Research on open source software,
management and communities:
Introduction to research on open source
software, selection ...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Agenda
1. Overview of this course...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Goals of this course
In this thre...
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Schedule
1. Introduction to resea...
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Assessment and Credits
Assessment...
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Agenda
1. Overview of this course...
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What do you know about open sourc...
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Which open source projects do you...
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Which open source projects do you...
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Introduction to open source
> Hi...
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Around 1.5 million open source p...
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History: The Pioneer Period
1985...
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History: The Business Period
199...
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History: The Mainstream Period
2...
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Free Software
Definition of Free...
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Copyleft
> A wordplay by FSF: co...
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Open Source Software
An open sou...
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OSI approved licenses
Open Sourc...
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Differences of
open source licen...
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Common missunderstandings
Import...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Onion model of open source commu...
Fall Term 2015
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Community building process
Sourc...
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Forking of open source projects
...
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Forking example
Apache OpenOffic...
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Why do programmers code for free...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Motivations of individuals
Why d...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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The Business Of Open Source
> Op...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Services by open source vendors
...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
29
Business models with open source...
Fall Term 2015
Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1
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Where is open source being used
...
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Where open source not (yet) is b...
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Why open source is being used
So...
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Why open source is not being use...
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Open Hub www.openhub.net
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Open Hub www.openhub.net
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Open Hub www.openhub.net
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
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Agenda
1. Overview of this cours...
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Slides Prof. Dr. Thomas Myrach
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Agenda
1. Overview of this cours...
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Research about open source softw...
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Quantitative analysis:
Apache Op...
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Quantitative analysis:
Apache Op...
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Quantitative analysis:
Opening u...
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Quantitative analysis:
Opening u...
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Quantitative analysis:
Opening u...
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Quantitative analysis:
Software ...
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Qualitative analysis:
Benefits o...
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Qualitative analysis:
Benefits o...
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Qualitative analysis:
Benefits o...
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Conceptual work:
Community build...
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Conceptual work:
Community build...
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Conceptual work:
Motivations of ...
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Conceptual work:
Motivations of ...
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Agenda
1. Overview of this cours...
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Classical papers on open source ...
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New papers on open source softwa...
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Presentation
> Using IWI PowerPo...
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Research gaps in open source lit...
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Introduction to research on open source software

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Open source software is being used by small and large companies, governments and other organizations in many business-critical systems. Nowadays there are approximately 1 million open source projects on the software market being developed and maintained by unpaid individuals as well as professional software companies and industry players. Research about technical aspects of open source software, business models, management and governance practices as well as community dynamics and contributor's motivations is abundant.

In this three day course master students of information systems get an introduction into current research about open source, read and present academic papers on open source, and write an own research proposal, conference submission or working paper about a specific topic of their interest. This may cover issues about open source in automotive industry, reuse of open source components, business models with open source, inner source development within pharma and many more.

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Introduction to research on open source software

  1. 1. Research on open source software, management and communities: Introduction to research on open source software, selection of papers by students Lecture 1, 23 September 2015 Dr. Matthias Stürmer & Prof. Dr. Thomas Myrach University of Bern, Institute of Information Systems Research Center for Digital Sustainability
  2. 2. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 2 Agenda 1. Overview of this course 2. Introduction to open source 3. Research in information systems 4. Research about open source software 5. Selection of papers
  3. 3. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 3 Goals of this course In this three day course master students of information systems: 1. get an introduction into current research about open source, 2. read and present academic papers on open source, and 3. write an own research proposal, conference submission or working paper about a specific topic of their interest. Learning objectives: > Participants get an overview of present research on open source software. > Participants understand the sources of data within open source projects and learn how to analyse them scientifically. > Participants learn how to use appropriate theory and methodology to develop an individual research paper.
  4. 4. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 4 Schedule 1. Introduction to research on open source software, selection of papers by students Wednesday, 23 September 2015, 14h - 17h 2. Paper presentations by students and discussion of new research questions and topics Tuesday, 3 November 2015, 9h - 17h (time depending on # of students) 3. Presentation of research proposals and working papers by students Tuesday, 15 December 2015, 9h - 17h (time depending on # of students)
  5. 5. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 5 Assessment and Credits Assessment: 1. Presentation of research paper 2. Written research proposal or working paper 3. Participation in discussions during the course Credits: 3 ECTS
  6. 6. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 6 Agenda 1. Overview of this course 2. Introduction to open source 3. Research in information systems 4. Research about open source software 5. Selection of papers
  7. 7. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 7 What do you know about open source? Source: http://openwaterfoundation.org/resources/open-source-software
  8. 8. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 8 Which open source projects do you know? Source: http://cloudramblings.me/2015/02/06/why-open-source-has-changed-from-the-cheapest-software-to-the-best-software/
  9. 9. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 9 Which open source projects do you know? Source: http://cloudramblings.me/2015/02/06/why-open-source-has-changed-from-the-cheapest-software-to-the-best-software/
  10. 10. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 10 Introduction to open source > History > Free Software vs. Open Source > Overview of open source licenses > Common missunderstandings > Community structures > Forking of communities > Motivation of individuals > Business models > Why and where using OSS > Open Hub > OSS Directory
  11. 11. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 11 Around 1.5 million open source projects Source: https://www.blackducksoftware.com/resources/webinar/2015-future-open-source-survey-results
  12. 12. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 12 History: The Pioneer Period 1985 Richard Stallman establishes the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and coins the term “free software” 1989 The FSF publishes version 1 and, in 1991, version 2 of the GNU General Public License (GPL) 1991 Linus Torvalds launches the development of the Linux core under the GPL version 2 1993 Linux distributor Debian is founded Source: Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  13. 13. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 13 History: The Business Period 1998 Eric Raymond, Bruce Perens and Tim O’Reilly establish the Open Source Initiative (OSI) and coin the term “open source” 1999 Netscape is the first major company to release the source code for its Netscape Navigator, which had previously been proprietary, under an open source license 1999 Linux service provider Red Hat goes public on the NASDAQ 2000 IBM announces that it is to invest one billion USD in the development of Linux 2001 IBM publishes the software development platform Eclipse, with an estimated value of USD 40m, under an open source license Source: Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  14. 14. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 14 History: The Mainstream Period 2004 Canonical launches Ubuntu 2007 The Free Software Foundation publishes version 3 of the GNU General Public License (GPL) 2007 Sun Microsystems publishes the Java Development Kit as GPL 2008 Google launches the Linux-based Android operating system 2008 The French Gendarmerie migrates 70,000 desktops from Microsoft to the Linux distribution Ubuntu 2009 Linux is installed on >300,000 workspaces at Brazilian schools 2011 Insurer LVM migrates 10,000 workplaces to Ubuntu 2015 City of Munich finishes migration to 15,000 workplaces Source (mostly): Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  15. 15. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 15 Free Software Definition of Free Software by the Free Software Foundation: > Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose. > Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish. > Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor. > Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits. More information: http://www.fsf.org/about/
  16. 16. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 16 Copyleft > A wordplay by FSF: copyright vs. copyleft > Part of: GNU GPL and AGPL > Requires all modified and extended versions of the program to be free “forever” > Copyleft guarantees the freedom of software > Viral effect: derived work must be distributed under the same or a stronger license > Challenge for many business environments More information: https://www.gnu.org/copyleft/copyleft.en.html
  17. 17. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 17 Open Source Software An open source license complies with the following 10 criteria: 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral More information: http://opensource.org/osd
  18. 18. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 18 OSI approved licenses Open Source Initiative (OSI) has currently approved 71 software licenses as «open source licenses» Some popular OSI approved licenses: > GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL) 3.0 > GNU General Public License (GPL) v2 and v3 > GNU Library or "Lesser" General Public License (LGPL) > Apache License 2.0 > MIT license > BSD license > Mozilla Public License 2.0 > Eclipse Public License All OSI approved licenses: http://opensource.org/licenses/alphabetical
  19. 19. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 19 Differences of open source licenses Source: Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  20. 20. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 20 Common missunderstandings Important to know: > There is a clear definition what is open source software and what not. > An open source project is not a project (in the usual IT context). > Open source software is not free. > Open source software is used very widely. > Open source software is not only developed by volunteers. > Migration to open source software does not save costs immediately.
  21. 21. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 21 Onion model of open source communities Users Contributors Developers Core Devs
  22. 22. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 22 Community building process Source: Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  23. 23. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 23 Forking of open source projects > Splitting (=forking) of developer community in a new branch > Cause: failure of community governance > Sword of damocles of the open source development model Forking examples:
  24. 24. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 24 Forking example Apache OpenOffice vs. LibreOffice
  25. 25. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 25 Why do programmers code for free? Solving a developer’s own problem: “Every good work of software starts by scratching a developer's personal itch.” Other great quotes in this book: “Release Early, Release Often” “Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” (Linus Torvalds) In total 19 lessons of Eric Raymond what he learned in open source development Source: Eric S. Raymond “The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary” 1999 O'Reilly Media
  26. 26. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 26 Motivations of individuals Why do individuals develop open source software? 10 different reasons: Ideology Altruism Kinship Fun Reputation Reciprocity Learning Own-use Career Pay Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Source: Georg von Krogh, Stefan Haefliger, Sebastian Spaeth, and Martin W. Wallin "Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development" MIS Quarterly 2012, Vol 36 Issue 2, pp. 649-676
  27. 27. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 27 The Business Of Open Source > Open Source Is Not A Business Model (it’s a license!) > Barriers open source vendors needed to overcome — Unclear dependencies on other software components and difficult installation mechanisms — Lack of commercial-grade support and services around integration and adaptation of the software — Unclear roadmap and often a very ‘dynamic’ project — Lack of necessary skill-set within the enterprise — Need for training, documentation and education > Generating revenue streams: — Packaging and distribution — Offering alternative paid licence to open source product (dual license) — Providing services and support around an open source product Source: http://oss-watch.ac.uk/resources/businessofopensource
  28. 28. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 28 Services by open source vendors 1. Direct access to the expertise of the core developers of the open source software 2. Defined response times for support enquiries 3. Support via a number of channels (internet, VPN, email, chat, telephone, remote desktop, on-site) 4. Provision of professional documentation, training and certification courses 5. Prompt, proactive and user-friendly delivery of security patches 6. Minimum periods of maintenance and support for particular software versions 7. Guaranteed, regular software releases and updates 8. Guaranteed compatibility with other software solutions 9. Certification for particular hardware and proprietary software systems 10. Integration of patches and extensions into the main version (official branch) 11. Hedging against legal claims based on intellectual property rights (copyright, patents) 12. Liability for disruption and malfunction 13. Provision of additional proprietary extensions and support tools Source: Ernst & Young “Open source software in business-critical environments” 2011
  29. 29. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 29 Business models with open source 1. Custom development - Customers pay for the software to be customized to meet their specific requirements. 2. Services/support - Ad hoc support calls, service, training and consulting contracts. 3. Support subscriptions - An annual, repeatable support and service agreement. 4. Value-added subscriptions - An annual, repeatable support and service agreement with additional features/functionality delivered as a service. 5. Software as a service (SaaS) - Paid access to and use of the software via hosted or cloud services. 6. Complementary products and services - Open source software is not used to directly generate revenue; instead, complementary products provide revenue. 7. Closed source licenses - For a version of the full project, a larger software package, hardware appliance based on the project, or extensions to the open source core. 8. Advertising - Software is free to use and is funded by associated advertising. Source: Question 16 from the 2014 Future of Open Source Survey https://www.blackducksoftware.com/future-of-open-source
  30. 30. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 30 Where is open source being used Source: Open Source Studie Schweiz 2015, Matthias Stürmer and Marcus Dapp, swissICT and /ch/open
  31. 31. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 31 Where open source not (yet) is being used Source: Open Source Studie Schweiz 2015, Matthias Stürmer and Marcus Dapp, swissICT and /ch/open
  32. 32. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 32 Why open source is being used Source: Open Source Studie Schweiz 2015, Matthias Stürmer and Marcus Dapp, swissICT and /ch/open
  33. 33. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 33 Why open source is not being used Source: Open Source Studie Schweiz 2015, Matthias Stürmer and Marcus Dapp, swissICT and /ch/open
  34. 34. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 34 Open Hub www.openhub.net
  35. 35. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 35 Open Hub www.openhub.net
  36. 36. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 36 Open Hub www.openhub.net
  37. 37. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 37 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  38. 38. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 38 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  39. 39. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 39 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  40. 40. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 40 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  41. 41. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 41 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  42. 42. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 42 OSS Directory www.ossdirectory.ch
  43. 43. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 43 Agenda 1. Overview of this course 2. Introduction to open source 3. Research in information systems 4. Research about open source software 5. Selection of papers
  44. 44. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 44 Slides Prof. Dr. Thomas Myrach
  45. 45. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 45 Agenda 1. Overview of this course 2. Introduction to open source 3. Research in information systems 4. Research about open source software 5. Selection of papers
  46. 46. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 46 Research about open source software 1. Quantitative analysis — Measurement of source code contributions (OpenHub, Git, SVN) — Measurement of problem solving (issues and bug trackers) — Measurement of communication (mailing list, message initiator, reply) — Measurement of software dependencies (Debian) — Measurement of release cycles (community activity) 2. Qualitative analysis — Interviews with developers, managers etc. — Transcription and coding of interviews — Theory building with patterns within the interviews 3. Conceptual work — Meta-analysis of previous studies regarding a certain topic — Theory building with aggregation of previous results
  47. 47. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 47 Quantitative analysis: Apache OpenOffice vs. LibreOffice Number of committers (number in area) and commits per committer (color of area) for different project combinations Source: Jonas Gamalielsson and Björn Lundell “Sustainability of Open Source software communities beyond a fork: How and why has the LibreOffice project evolved?” Journal of Systems and Software 2014
  48. 48. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 48 Quantitative analysis: Apache OpenOffice vs. LibreOffice Number of monthly commits for the OpenOffice.org (black), LibreOffice (dark grey) and Apache OpenOffice (light grey) projects. Source: Jonas Gamalielsson and Björn Lundell “Sustainability of Open Source software communities beyond a fork: How and why has the LibreOffice project evolved?” Journal of Systems and Software 2014
  49. 49. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 49 Quantitative analysis: Opening up community governance Source: Sebastian Spaeth, Matthias Stuermer, and Georg Von Krogh “Enabling Knowledge Creation through Outsiders: Towards a Push Model of Open Innovation” International Journal of Technology Management 2010 Active committers per month
  50. 50. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 50 Quantitative analysis: Opening up community governance Source: Sebastian Spaeth, Matthias Stuermer, and Georg Von Krogh “Enabling Knowledge Creation through Outsiders: Towards a Push Model of Open Innovation” International Journal of Technology Management 2010
  51. 51. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 51 Quantitative analysis: Opening up community governance Source: Sebastian Spaeth, Matthias Stuermer, and Georg Von Krogh “Enabling Knowledge Creation through Outsiders: Towards a Push Model of Open Innovation” International Journal of Technology Management 2010
  52. 52. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 52 Quantitative analysis: Software reuse in open source projects Mozilla FirefoxAs an Example of Package Dependencies in Debian: The Graph of Mozilla Firefox UNIX command: apt-cache dotty firefox | dot -Tps > dependencygraph_firefox.ps Source: Sebastian Spaeth, Matthias Stuermer, Stefan Haefliger, Georg von Krogh „Sampling in Open Source Software Development: The case for using the Debian GNU/Linux Distribution“ HICSS Proceedings 2007
  53. 53. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 53 Qualitative analysis: Benefits of open source revealing Source: Matthias Stuermer, Sebastian Spaeth and Georg Von Krogh “Extending Private-Collective Innovation: A Case Study” R&D Management 2009
  54. 54. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 54 Qualitative analysis: Benefits of open source revealing Source: Matthias Stuermer, Sebastian Spaeth and Georg Von Krogh “Extending Private-Collective Innovation: A Case Study” R&D Management 2009
  55. 55. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 55 Qualitative analysis: Benefits of open source revealing Source: Matthias Stuermer, Sebastian Spaeth and Georg Von Krogh “Extending Private-Collective Innovation: A Case Study” R&D Management 2009
  56. 56. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 56 Conceptual work: Community building model Source: Terhi Kilamo, Imed Hammouda, Tommi Mikkonen, and Timo Aaltonen “From proprietary to open source—Growing an open source ecosystem” Journal of Systems and Software 2012
  57. 57. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 57 Conceptual work: Community building model Source: Terhi Kilamo, Imed Hammouda, Tommi Mikkonen, and Timo Aaltonen “From proprietary to open source—Growing an open source ecosystem” Journal of Systems and Software 2012
  58. 58. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 58 Conceptual work: Motivations of individuals Source: Georg von Krogh, Stefan Haefliger, Sebastian Spaeth, and Martin W. Wallin "Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development" MIS Quarterly 2012, Vol 36 Issue 2, pp. 649-676
  59. 59. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 59 Conceptual work: Motivations of individuals Source: Georg von Krogh, Stefan Haefliger, Sebastian Spaeth, and Martin W. Wallin "Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development" MIS Quarterly 2012, Vol 36 Issue 2, pp. 649-676
  60. 60. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 60 Agenda 1. Overview of this course 2. Introduction to open source 3. Research in information systems 4. Research about open source software 5. Selection of papers
  61. 61. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 61 Classical papers on open source software > Some Simple Economics of Open Source Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole, The Journal of Industrial Economics 2002 > Guarding the commons: how community managed software projects protect their work Siobhán O’Mahony, Research Policy 2003 > How open is open enough? Melding proprietary and open source platform strategies Joel West, Research Policy 2003 > Open Source Software and the “Private-Collective” Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science Eric von Hippel and Georg von Krogh, Organization Science 2003
  62. 62. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 62 New papers on open source software > Carrots and Rainbows: Motivation and Social Practice in Open Source Software Development Georg von Krogh, Stefan Haefliger, Sebastian Spaeth, Martin Wallin – MIS Quarterly 2012 > Sustainability of Open Source software communities beyond a fork: How and why has the LibreOffice project evolved? Jonas Gamalielsson, Björn Lundell – The Journal of Systems and Software 2014 > Key Factors for Adopting Inner Source Klaas-Jan Stol, Paris Avgeriou, Muhammad Ali Babar, Yan Lucas, Brian Fitzgerald – ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 2014
  63. 63. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 63 Presentation > Using IWI PowerPoint template (Zotero repository) > Structure of the presentation: — Introduction — Theory (literature) — Method (data gathered) — Results (facts) — Conclusions (implications) > 20min presentation, 25min discussion
  64. 64. Fall Term 2015 Research on open source software, management and communities: Lecture 1 64 Research gaps in open source literature > Empirical analysis about business models with open source software (services, subscriptions etc.) > Empirical analysis about sustainability of open source communities (Linux kernel development etc.) > Empirical analysis about role and influence of non-profit associations and foundations (Eclipse, Apache etc.) > Empirical analysis of software reuse by assessing reverse dependencies within Debian/Ubuntu > Empirical analysis of cost savings and other positive and negative effects when migrating to open source

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