2. MINERAL WEALTH AND MINING
– Mineral assets play a direct role in the growth
and prosperity and hence substantial
investments is essential for exploration of
these assets through different agencies
having the requisite skills
– India having 2.4% of the global area, sustains
17.5% (Census-2011) of the world
– Our per capita consumption of minerals and
its products is one of the lowest in the world.
3. • India has vast mineral potential but
insufficient exploration technology.
• The demand for various metals and minerals
will grow 4-5 times over the next 15 years (9-
11% growth per annum).
• The aspiration of the mining sector in the GDP
is to increase from the current contribution of
2.3% to around 7-8% over the next 20 years.
• The mining sector needs to play a major role
if India has to realize the potential growth of
9% per annum in the coming years.
4. Key Objectives Under the Twelfth
• The mining sector is strategically very
important for India. The key goals that need
to be met for this space are:
• Raw material security: for all the user
• Enhanced co-production of by-product metals
for technology metals and energy critical
• Ensuring sustainability of the environment
5. Key Recommendations
A. Strengthening of Institutions
• Equip and position public agencies like the Mineral
Exploration Corporation Limited, Directorates of
States and other organisations to conduct detailed
exploration at the State’s expense to enable the State
Government to adopt a bidding route for exploration
to a larger extent.
• Position GSI to emphasise on geospatial and multi-
disciplinary work for the benefit of science, society
and the nation.
• An overarching mechanism to provide policy direction
for geosciences is a must.
6. B. Encouraging R&D and Technology
• Engage IBM to drive process of giving
special focus in select areas of mining.
• Strengthen the Mineral Process
Laboratories of IBM and other research
organisations must before the
development of processes for
beneficiation, elemental analysis of ores.
• Inspire concessionaires to undertake
deposit-specific process R&D.
7. C. Institutional Mechanism
• Develop an institutional mechanism for the
direct lab scale research to commercialisation
for the production of materials of high purity,
• Reorient focus of organisations like Non-
Ferrous Technology Development Centre,
Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research
• Development and Design Centre on process
R&D for Technology and Energy Critical
8. • Creation of Infrastructure
• Skill Development
• Ensuring Full and Productive Coverage
of Survey and Exploration
• A Database of Mineral Resources Needs
to be Developed
• Ensuring Availability of Financial
• Policy Changes in Line with the Overall
9. Ensuring Environmental Sustainability of Mining
• Promote a scientific and efficient process of small scale mining of
• Regulations related to safeguarding the ecology must be ensured
and their compliance strengthened.
• A cluster approach must be adopted with a single lease model for
multiple small deposits within a defined area
• Undertake all mining undertaken within the parameters of a
comprehensive Sustainable Development Framework
• Under such a framework, no mining lease should be granted
without a proper mining plan including an approved environment
• management plan.
• For this purpose, the IBM must acquire the expertise to approve
Environment Management Plans and conduct
• Environmental Impact Assessments. Thus, the IBM should be able
to position itself as the internal environmental regulator as well as
the official mining regulator for the sector.
10. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA
Baseline Geoscience Data Generation
A. GROUND SURVEYS
Systematic Geological Mapping (GM)
Specialized Thematic Mapping (STM)
Geochemical Mapping (GCM)
Geophysical Mapping (GPM)
B. REMOTE SENSING AND AERIAL SURVEYS
Airborne Mineral Survey
Photogeology and Remote Sensing
C. MARINE AND COASTAL SURVEY
11. Strategy (XIIth Plan)
Adaptation of the state-of-the-art technology to
explore deep seated / concealed deposits.
Intensive search for new mineral findings based on
baseline data generated by GSI and other agencies.
Complete NGCM and National Aeromagnetics and
HSM of OGP by end of XII Plan and rest of the country
by end of XIII Plan.
Intensive search on priority basis for minerals in
which the country is deficient or scarce.
The strategy requires application of different
advance techniques for regional and detailed
12. Strategy for XII Plan
1. Thrust for quality data generation by infusing technology
Field laptop or table PC, GPS, GSI portal accessibility, digital toposheets
with facility for data capture using wireless network mobile mapping van
with portable generator.
GPM High precision gravimeter and total field magnetometer.
Geomorphological mapping- acquiring new generation satellite data
preparation of DEM for lineament detection.
Hyperspectral survey- procurement of softwares, space and airborne
hyperion data with spectral range- seek help from USGS and Australian
source through World bank.
Acquisition of advance filtering image processing technics for
enhansment of magnetic and radiometric data collected in high accuracy
sensors from aeromag survey.
2. Integrated thematic mapping is proposed.
Surface mapping with multi disciplinary inputs.
Undertaking GPM over the NGCM covered areas obtaining complimentary
gravity and magnetic data.
Digital overlay of multidisciplinary data for 3D modeling to locate
concealed/ deep seated ore bodies.
13. Thrust Areas (XII Plan)
GSI to complete geophysical and geochemical mapping expeditiously
The Geomorphological and Lineament Mapping (GMM) on 1:50,000
Complete National Geochemical mapping (NGCM) of the Obvious
Geological Potential (OGP) areas by end of 12th Plan and rest of
country of 13th Plan.
Hyper Spectral Mapping (HSM) in OGP areas on 1:50,000 scale by
end of 12th Plan.
National Aeromagnetic Surveys by the GSI in comprehensive and
systematic manner for OGP by end of 12th Plan and rest of the
country (including off-shore) by end of 13th Plan.
Exploration for deep-seated mineral deposits through modern
14. Thrust Areas (XII Plan)
Prepare and implement project to enable 1:50 K geological,
geophysical, and geochemical maps to be made available thru
internet in GIS platform in line with international practice.
Special attention for exploration for strategic, scarce and deficit
minerals to reduce imports.
Create National Geophysical Data Repository and National Core
Repository, to assist entrepreneurs to take-up exploration.
GSI to procure another Ocean Going Research Vessel (OGRV); Geo-
technical Vessel (GTV) and Coastal Launches for offshore and coastal
Create and enhance capacity offshore / Coastal geoscience including
Coastal geomorphology and beach sand / tidal deposit resources.
15. Systematic Geological Mapping (GM)
Major part of country is systematically
mapped on 1:50,000 scale.
It has brought out 5.71 lakh sq km of OGP
Priority during XII Plan is to undertake
2400 km2 in Manipur and Nagaland.
16. Specialized Thematic Mapping (STM)
Geological mapping on 1:25,000 scale on special themes to
resolve problems in establishing stratigraphy and tectonics,
to bring our crustal evolution, to understand metallogenesis,
to study geological processes and to prognosticate areas for
By the end of XI Plan an area of about 1,66,000 sq km has
been covered under this programme. A target of 80,000 km2
is planned for XII Plan covering the areas in OGP (almost all
mineral belts spread over cratons like Dharwar, Bastar,
Studies on Deccan trap, Biostratigraphic studies in Siwaliks,
lithostratigraphy in NER, Proterozoic granitoids study in
Sikkim, phases of granitic activity in Aravalli fold belt,
Mesozoic –Tertiary study in Jaisalmer and coastal dynamic
study in Kuchch.
Studies in Eastern Ghat Mobile belt, Pakhals and in Southern
17. Geochemical Mapping
It picks up anomalies and provides information of elemental
concentrations in the areas mapped.
It has significant application in the domains of mineral search
(concealed deposits), and societal relevance in agriculture, study of
environmental degradation and hazards, and human health aspects
(water pollution, mining waste pollution)
The GSI initiated programme in FSP 2001-02 targeting to cover
8.13 lakh sq.km encompassing OGP and contiguous areas and
completed about 3.15 lakh sq.km till January 2013. In XII plan it is
envisaged to cover 2.83 lakh sq.km in OGP areas.
18. Geophysical Mapping
GPM picks up gravity & magnetic signals of surface
and subsurface rock formations of the earth’s crust.
It has significant application in the delineation of
basement configuration, concealed structures and
lithological variations, through which concealed
mineral deposits can be targeted.
GSI initiated Geophysical Mapping, since FSP 2002-03.
Density of data is one station per 2.5 sq.km.
Till XI Plan 1.66 lakh km2 is covered and during XII
Plan 2.23 lakh sq.km is targeted in OGP area.
19. National Aeromagnetic mapping programme
• It is taken up for aeromagnetic (Total field) survey on uniform scale at
national level as joint endeavour with AMD, NGRI, ONGC, DGH and Oil
• Aim to produce seamless aeromagnetic map.
• 10 fixed wing planes are to be deployed by outsourcing.
• It is targeted to cover 22,70,000 sq.km in XII plan.
• Remote sensing technique using airborne hyperspectral is used as a tool
for mineral exploration by locating hydrothermal alteration zones.
• HT altered rocks with secondary minerals have signatures in various
• Started in XI Plan the programme will continue in XII Plan also with
proposal to create a terrain wise spectral library for all OGP areas.
• It is proposed to equip centres with spectroradiometer, data processing
software and hyperspectral RS data.
Geomorphological and lineament mapping
• National mission was initiated on 1:50,000 scale in XI plan collaboration
with DoS by outsourcing through 32 partners institutes under the control
of NRSC. 600 sheets are completed by quality checking.
• In XII Plan 4,400 toposheets will be quality checked (Pre and post field).
20. Marine & Coastal Survey Division :
Deep Sea Sector: EEZ and beyond
With the advent of state of art new vessel - close grid seabed
mapping is programmed with multibeam bathymetry, multi-channel
seismic, magnetic, gravity, side scan, deep core sampling, dredge, heat
probe etc. within EEZ.
The multibeam swath bathymetric survey within the EEZ to be
undertaken jointly by GSI and MoES under an MoU.
Search for sulphide mineralization in the Andaman Sea within EEZ
and in the Indian Ocean.
Search for phosphate rich sediments, lime mud, ferromanganese
encrustations, etc within EEZ.
Geochemical scan for thermogenic hydrocarbons, high resolution
survey for gas hydrate occurrences within EEZ.
Selection of favourable sites for OTEC and fresh water generation
from sea water.
Survey for cobalt rich encrustations and polymetallic nodules in
selected sectors near spreading centres of Indian Ocean.
21. Shallow Water Sector: Continental shelf
Seabed mapping of the remaining area of Territorial Waters.
Multibeam swath bathymetric survey of TW and outer continental shelf
to be undertaken jointly by GSI and MoES under a MoU.
Resource evaluation of offshore relict silica sand
Search/ assessment of placer mineral resources in the inner shelf
region and preparation of 3-D models of placer deposits
Generation of Site specific geotechnical data of seabed and sub-seabed
for developmental activities like ports, harbours etc.
Geotechnical survey for oil field development, drilling platforms, laying
of pipelines and cables etc.
Studies of near shore areas for understanding coastal processes and the
Studies of seabed morphology; study for Archaeological finding.
Placer Mineral resource evaluation in the beach sand and sand dunes.
Coastal erosion studies – identify and demarcate areas.
Environmental impact studies of coastal areas.
Morphology and evolution of sand bars / spits, coastal lagoons.
22. OFFSHORE CAPABILITIES
1. R.V. Samudra Manthan (Deep Sea)
2. R.V. Samudra Kaustubh (Coastal)
3. R.V. Samudra Shaudhikama (Coastal)
New Ocean Going Vessel (Under Construction)
1. Samudra Ratnakar
1. Geotechnical Drilling Vessel
2. Coastal launches
23. SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK IN DEEP WATER
• Comprehensive topographic mapping of EEZ as part of
• Mapping of remaining part of the seabed within EEZ of
India and multi channel seismic surveys along with deep
sampling within the EEZ for the preparation of seabed
map within EEZ of India on 1:500,000 scale
• Mapping of additional EEZ area of about 1.07 million sq.
km. under Legal Continental shelf
• Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, search
for sulphide mineralisation and other types of studies on
tectonic set-up of Andaman Sea.
24. • High resolution surveys for phosphate rich
sediments, lime mud deposits, ferromanganese
encrustations, ocean environment in potential
• Strategic studies of seabed morphology; geochemical
scan for thermogenic hydrocarbons, high resolution
survey in potential areas of gas hydrates
accumulation; surveys for selection of sites for Ocean
Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system
• Search for cobalt rich encrustation; polymetallic
nodules in selected sectors of Indian Ocean.
25. Airborne Geophysical Surveys
Acquisition of airborne geophysical data
Processing of airborne data
Interpretation of airborne geophysical data
Photo Geology and Remote Sensing
Procurement and interpretation of satellite data
Interpretation of remote sensing and geological data
Preparation of different Thematic Maps on 1:50,000 scale
Integration of Remote Sensing, Geological & airborne geophysical data.
Identification of Target blocks for detailed ground evaluation by Regions
Building up of a spectral library of various rocks/minerals from known
mineralised zones and integrate with similar other datasets to build up a
massive and comprehensive spectral library of native rocks/minerals.
National Geomorphological & Lineament Mapping
Evaluating the quality of the final maps prepared by various work centres under