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Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling

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Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling

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The presentation “Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling” was held by our colleague Ran Liu on the International Conference on Consumer Electronics on 8. September 2011, which focused on rare earths relevance for consumer applications.

The presentation “Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling” was held by our colleague Ran Liu on the International Conference on Consumer Electronics on 8. September 2011, which focused on rare earths relevance for consumer applications.

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Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling

  1. 1. Application of rare earths in consumer electronics and challenges for recycling ICCE 2011, 08.09.2011 Ran Liu Matthias Buchert Stefanie Dittrich Andreas Manhart Cornelia Merz Doris Schüler
  2. 2. Contents  Rare earth elements  Global production and reserves  Environmental aspects of rare earth during mining and processing  Rare earths used in consumer electronics  Developing a recycling scheme  Conclusions 2
  3. 3. Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Heavy REE Light REE LREE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), and scandium (Sc) HREE: yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), 3 erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu)
  4. 4. Global production and reserves  Global production in 2010: 133 600 t  Reserves according to USGS: 110 000 000 t (factor 823) (reserve which can be economically extracted) World Mine production in 2010 Rare earth reserves by countries (USGS 2011) (USGS 2011). REO: rare earth oxide other countries United States 22 Mio t REO 13 Mio t REO Australia Country t REO Share 19% 11% 2 Mio t REO 1% China 130 000 97,3% India 3 Mio t REO Brazil 550 0,4% 3% India 2 700 2,0% Malaysia 350 0,3% World Total* 133 600 100,0% CIS 19 Mio t REO China 17% 55 Mio t REO 4 * without 20 000 t REO illegal mining 48%
  5. 5. Global demand and development of the demand 2008 Phosphors, Luminescence 9 000 t Others Glass, Polishing, Ceramics  7%  5% 33 000 – 42 000 t Metal alloys /  30% batteries 17 – 23 000 t  18% Catalysts Magnets 20 000 – 25 000 t 21 000 – 27 000 t 20%  20% Unit: t REO per year Source: Compiled by Oeko-Institut from the sources Jefferies 2010, Oakdene Hollins 2010, 5 Kingsnorth 2010, GWMG 2010, BGR 2009 and Lynas 2010
  6. 6. Rare earths used in consumer electronics Products Rare earth/Components Amount Unit Variable-frequency air 100-200 g/unit conditioning NdFeB 250 g/unit DVD Player/DVD ROM/Driver NdFeB 5 g/unit 500 g/unit E-Bike NdFeB 300 g/unit 15 g/unit Hard disc drives (HDD) NdFeB 22 g/unit Magnet 153 g/unit Loudspeaker NdFeB 50 g/unit Mobil phone Permanent magnet 5 g/unit Mobil phone light phosphors 0.006 g/unit Laptop light phosphors 0.05-0.6 g/unit LCD TV light phosphors 4.5-6 g/unit Plasma TV light phosphors 100-125 g/unit LCD Display light phosphors 1.5-2.5 g/unit Lanthanum 0.35 g/unit Cerium 0.46 g/unit Europium 0.20 g/unit fluorescent lamp (market Terbium 0.19 g/unit average) Yttrium 2.87 g/unit Example: NdFeB: 15g/unit 9765t NdFeB≈3039t REO 6 HDD shipment in 2010: 651 million  13% of global demand of rare earth for magnets
  7. 7. Global magnet production 97 % i n China RE Mining & Concentration 97 % in Chi na Separation of Ores into Oxides a lmost 100% Refining of Oxides to Metals In China 7 5 - 80% in Chi na Forming Metals into Magnet Alloy Powders 2 0 - 25% in Japan 7 5 - 80% in Chi na 1 7 - 25% in Japan NdFeB Magnet Man ufacturing 3 - 5% in Europe 7
  8. 8. Energy efficient lighting  Most new energy efficient lighting systems contain rare earths (compact fluorescent lamps, LED, plasma displays, LCD displays)  High growth rates due to the ban on classic incandescent bulbs, dissemination of LEDs and shift to plasma and LCD displays  Substitutions are rare.  R & D required for alternative phosphors with high efficiency and high light quality 8
  9. 9. Price ($/kg) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 June 2010 Aug 2010 Cerium Oxide Nov 2010 Dec 2010 Lanthanum Oxide Neodymium Oxide Jan 2011 Feb 2011 March 2011 Nd Apr 2011 Light rare earth elements May 2011 Ce La 14th June 2011 Development of prices Price ($/kg) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Terbium Oxide Europium Oxide June 2010 Dysprosium Oxide Aug 2010 Nov 2010 Dec 2010 Jan 2011 Feb 2011 March 2011 Tb Apr 2011 Heavy rare earth elements 9 May 2011 Eu Dy 14th June 2011
  10. 10. Risks of REE mining without Environmental Protection Systems Tailings: Waste rock (impoundment storage areas or stockpiles) Mining Further Milling Floatation processing (< 1-10% REO) (~60% REO) Ores with low concentrate concentration 10
  11. 11. Advantages of recycling Secondary REE potential in Europe. Lower dependency on foreign material supply. Build-up of know-how on rare earth processing. No radioactive waste in processing. Environmental benefits regarding air emissions. groundwater protection, acidification, eutrophication and climate protection. 11
  12. 12. Developing a recycling scheme European Material Flow Analysis Identification of stakeholders Identification of initial products to be recycled European Development of Pre-treatment & Collection Schemes Competence Basic Network on research Rare Earth Promotion Installation of Pilot Plants for Recycling / R&D of re-use Financial support Improvement of legal framework in EU Implementation of large scale collection and recycling for initial products 12
  13. 13. Promotion of sustainable mining Green technologies call for “green metals”  There are manifold initiatives for sustainable mining.  Among them are certification schemes addressing different problems:  Environmental, small-scale mining, safety issues, human rights.  Increasing interest in politics and industry on certified minerals  Today’s mining companies could be interested in certification schemes or similar co-operations in order to highlight their environmental efforts.  The Analytical Fingerprint is a control instrument if other control mechanism fail. 13
  14. 14. Conclusions  Identification of REE with high relevance: Dysprosium; Terbium; Yttrium; Lanthanum; Neodymium; Europium; Praseodymium  potential shortages in the short-term  important role in Green Technologies  Rare Earth Mining and Processing shows high environmental risks  sustainable mining initiatives like certification schemes should be integrated into an environmentally sound strategy.  R & D needed for all applications concerning  avoidance / substitution  higher material efficiency  recycling 14
  15. 15. Thank you for your attention! The work which led to the results presented here was financed by: the Greens/European Free Alliance in the European Parliament. More detailed information can be found on the following websites: www.oeko.de www.resourcefever.org 15

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