crick termination elongation initiation plant breeding hardy weinberg law evolutionary forces random drift selection migration mutation evolution genotype frequency gene frequency genetics population population genetics law weinberg hardy mouse experiment transforming principle transformation rough strain smooth strain diplococcus pneumoniae griffith components od nucleic acid double helical model diplococcus e. coli t2 phase t2 bacteriophase chase hershey watson rna dna genetic material stahl meselson okazaki fragment ssbp dna unwinding gyrase helicase dna polymerase i dna polymerase iii ligase replication fork bidirectional replication lagging strand leading strand rna primer primase dna polymerase replication dna replication prokaryotic dna replication start point pribnow box -35 sequence -10 sequence promoter transcription bubble core enzyme sigma factor rho factor rho central dogma antisense strand sense strand rna polymerase prokaryotic transcription ribosome translocation trna charging polysome peptide bond shine dalgarno shine dalgarno sequence polypeptide amino acid trna ribosome mrna protein synthesis translation gene expression breeding methods wide hybridization triticale thomas fairchild techniques for production of distant hybrids raphano brassica limitations of distant hybridization inter specific hybridization inter generic hybridization distant hybridization crop improvement barriers to the production of distant hybrids applications of wide hybridization in crop improve alien substitution lines alien addition lines adventive embryony apospory apogamy parthenogenesis apomixis vegetative reproduction endosperm embryo gamete zygote fertilization gametogenesis sporogenesis sexual reproduction in plants asexual reproduction in plants reproduction in crop plants reproduction breeding kit needle forcep tags crossing hybridisation pollination emasculation plant breeding equipments plant breeding kit plant breeder's kit multiparent advanced generation inter-cross crop imrovemennt advanced generation intercross magic population seminar plant biotechnology biotechnology molecular genetics genome editing crispr
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