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Food standards & food security

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Food standards & food security

  1. 1. Dr Vinod Rathod 1st Year PG (PSM) Darbhanga Medical College FOOD STANDARDS & FOOD SECURITY 1/6/2018 1
  2. 2. National Consumer Rights Day 2015 • 24th December • Theme - ‘Safe food & Healthy Food’: combating food adulteration 1/6/2018 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS FOOD? Food Means any article used as food or drink for Human Consumption other than Drug and also includes: - Any article which enters or used in the composition or preparation of food - Any flavoring matter or condiments - Any other article notified by the Central Govt. e.g. Packaged Drinking Water. 1/6/2018 3
  4. 4. Need to discuss?? • Food is one of the most important requirements of our life. BUT, • Potential source of infection • It is liable to contamination, at any point from its production to consumption. • Foodborne diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. • People have the right to expect the food they eat to be safe and suitable for consumption. 1/6/2018 4
  5. 5. Food Adulteration • It is an act of intentionally debasing the quality of food offered for sale, either by the admixture or substitution of inferior substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. • Includes both ADDITION/SUBSTITUTION and INCIDENTAL CONTAMINATION. • “Adulterant” is any material which is or could be employed for making the food unsafe or substandard or misbranded or containing extraneous matter. 1/6/2018 5
  6. 6. Types of adulterants Type Substances added Intentional adulterants Sand, marble chips, mud, stones, talc, chalk powder, water, mineral oil and harmful colour Incidental adulterants Pesticide residues, dropping of birds and larvae in foods Metallic contaminants Arsenic from pesticides, lead from water, effluent from chemical industries and tin from cans 1/6/2018 6
  7. 7. Microbial contamination and adulteration • Any Ready-to-eat foods if contaminated with harmful micro- organisms. • Whereas, raw meat products contaminated with pathogens is not adulterated 1/6/2018 7
  8. 8. Common adulterated foods…. 1/6/2018 8
  9. 9. Maggi Row • Contained an excess amount of Mono Sodium Glutamate(MSG) and Lead. • MSG is an preservative and flavour enhancer. • Found in many snacks. 1/6/2018 9
  10. 10. Notable incidents in Adulteration 1/6/2018 10
  11. 11. World • In 1987, selling artificially flavored sugar water as apple juice. Beech-Nut company paid $2.2 million in fines for violating the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act • In 1997, ConAgra Foods pled guilty to federal criminal charges that one of its units illegally sprayed water on stored grain to increase its weight and value. 1/6/2018 11
  12. 12. • In 2012, a study in India conducted by the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) across 33 states found that milk in India is adulterated with detergent, fat and even urea, as well diluted with water. (2012 India milk adulterant scandal). C:UsersSamsung PCVideosFree YouTube DownloaderSHOCKING VIDEO HOW THEY MAKE JAALI DOODH IN 5 MINTS.mp4 • Occurrence of Epidemic dropsy in Delhi and neighboring states which took toll of hundreds of lives in the month of august and September 1998 India 1/6/2018 12
  13. 13. Impact of adulteration • Paying more money for food of lower quality. • Some forms of adulteration are injurious to health e.g argemone in mustard causes Epidemic dropsy 1/6/2018 13
  14. 14. Old Food Regulations 1. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 2. Fruit Product Order, 1955 3. Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 4. Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947 5. Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Orders, 1998 6. The Solvent Extracted Oil, De-Oiled Meal and Edible Flour ( Control) Order,1967 7. Meat Food Products Order, 1973 1/6/2018 14
  15. 15. Food Safety & Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) • The Food Safety and Standards Act 2006, was passed by Indian Parliament and notified in the gazette of India on 24th August 2006 • FSS Regulations came into force since, 5th August 2011 • All Food Business Operators in India to get Licensed /Registered with Food Safety Authority 1/6/2018 15
  16. 16. Why FSS Act? • Multiplicity of food laws • Standards rigid and non-responsive to scientific advancements and modernization • Poor information dissemination to consumer level. 1/6/2018 16
  17. 17. 1/6/2018 17
  18. 18. Salient Features • Defines the concept of - Novel food - Functional food - Substandard food - Misbranded food - Unsafe food • Emphasis on risk assessment through, Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Communication Risk Management 1/6/2018 18
  19. 19. Salient features contd… • Provision of ‘Improvement Notice’. • Prescribes graded penalties for offenses/violations. • Two tier licensing system – Centre & State. • Thrust on preventive actions 1/6/2018 19
  20. 20. PFA vs FSSAI PFA FSSAI All manufacturing units under Local authorities Big manufacturing units under central licensing Pre-inspection not compulsory Compulsory No provision of improvement notices Provision of improvement notices Punishment through court - Fine/penalty through adjudication - Punishment through court No import regulation Special Import regulation 1/6/2018 20
  21. 21. General Impact • All big manufacturing facilities will need to be licensed by Central Licensing Authority FSSAI • Small scale distributors need to obtain license from State Licensing Authority • Periodical inspections and safety audits • Reduction in court cases Adjudication process 1/6/2018 21
  22. 22. 1/6/2018 22
  23. 23. 1/6/2018 23
  24. 24. Other Regulations • Codex Alimentarius • Agmark • ISO 22000 1/6/2018 24
  25. 25. AGMARK • Quality Certification Mark • It ensures quality and purity of a product. • It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to certify Quality • Products are Pulses, spices, wheat products 1/6/2018 25
  26. 26. Codex Alimentarius  The Codex Alimentarius Commission, which is the principal organ of The joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards Programme formulates food standards for international market.  The food standards in India are based on The standards of the codex alimentarius 1/6/2018 26
  27. 27. ISO 22000 (International Organization for Standardization) • This is an international standard specifies requirements for food safety management system. • BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) represents India, in ISO. • Only for guidance and not a certifying body. 1/6/2018 27
  28. 28. 1/6/2018 28
  29. 29. Sudan crisis 1993 Bengal Famine 1943 1/6/2018 29
  30. 30. Food security • “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” – World Food Summit, 1996 • In the years 2011-2013, an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger. 1/6/2018 30
  31. 31. 4 Dimensions 1/6/2018 31
  32. 32. #1 Availability • Food production, distribution, and exchange • Consumers outnumber producers in every country Crop 2008-09 2011-12 Demand Production Surplus/ Shortfall Demand Production Surplus/ Shortfall Rice 92.87 99.15 6.28 98.79 104.21 5.42 Wheat 72.72 80.58 7.86 77.36 83.61 6.25 Food grains 219 233.88 14.88 234.26 239.3 5.04 Pulses 17.51 14.66 - 2.85 19.91 15.73 - 4.18 1/6/2018 32
  33. 33. #2 Access • Refers to affordability of food Food Items Per Capita Availability Requirement(ICMR) Per Capita Deficit Milk 216 gms/day 300 ml/day 34 g/day Egg 30 eggs/yr 180 eggs/yr 150 eggs/yr Meat 3.24 kg/yr 10.95 kg/yr 7.71 kg/yr 1/6/2018 33
  34. 34. 1/6/2018 34
  35. 35. #3 Utilization Food utilization depends on • Safety • Nutritional value • Cultural preferences • Sanitation • Well being 1/6/2018 35
  36. 36. #4 Stability • refers to the ability to obtain food over time Availability Natural disasters & Famines Access Civil Unrest Utilisation Illness, Unemployment 1/6/2018 36
  37. 37. Approach towards Food Security 1/6/2018 37
  38. 38. By the United Nations Sdg Goal 2 targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 1/6/2018 38
  39. 39. By the Food and Agriculture Organization • World Food Day celebrated on October 16 • "twin track" approach to fight food insecurity that combines sustainable development and short-term hunger relief 1/6/2018 39
  40. 40. By the World Food Programme • Provides food aid to refugees and to others experiencing food emergencies • Seeks to improve nutrition and quality of life of most vulnerable populations and promote self-reliance 1/6/2018 40
  41. 41. INDIA 1/6/2018 41
  42. 42. Revolutions in India Green Revolution Pink Revolution Red Revolution Golden Revolution Blue Revolution 1/6/2018 42
  43. 43. Revolutions in India Yellow RevolutionWhite Revolution Silver Revolution Round Revolution 1/6/2018 43
  44. 44. • National Food Security act came into effect from JULY 5, 2013 • Objective : to ensure adequate quality food and nutritional security to all the people at affordable prices. 1/6/2018 44
  45. 45. India has the largest food schemes in the World • Entitlement Feeding Programmes • ICDS (All Children under six, Pregnant and lactating mother) • MDMS (All Primary School children) • Food Subsidy Programmes • Targeted Public Distribution System (35 kgs/ month of subsidised food grains • Annapurna (10 kgs of free food grain for destitute poor) • Employment Programmes • National Rural Employment Scheme (100 days of employment at minimum wages) • Social Safety Net Programmes • National Old Age Pension Scheme (Monthly pension to BPL) • National Family Benefit Scheme (Compensation in case of death of bread winner to BPL families) 1/6/2018 45
  46. 46. ICDS • Launched on 2nd Oct, 1975 • Beneficiaries 1. Children < 6 yrs 2. Pregnant and lactating women 3. Women 15 – 45 yrs 4. Adolescent girls Recipients Calories Gms of Protein Children 6-72 months 500 12-15 Adolescent girls 500 20-25 Pregnant & Nursing mothers 600 18-20 Malnourished Children 800 20-25 1/6/2018 46
  47. 47. Mid-Day Meal Scheme • First started in Tamil Nadu • Universal in India since 2005 • Program covers 112 million children in class I to V • Improvement in 3 areas 1. School attendance 2. Reduced dropouts 3. Beneficial impact on children’s nutrition • Food grains Minimum 3 kgs per child per month for 10 months • Approx 300 kcal and 8-12 grams of proteins per day 1/6/2018 47
  48. 48. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) • Launched in October 2007 • In the 12th Five year plan it has five components - RICE - WHEAT - PULSES - COARSE CEREALS - COMMERCIAL CROPS Kisan ki Unnati Desh ki Pragati 1/6/2018 48
  49. 49. Antyodaya Anna Yojana (PDS) Bihar & Uttar Pradesh • BPL families get 5 kg of food grains per month • Each beneficiary is a unit • Cost of Wheat at Rs. 2 and Rice at Rs. 3 per kg Karnataka • 30 kg rice per month • Each Family as a unit • Cost Rs. 1 per kg 1/6/2018 49
  50. 50. Annapoorna Scheme (PDS) • Launced 1st April 2000 • Under Ministry of Rural Development • Beneficiaries are Senior Citizens who are eligible for National Old Age Pension Scheme(NOAPS) but not covered under the scheme • Provided with 10 kgs (6 kgs wheat + 4 kgs rice) per month free of cost • Bihar currently provides this for 1,48,483 persons 1/6/2018 50
  51. 51. References 1. Park Text book of preventive and social medicine , 23rd edition 2. Text book of National Health programmes of India , 11th edition by J. Kishore 3. MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE(Legislative Department) FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2006, No. 34 OF 2006 [23rd August, 2006] 4. For India: MoA, 2010 (Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2009. For China: National Bureau of Statistics, 2010 (China Statistical Yearbook, 2009) 5. www.who.int 6. www.nfsm.nic.in 7. Review of targets for the sustainable developmental goals, ICSU;ISSC 1/6/2018 51
  52. 52. THANK YOU!1/6/2018 52

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