologies in classrooms, their history and efects. We hope you like it! • Anuli Akanegbu (2013). Vision of Learning: A History of Classroom Projectors. In: Edtech Magazine. URL: http://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2013/02/vision-learning- history-classroom-projectors • Anuli Akanegbu (2012). Calculating Firsts: A Visual History of Calculators. In: Edtech Magazine. URL: http://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2012/11/calculat- ing-frsts-visual-history-calculators • Ricky Ribeiro (2013). Is It Time to Get Rid of Desks in the Classroom? In: Edtech Maga- zine. URL: http://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2013/09/it-time-get-rid-desks- classroom 10/59
  11. 11. Unit 2: Foundations of the Web and Social Media At the end of this unit you will: • know more about the evolution and technical foundations of the Internet and the WWW • have an idea of html as a mark-up language • remember the content of the frst (legendary) e-mail The Internet as a base for new communication possibilities For “digital natives” the Internet is such common to their lives that it is impossible to think about being ofine or without the Internet itself. Still, only few decades ago, the idea of a decentralized (distributed) worldwide network for communication was entirely a vision. In 1964, Paul Baran and Donald Watts Davies proposed a new secure network structure for communica- tion. The tradional communication structure, for example the analog telecommunication with tele- phone, was a centralized or decentralized networks. You see them on the left of the next fgure. If a cen- ter station of such a tradiditonal centralized or decentralized network is out of order, all or several of communication stations are unable to link to another. This would be the case, if the center stations in the networks on the left side and in middle get out of order. Within the new proposed, „distributed net- work“ single stations out of order will not disable the communication amongst others. In new distrib- uted networks communication is possible, even when some knots will not work. You see such a network on the right of the next fgure. 11/59
  12. 12. The second necessary innovation was that communication should be transported in small „packages“ that are able to fnd their (diferent) paths trough the network. In 1965, frst experiments by Lawrence G. Roberts and Thomas Merrill show the possibilities to communicate with packages swifting. With the ordinary line switching approach, which is used in analog telecommunication, a complete line is reserved for a call. No other can use this line. At frst sight, the new package switching looks a little bit more complicated: Someone has to separate information in small packages, and there is a need to rear- range them after sending. Even so, the big deal is that more than two corresponding stations can use a link to communicate. Additionally, communication is still possible, even if a (direct) link break. This ex- plains, why Voice over IP telecommunication sometimes sound like talk trash. When the whole network is overloaded, the collection and ordering of the packages cannot proceed in real time. And than you are not able to understand a single word. After the frst successful experiments with package switching communication between two computers, Lawrence G. Roberts got chief developer at ARPA IPTO and started to develop the ARPANET in 1967. ARPANET was the acronym of the research project called “Advanced research projects agency networks”. It became the ancestor of the Internet. In 1969, the frst four computers had been connect- ed. In 1971, Ray Tomlinson from BBN developed the frst two e-mail programs called SNDMSG and READMAIL and wrote a frst e-mail via ARPANET. Electronic messaging was not completely new at this time. But Tomlinson’s smart idea was to use the “at-sign” (@) (which was on the keyboards he used), to separate name and host within the e-mail address; for example someone@someplace. 12/59
  13. 13. The history of the Internet is full of such stories as mentioned in the above fgure. Additionally, people are seen as inventors, whereas they were not; and there are also important invention and inventors al- ready forgotten. Besides, this is not the right place to tell all the stories of the Internet’s whole history. And we want to go straightforward to another important innovation: The World Wide Web. Origins of the World Wide Web Perhaps you are so used to it, so it might not easy to answer: What is so special about the World Wide Web, in short WWW? Perhaps you think about the mass of information or the possibilities of interaction and sharing ideas with it. Yes, both aspects are right, but the key new idea of the World Wide Web, as the most popular Internet service, is the interlinking of its parts: the so-called “hyperlinks”. Some smart people already thought about “hyperlinked information system” when the Internet or simi- lar telecommunication strategies was even not invented. Vannevar Bush is one of these guys, he wrote an essay with the title “As we may think” and sketched a hypertext system called Memex (1945). For this he described a personal information system that is available at in a special desk. 13/59
  14. 14. The main idea of hypertext is to link referring content with similar, more or other ftng content at other pages. With the help of such (hyper-) links it is possible to go from one point to another place. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau worked at the CERN in Switzerland (Europe). This was the biggest Internet hub in this time. Their idea to adapt the hypertext idea to the Internet structure got the name “World Wide Web”. They already had developed a frst Web browser (called Nextstep). On its frst day, it was pretty easy to surf to the World Wide Web. By the way, Tima and Robert were not the onliest ones dealing with the idea of WorldWideWeb. Especially in Europe there were diferent strong research groups working on more less the same. Today Tim is seen as the inventor, but be aware that many dif- ferent researchers are researching on these issues. 14/59
  15. 15. Vannevar Bush and the other men mentioned in the last paragraphs are just some of these smart people who created ideas and visions for our current Web. If you like reading further stories, you may look for example for Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider who developed a vision of “on-line Man-Computer Communi- cation” and a “galactic network”. Hypertext Markup Language Documents using the hypertext markup language (HTML or short hypertext) are the base of the World Wide Web. As a markup language, it is used to defne several parts of texts as special formats (for exam- ple a hyperlink or table) or content (for example a title). Although a lot of editors support editing HTML documents without need to understand HTML, it is sometimes pretty good to know some key concepts of the language. 15/59
  16. 16. Within html, users have to “mark-up” text by using small marks in brackets (< >). Such marks are usually starting with one command in brackets <START_COMMAND>, followed by the text to be marked, and another </ END_COMMAND > after. For example, “<b>bold</b>” in html should be printed bold in a Web browser. The Web 2.0: Not only new technologies Although html is not tricky, to host a Website or edit Webpages was not a trivial thing in the frst years of the World Wide Web. A Website editor needs to know about html in detail as well as basis knowledge about server infrastructure and appropriate network protocols (for example ftp, http). Still, more and more used the Web to present own work or enterprises. Hence, the need for extra devel- opments, for example searching engines got bigger. The successes of the World Wide Web even lead to a “dot-com-crisis” around the year 2000. A lot of overvalued start-ups and enterprises failed. Even so, the WWW got bigger and attracted more and more people. People used the WWW to search for infor- mation and entertainment. In the frst years of the new century, the opportunities to contribute at the Web got more and more easier. The growing currency of broadband-technology is one of the causes. New applications and combinations of existing systems were a result. Several tools and platforms got founded and got important. This "new version" of the WWW got named “Web 2.0”. It has to be emp- hazised that this development is not a pure technological one. A dream of Tim Berners-Lee, who we get to know as one of the inventors of the World Wide Web, seem to come true. The WWW appeared to be a platform where everybody can get involved. Participating, sharing and working together are such new paradigms of the second generation of the Web. The term “Web 2.0” does not refer to a version of spe - cifc software; it is a collective name for the developments within the Internet concentrating on the ac- tive user. Another term often used for the new tools is “Social Software” or “Social Media”, at the social aspect is important. 16/59
  17. 17. ENTERTAINMENT Watch this video by Michael Wesch, Assistant Professor of Cultural Anthropology, Kan- sas State University for a great explanation of Web 2.0 - it is not a technological revolu- tion it is a attitude about how people are using it. - Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLlGopyXT_g Overview of tools and platforms of the Social Web You probably know the following systems, so this list could be something like a repetition. If some tools are still unknown to you we also provide you with interesting links in the other parts of the unit. • Wiki systems were invented by Howard Curringham and are a tool to collect and orga- nize knowledge in a cooperative and fast way. A Wiki (Hawaiian: "fast") is an interactive system including single websites linked to each other that gives writing- and read- ing-permissions to a know or unknown group of users. So Websites can be edited very easily and authentic collaborative working via the Internet has become reality. Using a simple markup-language (easier than html) allows editing a Wiki-website. In the basic idea Wikis are open (anybody can edit structure and content), organic (scruture an con- tent are changing and growing), observeable (all contents are logged and traceable) and in relation easy to use. The most famous Wiki platform is probably the online ency- lopaedy Wikipedia. Note, that Wikipedia is just using the Media Wiki platform and that you have to separate the fnal product from the idea of Wiki’s itself. • Weblogs are chronically ordered postings, with typically the latest message at frst. As it is easy to handle a Weblog, they are used mostly for private users, for example to share experiences and hobbies. Even more, also others, such as professional networks use Weblogs. The RSS technology makes it easy to share, to get up-to-date and to syndicate Weblog posts via RSS feeds. A famous blog hoster (someone who is ofering Weblogs for anyone for free or for sale) is wordpress.com. • Social Networks are Websites building on the “friend of a friend” idea (FOAF). Their de- sign is related at the purpose of the network (friendship, professional, fans, hobbies) platforms such as Facebook.com, twitter.com, Linkedin.com and others. It fosters com- munication and sharing amongst (virtually) related person. • Social Tagging is the usage of keywords to tag Web materials such as images, videos or bookmarks to make it easier to fnd it personally or for others. As an alternative to pro- fessional classifcation in categories, social tagging is a lightweight and some times even better way to collect metadata and to enhance search. • Mash-Ups are new arrangements, building on two or more streams of other Websites. With the mash-up approach it is possible to integrate several sources and application at one (personal) Webpage. These are only some technological developments of tools. Some more are for example peer-to-peer networks to share videos, multi media platforms in general, or also real time editing applications. The 17/59
  18. 18. “Web 2.0” idea is still evolving in new tools. The key technological making this development possible is sketched in the next paragraphs. Technological background: Really Simple Syndication and API Web 2.0 accompanies or was strongly related to RSS. The collective information was made possible by dynamic linking, refering to each other and automatic transmission. Cornerstone of this development was another remarkable improvement of the architecture of the Internet. This is the platform indepen- dent RSS-technology or full „Really Simple Syndication“. With RSS the content of a website is not only linked, but can also be integrated to other websites by subscribing to the RSS-feed. Via RSS-technology the user receives information about any update of the website he/she subscribed to. Such generated updates are called RSS-feeds. For a better understanding such imagine the following. Every time any- thing is changed on a website a new entry to RSS-feed is done too. You as reader of such a website get also a message in your RSS-reader: “Hey take a look there is something new on it!” This simple technolo- gy changed the way we deal with the Web nowadays arbitrarily. RSS is seen as the basis of all Web 2.0 applications. Without the possibility to create content dynamic, use them flexible, most applications will not work. In last years, the RSS technology was complemented and also replaced by another new technology called API (“application programming interface”). An API makes data and functionalities of Websites available for other external applications, but in a better, moderated way than with RSS. Applications, build for such API request predefned data and get it if the Websites requirements are fulflled. With “Open API” every developer is able to develop an application using the API (and the Website behind). The development of the Open API fgures mirrow the success of this new approach. Ebay.com ofered the frst Open API in 2000, followed by Amazon.com in 2002. In 2005, Websites ofered around 100 Open API. In 2008 they were over 1,000 and in 2010 already more than 2,500 (Source: API directory of programmableweb.com). Many applications at your smartphone or desktop use an API to gather data from (diferent) sources. For examle, application on your phone uses data from your social network or simply your bank connections. In the following fgure we try to illustrate the diferent functionalities of RSS and API. With RSS you al- ways get the whole news stream and new posts, e.g. Weblog posts, as a copy from an RSS feed. With API an application uses a defned communication structure for requesting special data. This requested data could be used again within an external application. 18/59
  19. 19. RSS was the foundation, and API is the modern follower technology for the core of the Web 2.0 and so- cial networks and enables the linking of information together with social networks and the linking of the people behind. With them, the Internet becomes a big communication and collaboration platform. Just a fnal remark – RSS is ofered open, therefore no security aspects can be taken into account, therefore an API is simply a must. E-Learning 2.0 It is noteworthy, that all these above mentioned tools and platform are not dedicated for learning. Even so many learners and teachers use them. Stephen Downes was the frst who named this “e-learning 2.0” (see Stephen Downes article about E-Learning 2.0). We stop here as you already got to know such new possibilities of using Wikis, Weblogs and other for convincing and succesfull learning setngs. Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) For beginners: Edit a Wikipage! Wikis use a very simple mark-up language (You remember, html is such a mark-up language, too.) You do not know how and where to edit a Wiki page? The “Sandbox” of Wikipedia is build to be used for beginners. You will not be able to destroy something. And perhaps you get a Wikipedia contributor afterwards? URL of the sandbox: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Sandbox. A tutorial about editing Wikipedia is here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Tutorial For advanced learners: If you did already know some basics of html or simple mark-up languages as wi- thin Wikis, we wanted to invite you to a next step: Ready to start an own Weblog? There are several free weblog hosts available, and it is always fne to have a personal place with professional information about you and your work. Two ofers are from blogger.com and wordpress.com. You will fnd several tu- torials to build your blog. 19/59
  20. 20. For experts: If you already edited Wiki pages and run your own Website or Weblog, you are probably good in mark-up languages. First this qualifes you to support co-learners of this tutorial. It would be great if you share your experience with less experiences learners. (And take this as possibility to learn while teaching).  Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies Interested in more stuf around this unit? Here some of our recommendations: • Internet Society: History of Internet. URL: http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-histo- ry-internet • Tim O'Reilly: What is Web 2.0? URL: http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web- 20.html • A tutorial for HTML beginners. URL: http://learn.shayhowe.com/html-css/ • Explaining RSS. URL: http://cravingideas.blogs.com/backinskinnyjeans/2006/09/how_to_explain_.html • Stephen Downes (2005). e-Learning 2.0. URL: http://www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm? section=articles&article=29-1 20/59
  21. 21. Unit 3: Learning with Information Systems: LMS and Co. At the end of this unit you will: • know key functionalities of information systems • be able to list some information systems for learning • evaluate pros and cons of open sources versus proprietary software • have an idea of the efort to host an information system for learning Introduction Within this unit technical background to “information systems” is the topic. An “information system” is a (technical) system that deals with information using the Internet (or Intranet). With other words, simply dealing with information about anything . In our case we will of course look at information systems that are in use for especially teaching and learning. There are several functionalities, an information management supports. They are search and access of information, upload and editing of data and the management of data. Overview of Information Systems for Learning Several information systems are used for learning. We collected some of these information systems spe- cialized for learning issues. • Authoring tools support the development of learning content, including multimedia and assessment. • Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) and learning resources repositories help to store and manage learning content. Such learning contents are huge Web Based Trainings (WBT) or single Learning Objects (LO) (or “assets”). Whereas the LCMS refers 21/59
  22. 22. to the logic of a Content Management System (CMS) and thus has for example several editor rights, a repository is a database with metadata. The diferences are floating. • The most popular information system for teaching and learning is the Learning Manage- ment System (LMS). Their purpose is to administrate learners as well as contents, for example to organize the access to contents for a special class. These three possibilities for information systems are typically listed as information systems for learning. Beside them, two extra systems are in use in some learning organizations: • Besides this, assessment systems are also in use for learning issues. • Over and above, there are often administrations tools at learning organizations that ad- ministrate learners itself and their competence development. In school such systems stores mark and personal data of students, in enterprises they document competence development of the staf. Some of these system may be used in your organization, and others not. Additionally, single applications can be part of other systems. Assessment systems are for example sometimes part of learning manage- ment systems. To get an idea of your own organizations information system’s structure it is wise to ask which systems are in use at your organization. Additionally, there are also more specialized systems supporting forms of self-organized learning. • E-Portfolio systems support the didactical approach of e-portfolio work. The system has features to organize reviewing and access to materials from the e-portfolio work. And it supports the organization of “artifacts” by the learners (which are the users). 22/59
  23. 23. • A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) supports the central, cockpit-orientated man- agement of individuals’ learning. This could be realized with widgets at the browser (or desktop) or beyond or as mash-up. • A MOOC system is developed for usage of thousand of users and integrated multimedia resources (typically videos) in “Massive Open Online Courses” (in short MOOCs). From a technological perspective it is a lightweight, but scalable learning management system. • Do you know other information systems, which can be also in use for teaching and learning? If not, it would be a good idea to go to unit 2. There you will fnd tools from Web 2.0, which are in fact informa- tion systems, but we did not use this term there. A wiki system is for example another form of an infor- mation system. Technical base: peer-to-peer, client-server and cloud service architecture of information systems As you can see, several information systems are used for learning. Every time “management” of infor- mation is important, the following technical aspects are the basis. Coming into the role to pick a special tool or system, you should know some technical concepts and have an idea to test and check the mar- ket. Three modes of architectures for information are currently in use: the client-server model, the peer-to- peer model and cloud services. 23/59
  24. 24. The information system is stored at the server in so-called client-server architectures. As long the server is available via the Internet, the system and data is secure and usable for all clients. Peer-to-peer net- works are commonly used for big multi media sharing platforms. When the peer computer with the missing part of your video is not available, you will not be able to watch your video. As information sys- tems for learning are usually not use this architecture, such a situation is unknown for learning. The lat- est of information architectures development is cloud computing. Information systems and their data are not stored at a single server anymore but “in the cloud”. The "cloud" is a virtual network of so-called virtual servers at real servers. From the users' perspective it is less likely that the server (with the infor- mation system) is not available. Besides this, cloud architectures will not influence the usage technically, but the cloud architecture is to be seen as a challenge from the perspective of data security and privacy issues. For example, several universities in Europe have to desist from services from U.S. frms such as Google.com, Facebook.com etc. for privacy issues. ENTERTAINMENT Our introduction into Cloud Computing was pretty short. A nice introduction is deliv- ered by a user called High TechDad at Youtube. See more her: Introduction into Cloud Computing by High TechDad – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJncFirhjPg Commercial Background: Open Source and Proprietary Software If discussions and decisions for a special system have to be made, an important question is the back- ground of the system. Is it open source software with open source code or is it proprietary software owned by a frm? Apparently, it sounds good to get free software as Open Source software is, even so is help and support then not a matter of course. The following table shows general pros and cons. 24/59
  25. 25. Whereas proprietary software was dominant in the late 1990ies, there are nowadays many established Open Source products, for example for server hosting (Apache), operating systems (Linux) or Web browser (Mozilla Firefox). Hosting of Information Systems: Tasks Software is not only a question of possession. Technically, there are many tasks around new software or an information system that have to be done – or considered in a planning phase. Just to give you some impressions of “technical” tasks, which include (technical) service for end-users, we list some of them. You can add specifc competences and also devices at nearly every aspect. • The information system has to be installed on a server. Which server will you need for how many people working simultaneously? • A set-up is needed and also links to existing systems, e.g. to a LCMS or a platform. Is the system also ofering APIs (see unit 2) to exchange data with other systems? • Administration as back-up and log fles is needed. There must be a clear strategy who teachers’ contents as well as learners’ data is stored and can be retrieved in case of emergency. • Device management, network management, fault management and performance man- agement should be delivered. • Is your system scalable and which kind of database is needed? It’s quite usual that you are starting with few classes and getng more and more users of years. • Technical support and service for (end-) users is an important task. This list hopefully helps, when you think about diferent solutions for a dedicated software or system in respect of technical workload. 25/59
  26. 26. Free Information Systems for Learning – Business Models In light of the technical tasks, free usage of Web based information systems for learning and your learn- ers seems to be a good option for you. Even it is not a pure technical aspect, we want to give you some ideas of their business models. Of course, there are systems that can be used for free where you do not have to pay for because the background of its provider is non-proft. For example, some universities provide free etherpad applica- tions (with this tool it is easy to collaborate on text production). Or you may use Wikis from the Wikime- dia foundation to develop for example a textbook with your class or course. Additionally, some providers of information systems that can be used for learning give free accounts for educational usage. This means, that buyers of the software fnance your educational usage. (Still, this can be also seen as a marketing or public relation strategy.) Last, but not least, there is a third opportunity to re-fnance free ofers. The refunding approach is to of- fer and sell advertisement, or to sell data of the learners and their activities. Beneath didactical and functional aspect of a technology, you should consider such issues as well. Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) At the beginning of the unit we introduced general functionalities of information systems: data entry, data storage, data transfer, data transformation and data provision. Thinking about your daily work with learners we wanted to ask you: How should your personal (visionary) information systems look like? What are the concrete functionalities and data used in your information system? 26/59
  27. 27. Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies • Further reading on information systems for learning in schools: The Wikibook “Comput- er Information Systems in Education”. URL: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_In- formation_Systems_in_Education • Further reading on information systems for learning at universities: Haitham A. El-Gha- reeb (2009). E-Learning and Management Information Systems. Universities Need Both. In: eLearn Magazine, URL: https://elearnmag.acm.org/featured.cfm?aid=1621693 • Case Study Video: Rural schools and cloud computing project, a research project f- nanced by HP Labs running in a public school in Spain, CRA Boqueixón-Vedra. URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12qkbusBQCQ 27/59
  28. 28. Unit 4: Functionalities and Selection of Learning Management Systems At the end of this unit you will: • know key functionalities of learning management systems • be aware of technological challenges and requirements • be able to create a checklist to evaluate learning management systems Repetition: Learning Management System vs. Learning Content Management System Within this unit we want to concentrate on learning management system. A Learning Management Sys- tem (LMS) allows administrating courses, classes, learning materials and teachers as well as students. A related system are Learning Content Management System (LCMS). They are especially important, when similar learning materials should be stored and administrated. Perhaps you remember the following im- age from the last unit? You need a learning content management system (LCMS), or a repository if you have a huge amount of learning materials. Universities and big enterprises need such systems to maintain their learning content in a smart way. Compared with this, learning management systems (LMS) are common, also for smaller organizations. Thus, we will use this unit to deepen our knowledge about their functionalities. 28/59
  29. 29. Functionalities of LMS Learning management systems has the following functionalities. • First of all, they support the administration of teachers, learners or courses and classes. The system organizes who has access to what. Typical roles are administrators, teachers (or tutors for one or more classes) and learners (students). Administrative tasks as course evaluation are also part of these administrative issues. • Second, a learning management system manages and provides learning content. Such learning materials are text, illustrations, tests and other multimedia as well as interac- tive content. This includes calendars, schedules and curricula. • Finally, learning management systems ofers tools for communication and collabora- tion. Such tools are discussion forums, virtual blackboards, chats, and whiteboards. We will deepen this in the following paragraphs. Typical tools within a course and a typical course Webpage The variety of tools available within learning management systems went broader in the last years. You may fnd the following tools in your learning management system: • Collaboration tools, such as online presentation, virtual whiteboards, document man- agement, discussion forums, polls or Wiki spaces. • Communication tools, such as Web mail, messaging, discussion forum, notifcation. • Personal Workspace for teachers and learners, such as bookmarks, calendar, fle stor- age, publishing. 29/59
  30. 30. Learning management systems manages learning activities in course setngs. This includes Web Based Trainings (WBT, for single learners) or also virtual seminars with intense communication. According to this, some functionality is more, and other is less important. The following illustration is a typical surface of a course from learner’s perspective. Above that, learning management system has some extra functionality, for example the calendar for learners, the system-wide search and the right management itself. The roles within a learning management system: administrators, tutors and teachers There are several roles of users implemented in learning management systems. According with the role, typical rights are related. • A learner is not able to edit the course or its materials. But (s)he is able to contribute to the course by using the communication and collaboration tools as planned by the tutor. • A tutor or teacher is able to edit course description, to upload or select course materi- als, and to select tools for the special course. Tutors are also able to see, if students had upload homework and to correct or mark it. They are able to see, who logged in. And they are able to moderate course related discussions, including deletion of comments. • Admins have the widest rights. They are able to give reading and editing access to new learners and tutors, to install new features of the learning management system etc. Besides this, big learning management systems with hundreds of learners have more roles and user groups to support users and learners. Technical Requirements of and for a LMS Technically, there are several requirements for a learning management system: 30/59
  31. 31. • Capacity: First of all you have to think about system requirements, due to the fact that you (or your server administration) have to install it on a server. Also a backup strategy is necessary. • Access: In general a web browser is needed for getng access, but should it also avail- able for mobile devices? • Scalability: It should be scalable, that means it should be able to manage also higher numbers of users (up to a defned maximum) • Connectivity: In general a connection to a database is needed. • Expandability: Can the system be expanded to increasing requirements? Are there APIs for communication with other services? • Standardization: It should support several standards, also meta data standards for learn- ing content (IMS or SCORM). Within the next unit, we will introduce you this important issue. • Security: A strategy for data security is needed. In the following you see an exemplary list of concrete LMS and their special technical requirements. There is no need so learn it by heart, but it should illustrate, that there are quite a lot of technical ques- tions and related challenges are to be addressed. The selection process and criteria: Three fictional LMS The following descriptions and evaluations of learning management systems from administrator’s per- spective are fctional. Even so, it should help to get insights into the considerations while choosing a spe- cial system. And of course, there are a lot more variants of LMS and arguments for and against them. 31/59
  32. 32. (The following examples are from Lorenz, A.; Safran, C. & Ebner. M., 2013, Informationssysteme. In: L3T, http://l3t.eu). (a) LearningWithFun – The Open Source Solution The LMS “LearningWithFun” can be downloaded for free and can be installed on your own. The basis package has a simple course and a user administration. More functionality is available via plug-ins devel- oped by the user community. Plug-ins for complex user management, the integration of tests, and sta- tistics of learning outcomes are available. The Open Source license gives the opportunity to develop and adapt the source code. • Pros: The LMS is cheap, expansible, adaptable to own requirements, installation and hosting through the own organization • Cons: workload (and costs) for installation, hosting and adaption and new developments (b) LearningWithSystem – the Standard Solution The LMS “LearningWithSystem” is sold and developed by a commercial provider. It includes a course and user management, supports the development and realization of tests, and ofers overviews for learning progress of the users (learning time, average learning outcomes). For communication integrat- ed e-mail and discussion boards can be used. The access to the LMS is bound to client software that has to be installed on user’s computers. The provider installs, hosts and fosters the LMS on your server. This includes small adaptions, as the usage of your logo within the LMS. The LMS, including installation, set- up, 10 hours support and 1.000 user licenses for the client software are $ 15,000. Additional user licens- es, adaptions, support hours and trainings for your staf can be bought. Updates and maintenances cost another $ 1,500 a year. • Pros: Hosting and set-up through a competent partners, adequate functionalities, scal- able access to an desktop program (can be helpful within frms with restrictive access to WWW), data on own server • Cons: eventual to expensive, eventual adaption needed, eventual costs for own server, eventual extra costs for user, adaption costs and support not simple to calculate (c) LearningWithStrategy – the expert solution The LMS “LearningWithStrategy” is developed and sold by a commercial provider. Its center is a complex competence management for business organizations. It organizes the planning of further development due to current competence profles and job descriptions of the co-workers. It provides interfaces to per- sonnel databases and document management systems. The provider ofers installation and hosting of the LMS on his own servers, defned adaptions as the enterprise’s organization matrix and existing job descriptions and development plans as well as learning content. The annual fee for the LMS includes in- stallation, set-up, support and 1.000 user accounts for the Web-based access and cost $ 40,000. Addi- tional adaptions, user accounts and trainings are available with extra costs. • Pros: Complete service through competent provider, individual adaptable functions, scalable, complex user management and management of learning activities • Cons: annual fee, data at another’s server, eventually to complex 32/59
  33. 33. As you have seen, it is not easy to decide for a LMS, as there are many options and available. Creating a personal checklist of for evaluation When you have to decide for a special learning management system, a checklist is a helpful tool. As you will see in the “explore” bubble of this unit, there are several checklists available – some are long! Be- sides hard facts they include for example aspects of administration, usage etc. Whenever you have to test and check a LMS you have to develop a checklist for your own organization: What are the needs, the requirements you have? Reading and using existing check lists help a lot! Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) Develop a short checklist as “quick check” of potential LMS system for your organization. Explore: Further Reading and Links • LMS Evaluation Checklist by Teacher Online – URL: http://teach.ucf.edu/resources/web- courses-migration/lms-evaluation-checklist/ • LMS requirements checklist. In: Safari Books Online – URL: http://my.safaribooksonline.- com/book/digital-media/9781562868376/job-aid/navpoint12 • LMS Evaluation Checklist by ACT@Uof (Please note: this checklist is free to modify and republish (CC BY ACT@UoF) - URL: http://testsoft.ati.utoronto.ca/wordpress/avi/fles/2013/03/LMSEvalChecklist.pdf 33/59
  34. 34. Unit 5: Tools for Authoring and Standards At the end of this unit you will: • know functionalities of an authoring system • recognize the importance of standards for learning content • have an understanding of rapid e-Learning authoring Authoring E-Learning-Content: An introduction You have already learned about content development for e-Learning. Within this unit, we probably tell you some things, you already know. As the tutorial is about technologies, we will not focus on learning or teaching issues, but on the technologies, the e-Learning authoring tools. What functionalities have they? What should I consider before I decide to buy one? Are there any free tools available for my re- quirements? Learning Objects and bigger units Learning objects are the smallest unit of learning content that can be used as “single learning objects”. Such learning objects are for example short videos, an illustration, or an interactive object. Preparing a learning unit, for example materials for self-organized learning or material for online courses, you will typically take and re-arrange diferent learning objects. Within this unit we will describe possibilities to develop and re-arrange learning objects. ENTERTAINMENT If you want to try some interactive learning objects, we recommend the following: The “Schnittkraftmeister” App is developed by the Graz University of Technology in Aus- tria and is a Web application that trains engineering skills with a gaming approach. It is also available as free app for smartphones. URL: http://www.ifb.tugraz.at/schnittkraft- meister/ Another simpler learning object is the following graphical depiction of a radian for angu- lar measurement by Roy Peterson. URL: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewOb- ject.aspx?ID=TMH1301 Authoring tools for e-Learning An authoring tool supports the production of multimedia learning objects or units. It is for people with- out or just a few programming skills. You can edit content units as graphics or videos as in usual editing software tools for end-users. Slides and images are created similar as in usual ofce programs. For ex- ample, you can change the order of single parts of the e-Learning materials with drag-and-drop. 34/59
  35. 35. Some authoring tools have own (simple) programming languages (or use extensions). They describe for example how and when tests should appear or the feedback students will get. Some tools are available as desktop installation, others for installation in networks or also in the Web. And there is a long list of commercial products you have to pay for. To give you an impression about a (typical) surface of an author tool looks like we sketched the follow- ing. Functionalities and options Authoring tools reminds of ofce tools, especially presentation tools. The following functionalities in the software is typical: • Editing of texts and pictures (sizes, color etc.) • Capturing and editing of screencasts or videos and audio. • Animation is possible, for example rotating icons, moving pictures, changing the order of slides. • Editing of interactivity is supported, for example to give the learners options on how to proceed. Interactivity means not a social interaction, but a computerized. • Also the development of quizzes (multiple choice test, drag-and-drop tasks) is included as typical options. • A pool of graphics is included. • Current author tools also support content for mobile learning. • Professional tools should deliver materials according to standards for e-Learning con- tent. 35/59
  36. 36. As mentioned above, authoring tools are available as desktop solutions, but also as Web application. If the content development should be cooperative or collaborative, a version for networks should be pre- ferred. Such multi-authors systems also sometimes support for commenting other author, what might be helpful in terms of quality assurance. Authoring Learning Content with Standard Software and Programming Besides specialized authoring tools as described, a lot of learning objects are developed with standard software or are simply programmed. Examples for learning objects authored with standard tools are: Interactive spread sheets developed with an ofce tool (such as Microsoft Excel or Open Ofce), short videos produced with your mobile phone and uploaded at a common video sharing platform, or pictures developed with a drawing applica- tion. Interactive learning objects using Flash can also be developed with the help of tools (examples are the commercial Adobe Flash Builder and the Open Source tool FlashDevelop). Besides, there is programming knowledge needed to create such learning objects. Last but not least, interactive Webpages or learning content can be developed with pure html or in other Web related programming languages (e.g. Java and JavaScript), too. Why Standards are important To make e-Learning content searchable and interchangeable the use of standards is a must. Standards are the base to make learning objects work on diferent information systems. An example is the transfer of content from the authoring tool to the learning management system. Several institutions developed standards, but they have no legal character. But it is in interest of all, e-Learning provider, repository provider or also learners to use them. (The following paragraphs build upon Rensing, C., 2013, Standards für Lehr- und Lerntechnologien. In: L3T, URL: http://l3t.eu/ ) Whereas standards for metadata describe how learning resources should be described, standards for learning content defne how e-Learning resources should be structured and stored to be interchange- able and fnally standards for learning and teaching processes should make information about it inter- changeable. Within the following, you fnd some technical reasons for it. The following illustration shows which standards are addressed at the several interaction positions of in- formation systems. 36/59
  37. 37. In the following, we will give you some short explanation of the acronyms used in the fgure. • Standard for Metadata - Learning Object Metadata (in short LOM) is a standard about how learning resources should be described. IEEE LTSC published the standard in 2004 and by now, nearly all LMS and LCMS, a lot of learning object repositories and many au- thor tools use this standard. To describe a learning resource in details 80 criteria are to be flled out or selected, for example: keywords, date, purpose, language, semantic den- sity or duration. • Standards for content format - SCORM and QTI: Whereas LOM is needed to get infor- mation about the learning resources, standards for the content format are also needed. Such standards are important to produce a learning resource with an author system and to publish it in a learning management system. The aim (and result) is, that a learning resource may be zipped and send from one LMS to another and will still be usable. The most common format is SCORM for learning resources that means “Sharable Content Reference Model” and was published by the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative. Specialized on test items is the standard “Question & Test Interoperability” (in short QTI). • Standard for description of learning and teaching processes - the IMS Learning Design: This standard includes all standards we already described and add several items to rep- resent all information for potential usage. It is called “IMS Learning Design” and is sup- ported by IMS Global. For example, the IMS Learning Design Standard includes roles of involved persons in the learning process, or activities and setngs. If your organization works with one or more information systems, such as an authoring tool and a LMS or a LCMS, or if you want to use such systems, it is needed to fulfll the standards. More concrete, that means the systems should fulfll the standards and you should add adequate information to your con- tent. 37/59
  38. 38. Rapid e-Learning Methodology Developing e-Learning materials in short time is called “rapid e-Learning methodology”. Of course, ev- erybody who is a competent and an experienced e-Learning content developer will be quicker than oth- ers. Rapid e-Learning methodology refers not only to a quick, but also “simple” production of learning materials, that means simple tools and procedures. Typically rapid e-Learning methodology produces slides with audio, for example made with the Microsoft tool Powerpoint and enhanced with some spoken words. There are several tools available, also Web based, which support the production of such as “slideshow with audio”. The results are short or even longer multimedia products that can be part or base of an e-Learning unit. Free and Open Source Tools Professionals working in a big enterprise potentially may use an (more or less) expensive author tool. But rapid e-Learning methodology or e-Learning authoring in general is not confned to professional au- thoring and author tools and includes also simple lightweight and free tools. We provide you with some tools and lists for tools in the bubble “explore” and recommend searching for such lists in the Web. You will be really impressed what is possible to make and how long the lists are! To illustrate possible usages we just sketch one example: The production of a 3D animated GIF. We animated an illustration from unit 1 for you and made a simple animation with it. Therefore we used a visual illusion method by inserting two white stripes for a simple 3D efect and made a set of images with our presentation tool. We exported the slides as GIF-Files and then used a simple free tool for ani- mated gifs (http://gifmaker.me/). The result is the following: (to download this gif: http://sansch.fles.wordpress.com/2014/02/presentation_tools.gif ) 38/59
  39. 39. The variety of possibilities of free Web based tool is really funny and exploring them defnitely takes time. Beside, it will be inspiring how and with which tools you will be able to enrich your learning unit. What is important when selecting an author tool? When selecting a professional, which means also very often, a commercial authoring tool the following list of questions should help your decision: • What do I want to create? Which kind of formats and content? Which kind of multime- dia? • What is my prior knowledge? What do I already know about content development and media, for example ofce software? • What are my fnancial options? • What tools and devices do I have already? • What functionalities do I need, especially for export/import to other tools, especially my LMS? Will the materials/ author tool work with the LMS? If you plan to use or use free Web applications for parts of your learning content you should additionally considering the following aspects: • Can I use my content on any platform or is it bound so special tools or platforms? • Is it possible to store my content at other places or to download it (and re-use it else- where)? Is it possible to share it privately or with a closed group? • Who has the ownership of my content? Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) Of course, this unit should motivate your content authoring. Perhaps you already started to search for free tools and their possibilities? If not or as a frst start, we want to give you a short list with short tasks. For beginners and people with limited time (this can be done in 15 minutes): • Create your new profle photo as animated gif. You need a short sequence of photos of you and a free gif maker tool (e.g. http://gifmaker.me/). Download it and replace your current profle photo within this course. If you do not have photos of use (or a camera), take free images from the Web and create your new animated profle photo. • Create a short cartoon about yourself. You can do this without login for example with http://bitstrips.com/, but there are really many options to do this. If you have more time and/or some advanced knowledge with multimedia production: • Create an animated video about the course you will develop: What may people learn? We recommend the tool http://www.powtoon.com/ if you are already used to video capture software. Nevertheless, it is not possible to download the video to other plat- forms and a logo of Powtoon is inserted. • Create a slideshow with audio about the course you will develop: What may people learn? We recommend to use your favorited presentation software, to export the slides 39/59
  40. 40. as pdf and upload it to http://slideshare.com. Additionally, capture some sentences of your as .mp3. This tutorial will help: http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Slide- cast-on-Slideshare Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies • Tom Kohlmann (2011). How to be successful at rapid e-learning. URL: http://www.artic- ulate.com/rapid-elearning/how-to-be-successful-at-rapid-e-learning/ • Christopher Pappas (2010). Free and Open Source Authoring Tools for e-Learning. URL: http://blog.efrontlearning.net/2010/10/open-source-authoring-tools-for-e.html • CCCOER Webinar (Video by Una Daly), OER authoring tools. URL: http://www.youtube.- com/watch?v=K1WdEfLsVfg • Judy Unrein (2012). Rapid Power Tools: The top performers of eLearning authoring soft- ware. In: eLearn Magazine. URL: http://elearnmag.acm.org/featured.cfm?aid=2221186 • Alison Bickford (2012). Tracking E-Learning in a LMS: The role of SCORM. In: elearning academy. URL: http://www.elearningacademy.com.au/blog/2012/12/tracking-elearn- ing-lms-scorm/ • Video: SCORM Demystifed by KMI Learning – URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=FzxNwWvmwf4 • Top 10 Free E-Learning Authoring Tools by Sandra Miller. In: Dashburst. URL: http://dashburst.com/best-e-learning-authoring-tools/ 40/59
  41. 41. Unit 6: Mobile Learning Technologies At the end of this unit you will: • be able to list mobile devices • decode a QR code • reflect characteristics of smart phones • know the meaning of BYOD Introduction: Importance of mobile learning Personal Computers and Internet connections are common and ubiquitous available for people in West- ern Europe or North America. It is the same with several other regions in the world. Still, the difusion and availability of several mobile devices is even more impressive. Mobile devices, for example mobile phones are spread even in rural areas with a bad electronic supply. They are seen as a key driver for e- Learning and also for learning in general. When books and teachers are not available, the mobile phone is a valuable medium for learning. In this light, it is no surprise that also the UNESCO see mobile learning as an important development. Thus, UNESCO supports it through a regular worldwide conference about mobile learning (MLW) and further activities. “Mobile learning”, or in short m-learning, is a term for diverse (mobile) devices and also learning set- tings. In the following images you see some of such devices. Have you already seen such devices or used them? As you see, also small mobile computers as notebooks and tablet computers are seen as devices for e- Learning. And additionally, some other devices are missing in the fgure. Can you add a missing device? For example, personal digital assistants (PDAs) are missing. 41/59
  42. 42. E-Learning with notebooks is already a part of the other units of this tutorial. So, we will concentrate on (media enriched) phones and smartphones within the following paragraphs. Most of it is also applicable for tablet computers (for example iPads). ENTERTAINMEN Smartphones seem to be everywhere in many metropolises of the world. This short video gives an impression on the, some times even sad, developments of this ubiquitous tech- nology. Enjoy this video “I Forgot My Phone “, written by Charlene de Guzman and Miles Crawford, directed by Miles Crawford and starring Charlene de Guzman, URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OINa46HeWg8 Mobile Communication Technologies You use special mobile communication technologies, when you talk, share text messages, browse the In- ternet, exchange data, or write e-mails with your phone. Besides, not all are available for every device and region. Mobile telecommunication (voice, or short messaging) is available via satellites and radio towers. To use mobile Internet, for example to read e-mail or to browse the Web, a fast connection is needed. Mobile Internet can also be provides via satellites and radio towers. Another option is the use of wireless local area networks. They are called in short "wlan" or also "Wi-Fi"; even if these terms are not synonym when looking at technical details. Bluetooth and infrared are some more connection modes to share data, for example contact information, if you want to connect only some mobile phones directly. 42/59
  43. 43. Learning with SMS SMS stands for “short messaging service”. Such short messages with 140 signs per message are a wide spread tool for communication and also learning around the world. If this is the only way to communi- cate and learn, you will appreciate it. Even so, in regions where learning with SMS is one of the few op- tions to learn, there are many other challenges too: Challenges are that users should be able to read and write (in a special language) and that they need to be able to handle the messaging. Additionally, there are also technical and practical challenges of mobile learning with SMS. You need the device and a provider (respectively money) and in several cases the mobile phone is attractive for theft. Additionally you need electricity – a power station and a plug sock- et. Many of the SMS approaches base on the exchange of SMS. They’re are also push- and pull-services ap- plicable, automatic messaging and other services with SMS. This enhances information transfer and lim- its human (teachers) eforts. Special functionalities of smart phones and tablet computers The usage of simple or media enriched mobile phones (all mobile phones before the smart phone area) is a reduction of e-Learning possibilities like traditional personal computer and Internet connection. In well-equipped setngs, the usage of smart phones and tablet computers make extra options possible. For example sensors in smartphones could be used – an ambient light sensor, a proximity sensor, a mo- tion sensor or a temperature sensor. The following functionalities of smart phones are also usable for learning and teaching and widen the options for e-Learning setngs: 43/59
  44. 44. • First of all, smart phones have a motion sensor that can be addressed. Smartphone can be used to control movements (if they are right) or the moves can be used as input, for example to move a car in a learning game application. • Then, smart phones (and tablet computers) use a new form of software, so-called “ap- plications” or in short “apps”. As there is no need (or ability to use) open ofce package or other complex software suites, apps are always for well-defned and granular tasks. App stores make it easy to and common to download games or services for the smart phones. • When a mobile phone is online, it is able to tell you its place. Sometimes the location enhances the learning behavior through the GPS signal (location based learning). • Smart phones have a good microphone and as further extra a camera on board (some- times even two, one at both sides). The camera makes it possible to take pictures and the microphone allows additionally audios (and to share them). The smartphone is a portable sound and voice recording gadget. It also allows you to read or watch multime- dia enhanced content, for example eBooks. • Besides the camera, image detection is possible. With some photo apps, smiling faces can be detected; other apps detect (multidimensional) barcode and decode it. With this feature it is very easy to look for user recommendations and feedback online if you are in a supermarket and found some new stuf. The QR code, a new, free two-dimension code, is in use to make long URL or other information decodable for smartphone users. • RFID reader and NFC technology are currently not very widespread, but are potential features for new learning setngs. Above this all, but this is not a technological feature, personal used smartphone are a private device. They are even more private as laptops: Usually, you take them into your living room and quite often it is used also in bed and with other private occasions. If this is a pro or con as learning tool is open: It is a 44/59
  45. 45. pro, if you like to use the smart phone as device for spare time or waiting. It is a con, if the learner does not like to invest private time with automatic reminders or similar notes from a learning app. Example for m-learning Perhaps you are thinking: Interesting functionalities, but how can they used for learning? If you have al- ready some ideas, maybe your ideas are already part of the following list: • Mobile information is the smallest unit of learning (often called micro learning). If you get quick mobile information, such as a word in another language, a defnition of a term, the name of a songwriter this can potentially be a (very small) piece of learning experi- ence. • Geo location can be used to provide learners with local, context information. It can for example send you a signal, if a peer of your school is near of you. It makes location relat- ed learning ofers possible, for example information about a historical point of interest in your neighborhood. • Mobile Phones are also well prepared to store podcasts: Using some earphones, you may hear and watch your daily learning unit as podcast. • Additionally, smart phones are usually equipped to store e-books. Even if you are online you will be able to take some notes in your textbook, to read some pages of your fa- vored author in a foreign language, or to look for a special missing formula. • Mobile smartphones are often used to take part of social networks, for status updates and sharing of photos. Social networking can also be part for informal learning process- es, the core of your community of practice or the room where your students share open issues of your course. • Smartphone and their apps gives so many opportunities for learning, that it is ridiculous to start a list. If you look for learning apps in your app store you will fnd a lot of learning games, also for multi player, which can be used to train vocabulary or the multiplication table. • The camera and apps to capture and edit videos, photos and audios can be used to ask students and learners to deliver homework as short videos. You will be surprised how engaged they will be and how impressing some of the results. The characteristic of mobile learning is the following. It happens typically in real time (synchronous) or in waiting times (travelling), it is often quick and with short interactions, spontaneous and not planed. Be- sides, the mobile devices are included also in formal learning setngs. ENTERTAINMENT An interesting initiative of mobile learning for everyone with broad impact was the world wide initiative „One Laptop per child“. This is one of several documentation videos you will find in the Web. „One Laptop per Child“ - Uploaded By Unlocking Minds Inc. URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tj4T2LkG3Pg Bring your own device (BYOD) The development of smart phones and its difusion lead to new e-Learning possibilities and setngs. Co- workers and students bring their personal smart phones to enterprises, schools and universities. As smart phones have a big potential for learning, it is a simple approach to build learning setngs around 45/59
  46. 46. this phenomena. “Bring your own device” or in short BYOD refers to the usage of personal mobile digital equipment for learning in schools and other learning organizations (also enterprises). BYOD can be seen as a cheap and simple possibility to use digital devices for learning, to train media and Internet competencies, to develop Web literacy. Besides, BYOD is a pedagogical and also a technological and practical challenge. We give you some technological issues. It is the question, if the wireless net- work of the school can cope with the users, or who will give support for all the diferent systems, or how students can charge their phones during the day. Within our literature recommendation you will fnd some literature about BYOD. Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) (a) Take action: The QR Code Secret (b) Develop a learning setng with smart phones. 46/59
  47. 47. Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies This is a small collection of interesting contribution about mobile technologies for learning. We hope you like it! • Handheld Devices in the 21st Century Classroom, a Wiki page edited by Christina Luciak, Jonathon Brady-Patry, Shawn Lank, Christopher Sandor and Daphne Cockerill URL: http://etec.ctlt.ubc.ca/510wiki/Handheld_Devices_in_the_21st_Century_Classroom • BYOD Policy Paper AUSTRALIAN NSW DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND COMMUNITIES WWW.DEC.NSW.GOV.AU - URL: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies/technology/com- puters/mobile-device/implementation_1_PD20130458.shtml • Bring Your Own Device: A Guide for Schools by Crown in the Right of the Province of Al- berta, as represented by the Minister of Education – URL: https://education.alberta.ca/media/6749210/byod%20guide%20revised%202012-09- 05.pdf • List of great apps for math education: http://drippler.com/updates/share/best-maths- apps-children-iphone-ipad-and-android-apps-kids 47/59
  48. 48. Unit 7: Development of technologies and future trends At the end of this unit you will: • see how fast technology get normal in your life • recognize that e-Learning innovation can be supported • probably inspired to read more about future technologies for learning Technological evolution is impressing - a look back Not only learning about technologies is challenging. Developing and writing a unit about e-Learning technologies is a challenge, too. :-) The challenge is not simple to know current technologies. It is also to decide, which knowledge about technologies will be (still) needed in 6, 12 or 24 months. Still, we are not able to see the future. This is the reason, why we fnish this technology tutorial with an outlook. We want to present you two per- spectives of future technologies. On the one side, it is the user-centered development for future tools. On the other side, there are approaches to detect future developments. Before we do this, we wanted to ask you to make a sketch. Please provide a timeline of your personal usage of technologies (if you already used it). You can see the timeline of one of us authors – living in Western Europe. And how looks yours? Please take some minutes and draft your personal timeline. Without being visionary or magic, we guess you get similar impression of your timeline as we have, when looking at our own or others. It is pretty magic that it takes just short time to get used to a new technology. Now, learning opportunities with technologies are not comparable with that some years ago. That applies even when you are young. The world and e-Learning technologies are changing pretty rapidly. 48/59
  49. 49. Innovations for e-Learning When you develop e-Learning materials or use technologies in classrooms, you should at least recognize the role of new and future developments. Not every development will revolutionize your teaching or learning practices. But some will do. We all should work and think about how to get one step further, or even to innovate e-Learning. Still, it is pretty hard to decide whether a trend is just a short hype and buzz or if it has the potential to inno- vate and influence learning deeper. Some currently future technologies are the following. We will see watches with functionalities as smart- phones, glasses with enriched facilities (for example Google glasses), foldable and/or transparent dis- plays, flying cars, gesture based input devices, facial recognition as logins. And of course, it can be that this list is already outdated when you read it. One smart way is to work with in the feld of innovation development within e-Learning. Does this sound complex? In fact it is not. There are so many possibilities to use new technologies. And several learning setngs are already tested or in use, but not all. Thus, the development of new technologies is fast and there are always new apps, devices and tools available. It would be great, if practitioners are already part of development process of technologies. But in fact, they are often in the role of inventive users, when they pick up and use new technologies for learning. In innovation research, you call such develop- ments “open innovation”. Single users or a community develop something new. There are diferent possible ways to think about future. Innovation development is not always the result of a planned process. But innovation development can be fostered with methodologies. Examples for such approaches are the lead-user approach and idea competitions. Another example is open initiatives where students and teachers get free room to develop something together (or students alone). Approaches get an idea of future developments Thinking two steps beyond, it gets pretty harder and speculative to think about future technologies for learning. You should consider several developments in parallel. You have to look (a) at invention of tech- nologies itself, (b) at market availability and difusion and (c) at the possibilities for usage and adoptions for learning. Several technologies of future research are in use to gain insights into future developments. Often Delphi techniques are used, these are two or more steps questionnaires of experts. Another tech- nique develops scenarios with a group of diverse experts: a best-case, a worst-case and a wished sce- nario. Road mapping is a method to think about enablers and barriers to a (wished) future development. An example of a popular annual study about future technology usage in classrooms and for learning is the “Horizon Report”. For it, experts discuss and decide future usage of technologies for learning. They have to decide, which two concrete technology enhanced learning developments will be part of learning and teaching within the next year, the next 2 to 3 years and beyond. When you look for the publications, you will see that mobile technologies are mentioned several times in the last years. 49/59
  50. 50. ENTERTAINMENT Top Ten Future Technologies that already exist by HEK TV – URL: http://www.youtube.- com/watch?v=cYPqZ_SJCjw Check (Self-Assessment and Assignments) Write a message to your future you! Explore: Links and Further Readings, Good Practices and Case Studies As recommended the unit you should read some of the Horizon Reports – URL: http://www.nmc.org/horizon-project 50/59
  51. 51. Glossary Application Programming Interface or short API is an interface ofering content and functionalities from one application to another. See unit 2. Authoring tools support the development of learning content, including multimedia and assessment. See unit 3 and especially 5. Bluetooth is a standard for data transfer on mobile phones or other mobile devices. See unit 6. Bring your own device (BYOD) is the usage and implementation of personal mobile digital equipment for learning in schools and other learning organizations (also enterprises). See unit 6. Client-Server architecture has the system and data at a central server. See unit 3. Cloud architectures use a network of so-called virtual servers at real servers to store information. See unit 3. Circuit switching is also called inline switching and is a methodology to use a network for communica- tion with providing a dedicated free channel. See unit 2. Diascope is a slide projector. It projects dias (small transparent framed photos) on a canvas or wall. See unit 1. Distributed network is a network with no central stations and links. See unit 2. E-Portfolio system has features to organize reviewing and access to materials from the e-portfolio work. See unit 3. Hypertext is the text where parts of it link to referring content with similar, additional or other ftng content at other pages. See unit 2. Hypertext Markup Language or short HTML is the core language used to establish the World Wide Web. See unit 2. IMS Learning Design is a standard for description of learning and teaching processes. See unit 5 Infrared is a communication way to connect mobile phones or devices. See unit 6. Information system is a technical system dealing with production, distribution, management and ex- change of data. Today mostly stored on servers using diferent webtechnologies . See unit 3. Interactive whiteboard is a big display connected with a computer, interaction is possible through spe- cial markers. See unit 1. 51/59
  52. 52. Inline switching see circuit switching. See unit 1. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) helps to edit, store and manage learning content. See unit 3, 4 and 5. Learning Management System (LMS) supports the administration of learners as well as contents, for ex- ample to organize the access to contents for a special class. See unit 3 and especially 4. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) is a standard for metadata. See unit 5. Learning Resources Repositories stores and manage learning content and its access. See unit 3, 4 and 5. Mash-Ups are new arrangements, building on two or more diferent web resources. See unit 2. Mobile learning (m-learning) is learning with mobile devices and in mobile learning setngs. See unit 6. MOOC system is developed for usage of thousand of users and integrated multimedia resources (typi- cally videos) in “Massive Open Online Courses” (in short MOOCs), it is lightweight, but scalable learning management system. See unit 3. Open Source Software is liberally licensed software where the Source Code is available. See unit 3. Overhead projector is a machine projecting transparencies on a canvas or wall. See unit 1. Package switching is a methodology to use several packages to transport communication through a dis- tributed network. See unit 2. Peer-to-peer architecture has the system and data distributed at a system of peer computers in a net- work and not on a central server (see client-server architecture). See unit 3. Personal Learning Environment (PLE) supports the central, cockpit-orientated management of individu- als’ learning, for example as mash-up. See unit 3. Proprietary Software is commercial software where the source code is not available open and copy- rights are very strict regulated. See unit 3. QR code is a free two-dimensional code used to make long URL or other information decodable for smartphone users. See unit 6. Question & Test Interoperability (QTI) is a standard for assessment content format. See unit 5. Rapid e-Learning Methodology is the approach to develop e-Learning materials in short time. See unit 5. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a technological method to ofer updated information in the Web so others can use it via the RSS feed. See unit 2. 52/59
  53. 53. Sharable Content Reference Model (SCORM) is a standard for learning content format. See unit 5. Short Messaging Service (SMS) provides electronic messages with 140 signs per message spread via mo- bile phones; SMS is also the name for the message itself. See unit 6. Social Networks are Websites building on the “friend of a friend” idea and fosters communication and sharing amongst (virtually) related person. See unit 2. Social Tagging is the usage of keywords to tag Web materials such as images, videos or bookmarks in a collaborative way. See unit 2. Video projector is a machine projecting a computer display on a canvas or wall. See unit 1. Weblog system is a Web tool to write and publish chronically ordered postings, with typically the latest message at frst. See unit 2. Wi-Fi is the term for wireless local area networks. See unit 6. Wireless local area networks (wlan) are sometime synonymous called Wi-Fi. See unit 6. Wiki system is a Web tool to organize information in a fast and cooperative way and allows easy editing and creation of Website with a simple mark-up language and editing option. See unit 2. 53/59
  54. 54. Self Assessment Test Test Please select all statements that are appropriate! 1. Which are prototypical statements of computer engineers when discussing e-learning technologies? If you talk to an engineer to fnd a technical solution for your e-Learning scenario, (s)he will probably ask you for a very well defned requirement analysis. Which of the following topics are relevant? Pedagogical ambitions and role of storytelling for teaching. Available tools for teachers and organizations Potential maximum of data transfer A special image that you would love to present in unit 3. Number of users, frequency of interaction Good teaching and motivation aspects. 2. What are former and current presentation tools for teaching? Video projector Tracing projector Interactive whiteboard Blackboard Blueboard Overhead projector Whitewall projector 3. Which statements are correct? With the line switching approach a complete line is reserved for a call. With the package switching approach no other can use a line between to stations. Within the package switching approach a link between two stations can be used for more than one communication. With the package switching approach communication is still possible, when a link is not available anymore. Voice over IP sometimes sound like trash talk. 4. What is “QWERTYUIOP”? This is the frst URL used within the World Wide Web. These are the letters of the second row on the keyboard. This is an encrypted signal within the html protocol. It is told that this was the text of the fst e-mail send via the ARPANET. This was the frst SMS send with a smart phone. 54/59
  55. 55. 5. What is correct html to set a hyperlink? <p>A correct html <http://giz.de> hyperlink </http>.</p> A correct html <a href=”http://www.giz.de”>hyperlink</a>. A correct html <hyperlink> hyperlink</hyperlink>. A correct html (hyperlink[http://www.giz.de]). A correct html <a href=”http://www.giz.de” target=”_blank”>hyperlink</a>. 6. Which of the following systems are information systems that can be used for learning? Wiki system General educational system Wooza server Learning content management system E-Portfolio system Social system Web based authoring tools Logistics system 7. Which are typical functionalities of learning management systems (LMS)? A LMS supports the administration of teachers, learners or courses and classes. A LMS uses an API to publish students’ personal data. A LMS organizes who has access to what. A LMS uses mash-up technologies to implement standards such as LOM or SCORM. A LMS manages and provides learning content. Typical roles within LMS are administrators, teachers (or tutors for one or more classes) and learners (students). A LMS ofers tools for communication and collaboration, for virtual blackboards and chats. 8. Which are technical requirements for a learning management system (LMS)? Quality: The LMS should be certifed with ISO 9000. Scalability: It should be scalable, that means it should be able to manage also higher numbers of users (up to a defned maximum). Connectivity: In general a connection to a database is needed. Multiple-Stage: Several levels of course difculty should be addressed. Standardization: It should support several standards, also meta data standards for learn- ing content (IMS or SCORM). Security: A strategy for data security is needed. Circuitousness: It should have enough room for every learner. 9. Why are standards important for e-Learning development? To ensure a certain level of quality. 55/59
  56. 56. To make e-Learning content searchable and interchangeable. To make learning objects work on diferent information systems. To fulfll licensing requirements. To support non-commercial international standardization organizations. 10. What is important when selecting an author tool? I should select an author tool that supports the kind of formats and content I want to develop. I should select an author tool that I already have in a similar version. I should select an author tool that fts to my personal preferences of design. I should select an author tool that rises above my personal fnancial limit. I should select an author tool that is able to export/import to the LMS. 11. What are special functionalities of smart phones and tablet computers, compared with laptops or computers? A smart phone knows the birthday of your grandma. Smart phone identifes its owner by QR code decoding. Smart phones have a motion sensor that can be addressed. When a mobile phone is online, it is able to tell you its location. Smart phones have a good microphone and a further extra a camera on board (some- times even two). Besides the camera, image detection is possible. You can check your e-mail with a smart phone. 56/59
  57. 57. Solution Correct answers are highlighted with green. 1. Which are prototypical statements of computer engineers when discussing e-learning technologies? If you talk to an engineer to fnd a technical solution for your e-Learning scenario, (s)he will probably ask you for a very well defned requirement analysis. Which of the following topics are relevant? Pedagogical ambitions and role of storytelling for teaching. Available tools for teachers and organizations Potential maximum of data transfer A special image that you would love to present in unit 3. Number of users, frequency of interaction Good teaching and motivation aspects. 2. What are former and current presentation tools for teaching? Video projector Tracing projector Interactive whiteboard Blackboard Blueboard Overhead projector Whitewall projector 3. Which statements are correct? With the line switching approach a complete line is reserved for a call. With the package switching approach no other can use a line between to stations. Within the package switching approach a link between two stations can be used for more than one communication. With the package switching approach communication is still possible, when a link is not available anymore. Voice over IP sometimes sound like trash talk. 4. What is “QWERTYUIOP”? This is the frst URL used within the World Wide Web. These are the letters of the second row on the keyboard. This is an encrypted signal within the html protocol. It is told that this was the text of the fst e-mail send via the ARPANET. This was the frst SMS send with a smart phone. 5. What is correct html to set a hyperlink? <p>A correct html <http://giz.de> hyperlink </http>.</p> 57/59
  58. 58. A correct html <a href=”http://www.giz.de”>hyperlink</a>. A correct html <hyperlink> hyperlink</hyperlink>. A correct html (hyperlink[http://www.giz.de]). A correct html <a href=”http://www.giz.de” target=”_blank”>hyperlink</a>. 6. Which of the following systems are information systems that can be used for learning? Wiki system General educational system Wooza server Learning content management system E-Portfolio system Social system Web based authoring tools Logistics system 7. Which are typical functionalities of learning management systems (LMS)? A LMS supports the administration of teachers, learners or courses and classes. A LMS uses an API to publish students’ personal data. A LMS organizes who has access to what. A LMS uses mash-up technologies to implement standards such as LOM or SCORM. A LMS manages and provides learning content. Typical roles within LMS are administrators, teachers (or tutors for one or more classes) and learners (students). A LMS ofers tools for communication and collaboration, for virtual blackboards and chats. 8. Which are technical requirements for a learning management system (LMS)? Quality: The LMS should be certifed with ISO 9000. Scalability: It should be scalable, that means it should be able to manage also higher numbers of users (up to a defned maximum). Connectivity: In general a connection to a database is needed. Multiple-Stage: Several levels of course difculty should be addressed. Standardization: It should support several standards, also meta data standards for learn- ing content (IMS or SCORM). Security: A strategy for data security is needed. Circuitousness: It should have enough room for every learner. 9. Why are standards important for e-Learning development? To ensure a certain level of quality. To make e-Learning content searchable and interchangeable. To make learning objects work on diferent information systems. To fulfll licensing requirements. 58/59
  59. 59. To support non-commercial international standardization organizations. 10. What is important when selecting an author tool? I should select an author tool that supports the kind of formats and content I want to develop. I should select an author tool that I already have in a similar version. I should select an author tool that fts to my personal preferences of design. I should select an author tool that rises above my personal fnancial limit. I should select an author tool that is able to export/import to the LMS. 11. What are special functionalities of smart phones and tablet computers, compared with laptops or computers? A smart phone knows the birthday of your grandma. Smart phone identifes its owner by QR code decoding. Smart phones have a motion sensor that can be addressed. When a mobile phone is online, it is able to tell you its location. Smart phones have a good microphone and a further extra a camera on board (some- times even two). Besides the camera, image detection is possible. You can check your e-mail with a smart phone. 59/59

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