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Fortified food, Enriched Food

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Fortified food, Enriched Food

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Fortified Food
Introduction
enriched food
Who will benefit from fortified foods
Purpose of food fortification
Iodine deficiency disorders
Fortification of flour
Main methods of food fortification
Fortification prevents and treats iron deficiency and nutritional anaemia
Criticism (Side Effect)
Future Challenges of Food Fortification

Fortified Food
Introduction
enriched food
Who will benefit from fortified foods
Purpose of food fortification
Iodine deficiency disorders
Fortification of flour
Main methods of food fortification
Fortification prevents and treats iron deficiency and nutritional anaemia
Criticism (Side Effect)
Future Challenges of Food Fortification

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Fortified food, Enriched Food

  1. 1. Fortified foods Prepared By: MOHAMMAD KHALID (Assistant Professor) Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor (UP)
  2. 2. Content Introduction enriched food Who will benefit from fortified foods Purpose of food fortification Iodine deficiency disorders Fortification of flour Main methods of food fortification Fortification prevents and treats iron deficiency and nutritional anaemia Criticism (Side Effect) Future Challenges of Food Fortification 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 2
  3. 3. introduction Fortified foods are those that have nutrients added to them that don’t naturally occur in the food. These foods are meant to improve nutrition and add health benefits. For example, milk is often fortified with vitamin D, and calcium may be added to fruit juices. Fortified food has been defined as the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the population or specific population groups (FAO/WHO 1994). 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 3
  4. 4. enriched food An enriched food means that nutrients that were lost during processing are added back in. Many refined grains are enriched. Wheat flour, for example, may have folic acid, riboflavin, and iron added back in after processing. This is intended to restore its original vitamin levels. Enrichment is defined as "synonymous with fortification and refers to the addition of micronutrients to a food which are lost during processing" 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 4
  5. 5. The Big Five…….. Iodine deficiency is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of acquired blindness in children and impairs immune function. Severe zinc deficiency causes short stature, impairs immune function and other disorders Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutrient deficiencies in the world; it affects an estimated two billion people, and causes almost a million deaths a year. Folic acid prevents birth defects of the brain and spine, such as spina bifida. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 5
  6. 6. Who will benefit from fortified foods Food fortification is an industrial process. The industry ensures provision of essential vitamins and minerals according to government standards and regulations. Fortified foods reach all those who have access to the market and purchase their staple food/ oil/ salt. This includes the urban poor, a fast growing group in many developing countries in Africa and Asia. Those who do not have access to fortified, packaged commercially processed foods need to receive essential vitamins and minerals through alternative mechanisms. This may include provision of multiple micronutrient powder sachets (“sprinkles”) or supplements, as well as social safety net approaches, which use fortified foods. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 6
  7. 7. Fortification of flour Fortification is define as “the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, ie. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health”, whereas enrichment is defined as "synonymous with fortification and refers to the addition of micronutrients to a food which are lost during processing". During the 1940s, Britain and the USA started enriching flour as a means to improve the health of their populations during World War II. While fortification of flour was never really embraced in Europe, countries all around the world started flour fortification in the late 20st and early 21st century. To date, more and more countries are adopting this measure. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 7
  8. 8. Continue… In Canada, the Food and Drug Regulations have outlined specific criterion which justifies food fortification:  To replace nutrients which were lost during manufacturing of the product (e.g. the manufacturing of flour)  To act as a public health intervention  To ensure the nutritional equivalence of substitute foods (e.g. to make butter and margarine similar in content, soy milk and cow's milk, etc.)  To ensure the appropriate vitamin and mineral nutrient composition of foods for special dietary purposes (e.g., gluten- free products, low sodium, or any other products specifically designed for special dietary requirements from an individual) 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 8
  9. 9. Main methods of food fortification Biofortification (i.e. breeding crops to increase their nutritional value, which includes both plant breeding and genetic engineering) Microbial biofortification and synthetic biology (i.e. addition of probiotic bacteria) Commercial and industrial fortification (i.e. flour, rice, oils) Home fortification (e.g. vitamin D drops) 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 9
  10. 10. Examples of fortified foods Milk with Vitamin D Salt with Iodine Fruit juice with Calcium Water or toothpaste with fluoride Flour with Folic Acid Bread with Niacin 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 10
  11. 11. Some other examples of fortified foods Calcium is frequently added to fruit juices, carbonated beverages and rice White rice is frequently enriched to replace lost nutrients during milling "Golden rice" is a variety of rice which has been genetically modified to produce beta carotene Amylase rich flour is utilized for food making to increase dietary consumption 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 11
  12. 12. Purpose of food fortification Improve nutritional quality of food Reduce nutritional disorders Fortification for body building Fortification for medical treatment 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 12
  13. 13. Iodine deficiency disorders Iodine deficiency is the world’s most prevalent, yet easily preventable, cause of brain damage. In certain regions of Switzerland, 0.5% of the inhabitants were cretins, almost 100% of schoolchildren had large goiters, and up to 30% of young men were unfit for military service owing to a large goiter Iodization of salt was introduced in Switzerland in 1922. The USA quickly followed. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 13
  14. 14. Fortification prevents and treats iron deficiency and nutritional anaemia In children: Iron deficiency impairs cognitive development in children This mental capacity is never regained and in turn limits academic performance and future earnings potential. Childhood anaemia globally is associated with a 2.5% drop in wages in adulthood. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 14
  15. 15. Fortification prevents and treats nutritional anemia In adults: Iron deficiency reduces productivity In 10 developing countries, annual physical productivity losses due to iron deficiency was up to 3% of GDP Anaemia contributes to maternal death In developing countries, one-fifth of perinatal mortality and one-tenth of maternal mortality are attributed to iron deficiency 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 15
  16. 16. Criticism (Side Effect) Several organizations such as the WHO, FAO, Health Canada, and Nestlé Research acknowledge that there are limitations to food fortification. Fortification of nutrients in foods may deliver excessive amounts of nutrients to some individuals, with consequent side effects. One example is fluoride, which can cause irreversible staining to the teeth. Another example is iron, as fortification intended to benefit women may result in too much iron consumption by men. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 16
  17. 17. Future Challenges of Food Fortification 1. Create community awareness about benefits of food fortification. 2. Private Sector, Governments & International Agencies need to make commitments for investing in food fortification. 3. Ensure increased availability of fortified foods to the vulnerable groups of populations. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 17
  18. 18. Continue….. 4. Governments & International Agencies should encourage fortification by way of tax concessions or duty rebates. 5. Regulatory authorities to recommend Uniform Food Fortification Guidelines to the group countries. 6. Develop Technologies that will produce the Futuristic food. 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 18
  19. 19. References: Prof. H.S.Shinde, “Food Fortification or Enrichment”, https://www.slideshare.net/harshrajshinde1/enrichment-and- fortification Park K. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 21st ed. Jabalpur(India): Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2011 Kishore J. National health programme of India, 10th edition, century publications. http://www.gainhealth.org/events/staple-food fortification- crucialfight-against-malnutrition- India https://www.slideshare.net/francoisstepman/large-scale- food-fortification https://www.slideshare.net/itsvaibhav/food-37492331 19 April 2020 Krishna Pharmacy College, Bijnor 19
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