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# Particulate nature of matter -diffusion & heating curves

Describe and explain diffusion
Describe and explain dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular mass
Describe qualitatively the pressure and temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its particles
Describe the heating and cooling curves

Describe and explain diffusion
Describe and explain dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular mass
Describe qualitatively the pressure and temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its particles
Describe the heating and cooling curves

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### Particulate nature of matter -diffusion & heating curves

1. 1. Presented by: Mrs. Saima
2. 2. Review (last lesson)  Describe the structure of solids, liquids and gases in terms of particle separation, arrangement and types of motion  State the distinguishing properties of solids, liquids and gases  • Describe and explain diffusion (1 core)  • Describe evidence for the movement of particles in gases and liquids (1 core)  Describe changes of state in terms of melting, boiling, evaporation, freezing, condensation and sublimation  Explain changes of state in terms of the kinetic theory
3. 3. terms of particle separation, arrangement and types of motion
4. 4. Describe and explain diffusion  Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.  Diffusion happens in liquids and gases because their particles move randomly from place to place.  What causes diffusion?  In gases and liquids, particles move randomly from place to place. The particles collide with each other or with their container. This makes them change direction. Eventually, the particles are spread through the whole container.  Diffusion happens on its own, without stirring, shaking or wafting.
5. 5. OBJECTIVES  Describe and explain diffusion  Describe and explain dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular mass  Describe qualitatively the pressure and temperature of a gas in terms of the motion of its particles  Describe the heating and cooling curves
6. 6. RATE OF DIFFUSION AND MOLECULAR MASS  THINK:  If you roll a heavy ball and lighter ball with same force, which will move faster  If there are two gases, one with lighter molecules and other with heavier particles/molecules; whose particles will be moving faster  Molecular mass of gas A is 17 and gas B is 36.5. which will diffuse out faster from a container with a pin hole.
7. 7. RATE OF DIFFUSION AND MOLECULAR MASS  Molecular mass of HCl is higher than that of NH3 hence it diffuses to a smaller distance whereas ammonia (NH3) which has lighter molecules
8. 8. Describe the heating and cooling curves  A heating or cooling curve is the graph of temperature and time when a substances is heated or cooled.  It involves state changes and helps determine the melting point and boiling point of a substance  When a substance changes state, the temperature of the substance stays same until all of it has changed to the other state. As a result there is a flat/horizontal section in the graph when there is a state change. -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
9. 9. Describe the heating and cooling curves TIME TEMPERATURE 0 -20 5 -10 10 0 15 0 20 20 25 40 30 60 35 80 40 100 45 100 50 110 55 115 60 125 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5 10 15 202530354045505560