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Bulk Method
Pedigree Method
&
Line Breeding
PRESENTED BY:
Pawan Nagar
Reg. no.: 04-2690-2015
M.Sc.(Fruit Science)
BULK METHOD
 The bulk method of breeding was first used by
Nilson – Ehle in 1908.
 This method is also known as “Mass Me...
 In the bulk method , F2 and subsequent
generations are harvested in mass or as bulks to raise
the next generation.
 At ...
ADVANTAGES
 Less record keeping than pedigree which saves
time & labour.
 Very simple, convenient & less expensive.
 Na...
DISADVANTAGES
1.Environmental changes from season to season so adaptive
advantages shift
2. It takes much longer time to d...
APPLICATIONS
 The bulk method is suitable for handling the
segregating generations of cereals, small millets,
grain legum...
PEDIGREE METHOD
 The method was first described by H. H. Lowe in
1927.
 Pedigree : “A description of the ancestors of an...
PEDIGREE RECORD
 In pedigree method, a detailed record of the
relationships between the selected plants and
their progeni...
PROCEDURES
 In pedigree method, individual plants are
selected from F2 and the subsequent
generations, and their progenie...
ADVANTAGES
1. Record keeping provides a catalog of genetic
information of the cultivar.
2. Selection is based not only on ...
DISADVANTAGES
1. Record keeping is slow, tedious, time-
consuming, and expensive.
2. The method is not suitable for specie...
APPLICATIONS
 For the improvement of self pollinated species
for the development of new pure line varieties.
 This metho...
ACHIEVEMENTS
Crop Examples
Rice Krishna,Sarbarmati,Ratna,Padma,Jaya,Bala,Kaveri
Wheat HD 2281, HD2285,HD2380, ND 2402 , Ja...
Pedigree Method Bulk Method
1 Most widely used Breeding
method
Used only to a limited extent
2 Individual plants are selec...
LINE BREEDING
 Three types of line Breeding Approaches in
Line Breeding
1. One Line Approach
2. Two Line Approach
3. Thre...
ONE LINE BREEDING - APOMIXIS
 Apomictic lines are those lines which are developed
without means of sexual reproduction an...
APOMIXIS
 Haploid parthenogenesis give rise to haploid plants
which upon colichine treatment will produce diploid
pure li...
TWO LINE BREEDING
Two line
Approach
Cytoplasmic
Male
Sterility
Genetic
Male
Sterility
GENETIC MALE STERILITY
 The male sterile line (ms ms ) is allowed to be
cross pollinated with a male fertile (Ms Ms )
tha...
THIS PROBLEM IS OVERCOME BY PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVE OR
TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE GENETIC MALE STERILITY . HOW IT IS
WORKS IS SHO...
CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY
 This type of male sterility is determined by the cytoplasm.
 Since the cytoplasm of a zygote...
 Cytoplasmic male sterility may be utilized for
producing hybrid seed in certain ornamental
species, or in species where ...
THREE LINE BREEDING -- CGMS
 This is a case of cytoplasmic male sterility where a
nuclear gene for restoring fertility in...
Maintenance of Male Sterile Line or A line:
Since A line does not produce pollen, seed is not formed for
maintaining A lin...
LIMITATIONS IN USING MALE STERILE
SYSTEMS:
1. Existence and maintenance of A, B & R Lines is
laborious and difficult
2. If...
Bulk   method pedigree  method &line breeding
Bulk   method pedigree  method &line breeding
Bulk   method pedigree  method &line breeding
Bulk   method pedigree  method &line breeding
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Bulk method pedigree method &line breeding

Bulk method pedigree method &line breeding

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Bulk method pedigree method &line breeding

  1. 1. Bulk Method Pedigree Method & Line Breeding PRESENTED BY: Pawan Nagar Reg. no.: 04-2690-2015 M.Sc.(Fruit Science)
  2. 2. BULK METHOD  The bulk method of breeding was first used by Nilson – Ehle in 1908.  This method is also known as “Mass Method” or the “The Population Method”.  Bulk population breeding is a strategy of crop improvement in which the natural selection effect is solicited more directly in the early generations of the procedure by delaying stringent artificial selection until later generations.
  3. 3.  In the bulk method , F2 and subsequent generations are harvested in mass or as bulks to raise the next generation.  At the end of bulking period , individual plants are selected and evaluated in a similar manner as in pedigree method.  The duration of bulking may vary from 6-7 to 30 or more generations.  During bulking period, artificial selection may or may not be practiced , but natural selection plays an important role in shifting gene frequencies.  When desirable purposes are fulfilled , bulking is stopped and individual plants are selected and evaluated.
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES  Less record keeping than pedigree which saves time & labour.  Very simple, convenient & less expensive.  Natural selection increases the frequency of superior genotypes in the population.  More useful than pedigree method with lower h2 traits  There is greater chance for isolation of transgressive segregates than in pedigree method due to large population.  Most suitable for improvement of small grains.
  5. 5. DISADVANTAGES 1.Environmental changes from season to season so adaptive advantages shift 2. It takes much longer time to develop a new variety. 3. Not useful in selecting plant types at a competitive disadvantage (dwarf types) 4.Final genotypes may be able to withstand environmental stress, but may not be highest yielding 5. If used with a cross pollinated species, inbreeding depression may be a problem 6. It provides little opportunity for breeder to exercise his skill or judgement in selection.
  6. 6. APPLICATIONS  The bulk method is suitable for handling the segregating generations of cereals, small millets, grain legumes and oilseeds. It may be for different purposes like :- 1) Isolation of homozygous lines with a minimum efforts and expenses. 2) Waiting for the opportunity for selection , natural /suitable environmental condition. 3) To provide opportunity for natural selection to change the composition of the population.
  7. 7. PEDIGREE METHOD  The method was first described by H. H. Lowe in 1927.  Pedigree : “A description of the ancestors of an individual and it generally goes back to some back to some distant ancestors in the past”  Thus, a pedigree would describe the parents , grand parents , great grand parents and so on.  The pedigree is helpful in finding out if two individuals are related by descent their ancestry, and therefore, are likely to have some genes in common.
  8. 8. PEDIGREE RECORD  In pedigree method, a detailed record of the relationships between the selected plants and their progenies is maintained.  As a result, each progeny in every generation can be traced back to the F2 plants from which it is originated such a record is known as Pedigree- Record.
  9. 9. PROCEDURES  In pedigree method, individual plants are selected from F2 and the subsequent generations, and their progenies are tested.  During the entire operation a pedigree record is kept.  Individual plant selection is continued till the progenies show no segregation. At this stage , selection is done among the progenies because there would be no genetic variation within the progenies.
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES 1. Record keeping provides a catalog of genetic information of the cultivar. 2. Selection is based not only on phenotype but also on genotype (progeny row). 3. Using the records, the breeder is able to advance only the progeny lines in which plants that carry the genes for the target traits occur. 4. A high degree of genetic purity is produced in the cultivar. 5. The breeding value of value of selected plants is ascertained by progeny test.
  11. 11. DISADVANTAGES 1. Record keeping is slow, tedious, time- consuming, and expensive. 2. The method is not suitable for species in which individual plants are difficult to isolate and characterize. 3. Pedigree selection is a long procedure, requiring about 10–12 years or more to complete, if only one growing season is possible. 4. Since large number of progenies are rejected in this method, there are chances of elimination of some valuable material.
  12. 12. APPLICATIONS  For the improvement of self pollinated species for the development of new pure line varieties.  This method is also used in cross pollinated species for the development of inbred lines.  Used for polygenic traits than oligogenic.  It is used to correct some specific weakness of an established variety with aims to improve the yield and quality parameters.  It is also useful in the selection of new superior recombinants from segregating population.
  13. 13. ACHIEVEMENTS Crop Examples Rice Krishna,Sarbarmati,Ratna,Padma,Jaya,Bala,Kaveri Wheat HD 2281, HD2285,HD2380, ND 2402 , Janak , Pratp, Raj 2535 Cotton LH 900, LH 1556, F 846, F 1054, F 1378, HS 6, Vikas, Sharda , MCU 9, MCU 11, LRA 5166 Pigeon pea T 21, Prabhat Green gram T2, T 44 , T51, Sheela Chickpea T1, T2, T3, T5 , Radhey Pea Pant Matar 2, Jawahar Matar 1, Jawakar Matar 4
  14. 14. Pedigree Method Bulk Method 1 Most widely used Breeding method Used only to a limited extent 2 Individual plants are selected in F2 & subsequent generations and individual plant progenies are grown F2 and subsequent generations are grown in bulk 3 Artificial selection ; artificial disease epidemics etc. are an integral part of the method Mainly natural selection. In certain cases artificial selection may be essential 4 Pedigree Records have to be maintained which is often time consuming &laborious No pedigree records are maintained 5 Generally its taken 12-13 years to release new variety Takes more than 15 years. 6 Requires close attention of breeder from F2 onwards It is quite simple and does not require much attention
  15. 15. LINE BREEDING  Three types of line Breeding Approaches in Line Breeding 1. One Line Approach 2. Two Line Approach 3. Three Line Approach
  16. 16. ONE LINE BREEDING - APOMIXIS  Apomictic lines are those lines which are developed without means of sexual reproduction and they have different component ways in producing like parthenogenesis, apogamy, apospory,and adventive embryony .  Since these lines are capable of maintaining genetic purity over generations there is high regard for these to produce hybrid.  Apomixis is effective means for rapid production of pure lines
  17. 17. APOMIXIS  Haploid parthenogenesis give rise to haploid plants which upon colichine treatment will produce diploid pure lines that can be used in plant breeding programmes.  A superior plant type which produce seed by apomictic means will usually bread true for the characteristics of mother plant  Thus apomixis is useful in maintaining the characteristics of mother plant from generation to generation.
  18. 18. TWO LINE BREEDING Two line Approach Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Genetic Male Sterility
  19. 19. GENETIC MALE STERILITY  The male sterile line (ms ms ) is allowed to be cross pollinated with a male fertile (Ms Ms ) that combines well with the male sterile line, the seed produced on the male sterile line is the hybrid seed, the hybrid is male fertile (Ms ms )  It commercially exploited in castor and pigeon pea.  GMS presents a serious problem , in the female parent , 50 % is male fertile which is identified and eliminated before they shed pollen.
  20. 20. THIS PROBLEM IS OVERCOME BY PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVE OR TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE GENETIC MALE STERILITY . HOW IT IS WORKS IS SHOWN UNDER.
  21. 21. CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY  This type of male sterility is determined by the cytoplasm.  Since the cytoplasm of a zygote comes primarily from egg cell, the progeny of such male sterile plants would always be male sterile.  Nuclear genotype of male sterile line would be almost identical to that of the recurrent pollinator strain.  The male sterile line is maintained by crossing it with the pollinator strain used as the recurrent parent in the backcross programme since its nuclear genotype is identical with that of this new male sterile line.  such a male fertile line is known as the maintainer line or B line as it is used to maintain the male sterile line is also known as the A line
  22. 22.  Cytoplasmic male sterility may be utilized for producing hybrid seed in certain ornamental species, or in species where a vegetative part is of economic value.  But in those crop plants where seed is the economic part, it is of no use because the hybrid progeny would be male sterile.  Cytoplasmic male sterility is not influenced by environmental factors such as low or high temp.,in other words the sterility is stable.
  23. 23. THREE LINE BREEDING -- CGMS  This is a case of cytoplasmic male sterility where a nuclear gene for restoring fertility in MS line is known.  This system involves 1. Cytoplasmically determined MS plants known as A line in the genetic constitution. 2. Fertile counter parts of A line known as maintainer line or B line with the genetic constitution. 3. Restorer plants used to restorer the fertility in commercial seed plots known as R lines in the genetic constitution.
  24. 24. Maintenance of Male Sterile Line or A line: Since A line does not produce pollen, seed is not formed for maintaining A line. It has to be crossed with its fertile counter part having similar nuclear genes with fertile cytoplasm which is known as B-line. Production of Hybrid seed: • For production of hybrid seed, A-line has to be kept as female parent and the pollen parent should posses the restorer genes in order to induce fertility and seed development in the next generation. • Such line is known as restorer line and denoted as ‘R’ line. • The A line & R line should be of different genetic constitution and should be able to give maximum heterosis.
  25. 25. LIMITATIONS IN USING MALE STERILE SYSTEMS: 1. Existence and maintenance of A, B & R Lines is laborious and difficult 2. If exotic lines are not suitable to our conditions, the native/adaptive lines have to be converted into MS lines 3. Adequate cross pollination should be there between A and R lines for good seed set. 4. Synchronization of flowering should be there between A & R lines. 5.Fertility restoration should be complete otherwise the F1 seed will be sterile Isolation is needed for maintenance of parental lines and for producing hybrid seed.

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