Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Facing the water, nutrient cycling andFacing the water, nutri...
German IWRM Research Programme and our Role
IWRMIWRM ShandongShandong
• How can a science-
based Integrated Water
Resource...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Selenge river basin (459,000 km2)
as International River Basi...
1. The Kharaa Catchment: A Mongolian Model Region
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Case study Kharaa river
Land use
2. Monitoring Trends in Climate, Land Use and Hydrology
Spatial variability of simulated discharge,
importance of Kharaa headwaters
Kharaa I
Bayan Gol
Bayan Gol I
Boroo
Gol
Tunkh...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
AssessmentAssessment ofof recentrecent waterwater flowsflows
...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
ЗамЗам нэгнэг бүрийнбүрийн хувьхувь нэмэрнэмэр
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Loads and
Concentrations
Ground-
water
Tiledrainage
Surfaceru...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
KhentiiKhentii Mts.Mts.
DARKHANDARKHAN
UUrbanrban SourcesSour...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
55 %55 %
15 %15 %
22 %22 %
8 %8 %
TotalTotal EmissionsEmissio...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Pressure on Water Quality
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
TNTN loadsloads [t yr[t yr--11] in Kharaa] in Kharaa riverriv...
SANITATION
model region – City of Darkhan– wastewater treatment plant (wwtp)
Algae in april !
effluent WWTP
measure: imple...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
WhatWhat isis aa nutrientnutrient balancebalance??
INPUTINPUT...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Output (Гарах)
Harvest
withdrawal
Input (Орох)
1) Atmospheric...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
NitrogenNitrogen balancebalance
NitrogenNitrogen balancebalan...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Nitrogen Imbalances (kg ha-1yr-1)
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
2...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
How to adjust the nutrient balance ?How to adjust the nutrien...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Scope and Background
Nutrient supply security
Food supply sec...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Sown area, total grain yields and area weighted yields [dt ha...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Total demanded Nutrients 2013
(N, P, K) [t]
TOTAL 11700 t yrT...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
HowHow muchmuch NN isis excretedexcreted byby inhabitantsinha...
Modular Urban Water Management
Concept for Darkhan city
AquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquaculture ++++++++ HydroponicsHydroponicsHy...
SmallSmallSmallSmall scalescalescalescale:::: aquacultureaquacultureaquacultureaquaculture
TargetTargetTargetTargetTargetT...
mech.
Filter
Biofilter
Sediment-
discharge
nutrient-
container
Add. fertilizer
Fresh water
Einwege-
Ventil
Note:Note:
Wate...
Biofilter
NH4/NH3, Phosphor
CO2
Wasserdampf
Wasser
Speisefische
Tomaten
Biogasanlage
Schlamm, Abfälle
Strom, Wärme
Photovo...
Results of Aquaponics
Daily water demand:
3,32 % of pilot plant volume (Fish circle
+ Hydroponics) 220 L Water for product...
Water consumption
[ Water L/kg Meat ]
200 –
1000 L
3900 L
4800 L
15500 L
KLA vs ASTAFASTAF--PRO:PRO: + 1,6 kg
Tomaten
Emissions of greenhouse gas
[ Emission of CO2 in kg/kg Meat ]
(Dänisches Ministerium für Ernährung,
Landwirtschaft und Fis...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Descriptor: Distance to Target
Target: to keep ressource uses...
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater
Ecology
and Inland Fisheries
Nexus Challenges
WATER
Target: to keep ressource uses to ecol...
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Aktive Mitwirkung in dem Projekt Integriertes Wasserressourcenmanagement in Zentralasienь Dr. Jürgen Hoffman

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Vortrag Dr. Jürgen Hoffman Leibnitz – Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei , Berlin

Aktive Mitwirkung in dem Projekt Integriertes Wasserressourcenmanagement in Zentralasien , Modelregion Mongolei (MoMo)

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Aktive Mitwirkung in dem Projekt Integriertes Wasserressourcenmanagement in Zentralasienь Dr. Jürgen Hoffman

  1. 1. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Facing the water, nutrient cycling andFacing the water, nutrient cycling and food security challenge in Kharaa Riverfood security challenge in Kharaa River Basin MongoliaBasin Mongolia PD Dr.PD Dr. JJüürgenrgen HofmannHofmann IGB (Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and InlandIGB (Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries) BerlinFisheries) Berlin IWRM Summer SchoolIWRM Summer School 18.09.201418.09.2014 EE--mailmail:: j.hofmann@igbj.hofmann@igb--berlin.deberlin.de
  2. 2. German IWRM Research Programme and our Role IWRMIWRM ShandongShandong • How can a science- based Integrated Water Resources Management in Mongolia as a pilot region for Central Asia be developed ? • How can regional water planning and manage- ment react on Global Change in a coherent way? • What are effective regional adaptation strategies and how can these be implemented? IWRM congress 2013
  3. 3. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Selenge river basin (459,000 km2) as International River Basin Ulan Ude Ulaanbaatar Khaara River basin 14,500 km2 Lake Baikal
  4. 4. 1. The Kharaa Catchment: A Mongolian Model Region
  5. 5. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Case study Kharaa river Land use
  6. 6. 2. Monitoring Trends in Climate, Land Use and Hydrology
  7. 7. Spatial variability of simulated discharge, importance of Kharaa headwaters Kharaa I Bayan Gol Bayan Gol I Boroo Gol Tunkhelin Gol Kharaa II Sugnugr Gol Mandalin Gol Zagdalin Gol Kharaa III 0.83 0.97 0.69 0.58 0.88 0.90 1.02 1.34 2.18 2.45 specific runoff [l s-1 km-2] Identification of “water towers” Specific discharges are highest in the headwaters of the Kharaa, in the Khentii mountains (Menzel et al., 2011) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 1961-19901971-20002001-20302011-20402021-20502031-20602041-20702051-20802061-20902071-2100 WaterAvailability[mm] B1 CNCM3 B1 ECHAM5 B1 IPSL WFD_Monthly A2 CNCM3 A2 ECHAM5 A2 IPSL Water availability change
  8. 8. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries AssessmentAssessment ofof recentrecent waterwater flowsflows Page Source: Falkenmerk, M. & Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water for Humans and Nature: The New Approach in Ecohydrology. Earthscan, 247. ~ 330 mm ( 4800 mio/m³) ~ 8 %
  9. 9. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries ЗамЗам нэгнэг бүрийнбүрийн хувьхувь нэмэрнэмэр
  10. 10. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Loads and Concentrations Ground- water Tiledrainage Surfacerun-off Erosion Atmos. deposition Urban systems Inter- flow Point sourcesCoste-Effectiveness- Analysis Retention Emissions into surface waters External framework Catchment characteristics In-stream processs Pathways MONERIS www.moneris.igb-berlin.de
  11. 11. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries KhentiiKhentii Mts.Mts. DARKHANDARKHAN UUrbanrban SourcesSources AgAgriculturericulture NNaturalatural BBackgroundackground AAtmospherictmospheric DDepositioneposition
  12. 12. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries 55 %55 % 15 %15 % 22 %22 % 8 %8 % TotalTotal EmissionsEmissions = 301 t N yr= 301 t N yr--11 (= 100 %)(= 100 %) AtmoAtmo.. DepDep.. UrbanUrban sourcessources Nat.Nat. backgroundbackground AgricultureAgriculture 0,2 kg/(0,2 kg/(ha*yrha*yr))
  13. 13. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Pressure on Water Quality
  14. 14. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries TNTN loadsloads [t yr[t yr--11] in Kharaa] in Kharaa riverriver
  15. 15. SANITATION model region – City of Darkhan– wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) Algae in april ! effluent WWTP measure: implementation of a feasible wastewater treatment
  16. 16. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries WhatWhat isis aa nutrientnutrient balancebalance?? INPUTINPUT OUTPUTOUTPUT
  17. 17. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Output (Гарах) Harvest withdrawal Input (Орох) 1) Atmospheric Deposition 2) Mineral Fertilizer Manure 3) Biological N-Fixation (Legumes) Surplus = Input minus Output Balance Scheme - Өнгөн хөрсөн дэх Азот
  18. 18. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries NitrogenNitrogen balancebalance NitrogenNitrogen balancebalance has ahas a significantsignificant deficitdeficit ofof --2020 kg(hakg(ha//yryr)) ININ OUTOUT
  19. 19. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
  20. 20. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Nitrogen Imbalances (kg ha-1yr-1) -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 kgha -1 yr -1 Western Kenya Mongolia (Kharaa) Midwest U.S.A. EU 27 Germany Netherlands North China Agronomic NITROGEN inputs minus harvest removals N Vitousek et al. 2009: Nutrient Imblances in agricultural development. - Science Vol 324: 1519 *) *) *) *) Surplus Deficit
  21. 21. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries How to adjust the nutrient balance ?How to adjust the nutrient balance ? ININ ININ OUTOUT OUTOUT NN--DeficitDeficit (Kharaa)(Kharaa) NN-- SurplusSurplus EUEU NN-- EquilibriumEquilibrium ININ OUTOUT
  22. 22. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Scope and Background Nutrient supply security Food supply security Water supply security Kharaa 2021 = Planning horizon of Aimags
  23. 23. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Sown area, total grain yields and area weighted yields [dt ha-1] of national wheat production in Mongolia from 1990 to 2012 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 20012002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Sownarea(1000ha)/TotalYield[kt] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 WeightedYield[dtha] Total Yield [Kilotonnes] Sown Area (1000 ha ) Yield [dt ha]
  24. 24. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Total demanded Nutrients 2013 (N, P, K) [t] TOTAL 11700 t yrTOTAL 11700 t yr--11 DemandedDemanded nutrientsnutrients forfor SEEDS 3260 t yrSEEDS 3260 t yr--11 FallowFallow 8440 t yr8440 t yr--11 RERE--USE 476 t yrUSE 476 t yr--11
  25. 25. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries HowHow muchmuch NN isis excretedexcreted byby inhabitantsinhabitants ?? InhabitantsInhabitants ofof KharaaKharaa riverriver basinbasin withoutwithout DarkhanDarkhan InhabitantsInhabitants ofof DarkhanDarkhan withwith connectionconnection to WWTPto WWTP InhabitantsInhabitants ofof DarkhanDarkhan withoutwithout connectionconnection to WWTPto WWTP TOTAL 476 t N yrTOTAL 476 t N yr--11
  26. 26. Modular Urban Water Management Concept for Darkhan city
  27. 27. AquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquaculture ++++++++ HydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponicsHydroponics ======== AquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponicsAquaponics ++++ ProductionProductionProductionProduction vonvonvonvon TilapiaTilapiaTilapiaTilapia withoutwithoutwithoutwithout fertilizerfertilizerfertilizerfertilizer + (+ (+ (+ (nearlynearlynearlynearly)))) freefreefreefree ofofofof emissionsemissionsemissionsemissions ++++ ReReReRe----useuseuseuse ofofofof waterwaterwaterwater http://www.igb-berlin.de/astafpro-862.html AQUAPONICSAQUAPONICSAQUAPONICSAQUAPONICS ++++
  28. 28. SmallSmallSmallSmall scalescalescalescale:::: aquacultureaquacultureaquacultureaquaculture TargetTargetTargetTargetTargetTargetTargetTarget:::::::: DevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopment ofofofof sustainablesustainablesustainablesustainable ecoecoecoeco----technologytechnologytechnologytechnology totototo combinecombinecombinecombine aquacultureaquacultureaquacultureaquaculture andandandand productionproductionproductionproduction ofofofof vegetablesvegetablesvegetablesvegetables;;;; minimizingminimizingminimizingminimizing emissionsemissionsemissionsemissions andandandand waterwaterwaterwater consumptionconsumptionconsumptionconsumption.... AquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquacultureAquaculture ((((((((FishFishFishFishFishFishFishFish) +) +) +) +) +) +) +) + HydroponikHydroponikHydroponikHydroponikHydroponikHydroponikHydroponikHydroponik ((((((((VegetableVegetableVegetableVegetableVegetableVegetableVegetableVegetable) =) =) =) =) =) =) =) = AquaponikAquaponikAquaponikAquaponikAquaponikAquaponikAquaponikAquaponik ProductionProductionProductionProduction ofofofof TilapiaTilapiaTilapiaTilapia ((((OreochromisOreochromisOreochromisOreochromis niloticusniloticusniloticusniloticus) +) +) +) + TomatoesTomatoesTomatoesTomatoes
  29. 29. mech. Filter Biofilter Sediment- discharge nutrient- container Add. fertilizer Fresh water Einwege- Ventil Note:Note: Water consumption ca. 25% of volume/day ! “Separation“ of Aquaculture and Hydroponics Fish Fish Fish Plants AquacultureAquaculture HydroponicsHydroponics NEW:NEW: Combined production of tomatoes and fish (Aquaponics) in greenhouses without emissions Plants Pfants Plants Pfants Pfants
  30. 30. Biofilter NH4/NH3, Phosphor CO2 Wasserdampf Wasser Speisefische Tomaten Biogasanlage Schlamm, Abfälle Strom, Wärme Photovoltaikanlage Sonne Fischfutter Kühlfalle Frischwasser (< 3 %/d) „„GrGrüünene““ ÖÖkoko--TilapieTilapie!! RecondensationRecondensation ofof transpirationtranspiration waterwater (Patent)!(Patent)! Water consumption only ca. 3% instead of 25% of total volume per day ! AQUAPONICS Consumption of N, P and CO2 by plants!
  31. 31. Results of Aquaponics Daily water demand: 3,32 % of pilot plant volume (Fish circle + Hydroponics) 220 L Water for production of 1 kg Fish and 1,6 kg Tomatoes Total production (9 Months): 600 kg fish and 1000 kg Tomatoes Patent PCT/EP2008/064546 Kloas W, Rennert B, van Ballegooy C, Drews M. (2008): Aquaponikanlage zur Gemüse- und Fischproduktion.
  32. 32. Water consumption [ Water L/kg Meat ] 200 – 1000 L 3900 L 4800 L 15500 L KLA vs ASTAFASTAF--PRO:PRO: + 1,6 kg Tomaten
  33. 33. Emissions of greenhouse gas [ Emission of CO2 in kg/kg Meat ] (Dänisches Ministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Fischerei) 1,8 3,1 3,6 19,4 Carbon Footprint: CO2- Äquivalente von der Produktion bis hin zum Supermarkt! KLA vs ASTAFASTAF--PRO:PRO: ~ 0,2 + 1,6 kg Tomaten
  34. 34. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Descriptor: Distance to Target Target: to keep ressource uses to ecologically sustainable and economically reasonable levels endangered critical good Achievement of target is good critical endangered Distance to target
  35. 35. Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries Nexus Challenges WATER Target: to keep ressource uses to ecologically sustainable and economically reasonable levels Quality Quantity Water Prices Consumption 265 L/cap/d 10 L/cap/d FOOD SECURITY Crop yields Wheat & potatoes Crop yields vegetable Soil fertility SANITATION Conventional sanitation (urban) Sanitation peri- urban Nutrient cycling ECONOMY Marketing Petrol & Finance defiency Crop insurance Seed quality Cropland possession

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