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# Testbank chapter8 new

Molly Ray
Student um Student
25. May 2014
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### Testbank chapter8 new

1. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 1 - CHAPTER 8—PRODUCTION ANALYSIS AND COMPENSATION POLICY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The production function Q = 0.25X0.5 Y exhibits: a. constant returns to scale. b. increasing returns to scale. c. increasing and then diminishing returns to scale. d. diminishing returns to scale. 2. The law of diminishing returns: a. deals specifically with the diminishing marginal product of fixed input factors. b. states that the marginal product of a variable factor must eventually decline as increasingly more is employed. c. can be derived deductively. d. states that as the quantity of a variable input increases, with the quantities of all other factors being held constant, the resulting output must eventually diminish. 3. A new production function results following: a. a new wage agreement following collective bargaining. b. a surge in product demand. c. a decrease in the availability of needed inputs. d. the successful completion of a training program that enhances worker productivity. 4. The relation between output and the variation in all inputs taken together is the: a. factor productivity of a production system. b. law of diminishing returns. c. returns to scale characteristic of a production system. d. returns to factor characteristic of a production system. 5. When PX = \$60, MPX = 5 and MPY = 2, relative employment levels are optimal provided: a. PY = 16.7¢. b. PY = \$24. c. PY = \$60. d. PY = \$150. 6. When PX = \$100, MPX = 10 and MRQ = \$5, the marginal revenue product of X equals: a. \$100. b. \$50. c. \$10. d. \$5.
2. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 2 - 7. The returns to scale characteristic of a production system: a. is measured by the way in which inputs can be varied in an unbroken marginal fashion rather than incrementally. b. illustrates the distinct, or "lumpy," pattern of input combination. c. shows the relation between output and the variation in all inputs. d. is the relation between output and variation in only one of the inputs employed. 8. Returns to a factor denotes the relation between the quantity of an individual input employed and the: a. optimal scale of a firm. b. optimal size of production facilities. c. optimal length of production runs. d. level of output produced. 9. The marginal product concept is: a. used to describe the relation between output and variation in all inputs in a production function. b. the change in output associated with a one-unit change in an individual factor. c. total product divided by the number input units employed. d. the complete output from a production system. 10. A production function describes the relation between output and: a. technical progress. b. one input. c. total cost. d. all inputs. 11. Total product divided by the number of units of variable input employed equals: a. average product. b. marginal revenue product. c. returns to scale. d. marginal product. 12. Marginal product is the change in output associated with a unit change in: a. all inputs. b. technology. c. scale. d. one input factor. 13. When the slope of the average product curve equals zero: a. total product is maximized. b. returns to the variable input are increasing. c. marginal product equals average product. d. marginal product equals zero.
3. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 3 - 14. Total output is maximized when: a. average product equals zero. b. marginal product is maximized. c. average product is maximized. d. marginal product equals zero. 15. An isoquant represents: a. input combinations that can be employed at the same cost. b. input combinations that can efficiently produce the same output. c. output combinations that can be efficiently produced using the same input combination. d. output combinations that can be produced for the same cost. 16. Right-angle shaped isoquants reflect inputs that are: a. perfect complements. b. perfect substitutes. c. imperfect substitutes. d. inefficient. 17. The marginal rate of technical substitution is: a. the slope of the marginal revenue product curve. b. the marginal product of either input. c. minus one times the ratio of marginal products for each input. d. the slope of an isocost curve. 18. Marginal revenue product equals: a. marginal revenue multiplied by marginal product. b. marginal product multiplied by total revenue. c. total revenue multiplied by total product. d. marginal revenue multiplied by total product. 19. A firm will maximize profits by employing the quantity of each input where the marginal: a. revenue product of each input equals its price. b. revenue equals the price of each input. c. product of each input is equal. d. product of each input equals its price. 20. If tripling the quantities of all inputs employed doubles the quantity of output produced, the output elasticity: a. equals one. b. is greater than one. c. cannot be determined without further information. d. is less than one.
4. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 4 - 21. The maximum output that can be produced for a given amount of input is called a: a. discrete production function. b. production function. c. continuous production function. d. discontinuous production function. 22. The output effect of a proportional increase in all inputs is called: a. returns to scale. b. returns to a factor. c. total product. d. marginal product. 23. As the quantity of a variable input increases, the resulting rate of output increase eventually: a. falls. b. rises. c. becomes constant. d. none of these. 24. Economic efficiency is achieved when all firms equate the marginal: a. product and price for all inputs. b. cost of all inputs. c. revenue product and price for all inputs. d. product of all inputs. 25. When MRQ = \$25, PX = \$200, and MPX = 8, employment of X: a. is optimal. b. should expand. c. should contract. d. none of these. PROBLEM 1. Input Combination. The following production table provides estimates of the maximum amounts of output possible with different combinations of two input factors, X and Y. (Assume that these are just illustrative points on a spectrum of continuous input combinations.) Units of Y Used Estimated Output per Day 5 258 360 455 542 620 4 234 332 416 496 542 3 206 294 372 416 455
5. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 5 - 2 168 248 294 332 360 1 124 168 206 234 258 1 2 3 4 5 Units of X Used A. Do the two inputs exhibit the characteristics of constant, increasing, or decreasing marginal rates of technical substitution? How do you know? B. Assuming output sells for \$4 per unit, complete the following tables: X Fixed at 2 Units Units of Y Used Total Product of Y Marginal Product of Y Average Product of Y Marginal Revenue Product of Y 1 2 3 4 5 Fixed at 3 units Units of X Used Total Product of X Marginal Product of X Average Product of X Marginal Revenue Product of X 1 2 3 4 5 C. Assume the quantity of X is fixed at 2 units. If the output of the production system sells for \$4 and the cost of Y is \$155 per day, how many units of Y will be employed? D. Assume that the company is currently producing 258 units of output per day using 1 unit of X and 5 units of Y. The daily cost per unit of X is \$155 and that of Y is also \$155. Would you recommend a change in the present input combination? Why or why not? E. What is the nature of the returns to scale for this production system if the optimal input combination requires that X = Y? 2. Input Combination. The following production table provides estimates of the maximum amounts of output possible with different combinations of two input factors, X and Y. (Assume that these are just illustrative points on a spectrum of continuous input combinations.) Units of Y Used Estimated Output per Day 5 184 265 334 395 440 4 176 248 303 352 395
6. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 6 - 3 164 216 264 303 334 2 128 176 216 248 265 1 88 128 164 176 184 1 2 3 4 5 Units of X Used A. Do the two inputs exhibit the characteristics of constant, increasing, or decreasing marginal rates of technical substitution? How do you know? B. Assuming output sells for \$3 per unit, complete the following tables: X Fixed at 4 Units Units of Y Used Total Product of Y Marginal Product of Y Average Product of Y Marginal Revenue Product of Y 1 2 3 4 5 Fixed at 2 units Units of X Used Total Product of X Marginal Product of X Average Product of X Marginal Revenue Product of X 1 2 3 4 5 C. Assume the quantity of X is fixed at 4 units. If the output of the production system sells for \$3 and the cost of Y is \$135 per day, how many units of Y will be employed? D. Assume that the company is currently producing 248 units of output per day using 2 units of X and 4 units of Y. The daily cost per unit of X is \$135 and that of Y is also \$135. Would you recommend a change in the present input combination? Why or why not? E. What is the nature of the returns to scale for this production system if the optimal input combination requires that X = Y? 3. Production Relations. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. A. L-shaped isoquants describe production systems where inputs are perfect complements. B. If the marginal product of capital increases as capital usage grows, the returns to capital are decreasing. C. Marginal revenue product measures the output gained through expanding input usage.
7. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 7 - D. The marginal rate of technical substitution will be affected by a given percentage increase in the marginal productivity of all inputs. E. Increasing returns to scale and declining average costs are indicated when εQ > 1. 4. Production Relations. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. A. If the marginal product of capital decreases as capital usage grows, the returns to capital are decreasing. B. The marginal rate of technical substitution will be affected by a given percentage increase in the marginal productivity of an input. C. Marginal revenue product represents the minimum revenue amount required to expand usage. D. Linear isoquants describe production systems where inputs are perfect complements. E. Decreasing returns to scale and declining average costs are indicated when εQ < 1. 5. Returns to Scale. Determine whether the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to scale. A. Q = 0.25X + 5Y + 30Z B. Q = 4L + 15K + 600 C. Q = 9A + 3B + 12AB D. Q = 4L2 + 6LK + 3K2 E. Q = 2L0.2 K0.6 6. Returns to Scale. Determine whether the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to scale. A. Q = 25X + 0.5Y + 8Z B. Q = 9L + 5K - 400 C. Q = 10A + 7B + 4AB D. Q = 6L2 + 3LK + 2K2 E. Q = 2L0.4 K0.6
8. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 8 - 7. Returns to Scale. Determine whether the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to scale. A. Q = 2X + 25Y + 5Z B. Q = 3A + 5B - 200 C. Q = 5A + 6B + 3AB D. Q = 4L2 - 3LK + 2K2 E. Q = 4L0.4 K0.8 8. Returns to Scale. Determine whether the following production functions exhibit constant, increasing, or decreasing returns to scale. A. Q = 10X + 4Y + 0.25Z B. Q = 12L + 5K + 500 C. Q = 4A + 14B + 3AB D. Q = 5L2 + 5LK + 5K2 E. Q = 3L0.3 K0.4 9. Optimal Input Mix. Rachel Green, owner-manager of the Manhattan-based Central Perk Coffee Shop, is reviewing the company's compensation plan. Currently, the company pays its three experienced management staff members salaries based on the number of years of service. Chandler Bing, a new management trainee, is paid a more modest salary. Monthly sales and salary data for each employee are as follows: Sales Staff Average Monthly Sales Monthly Salary Monica Geller \$200,000 \$12,000 Phoebe Buffay 150,000 9,750 Joey Tribbian 120,000 6,750 Chandler Bing 90,000 4,500 Bing in particular has shown great promise during the past year, and Green believes a substantial raise is clearly justified. At the same time, some adjustment to the compensation paid other sales personnel would also seem appropriate. Green is considering changing from the current compensation plan to one based on a 9% commission. Green sees such a plan as fairer to the parties involved and believes it would also provide strong incentives for needed market expansion. A. Calculate Central Perk's salary expense for each employee expressed as a percentage of sales
9. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 9 - generated by that individual. B. Calculate monthly income for each employee under a 9% commission-based system. C. Will a commission-based plan result in efficient relative salaries, efficient salary levels, or both? 10. Optimal Input Mix. Puerto Rico-based Chocolate Products, Inc., manufactures and distributes a distinctive line of hand-packed candies. Lucy Ricardo president of Chocolate is reviewing the company's sales-force compensation plan. Currently, the company pays its three experienced sales staff members salaries based on the number of years of service. Matty Trumbull, a new sales trainee, is paid a more modest salary. Monthly sales and salary data for each employee are as follows: Sales Staff Average Monthly Sales Monthly Salary Ethel Mertz \$300,000 \$9,000 Caroline Appleby 450,000 14,000 Ralph Ramsey 520,000 15,000 Matty Trumbull 390,000 8,000 Trumbull in particular has shown great promise during the past year, and Ricardo believes a substantial raise is clearly justified. At the same time, some adjustment to the compensation paid other sales personnel would also seem appropriate. Ricardo is considering changing from the current compensation plan to one based on a 3.5% commission. Ricardo sees such a plan as fairer to the parties involved and believes it would also provide strong incentives for needed market expansion. A. Calculate Chocolate's salary expense for each employee expressed as a percentage of the sales generated by that individual. B. Calculate monthly income for each employee under a 3.5% commission-based system. C. Will a commission-based plan result in efficient relative salaries, efficient salary levels, or both? 11. Optimal Input Mix. Salem-based Horton & Brady, Inc., is a small firm offering a wide variety of stock brokerage and financial services to high net worth individuals. Mickey Horton, president of Horton & Brady is reviewing the company's compensation plan. Currently, the company pays its three experienced financial advisors a salary based on the number of years of service. Nicole Walker, a new sales trainee, is paid a more modest salary. Sales and salary data for each employee are as follows: Financial Advisors Commissions and Fees Generated Salary Hope Williams-Brady \$3.2 million \$185,000 Austin Reed 2.8 million 112,000 Sami Brady 1.6 million 56,000 Nicole Walker 1.2 million 48,000
10. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 10 - Walker in particular has shown great promise during the past year, and Horton believes a substantial raise is clearly justified. At the same time, some adjustment to the compensation paid other sales personnel would also seem appropriate. Horton is considering changing from the current compensation plan to one based on a 5% commission. Horton sees such a plan as fairer to the parties involved and believes it would also provide strong incentives for needed market expansion. A. Calculate Horton & Brady's salary expense for each employee expressed as a percentage of the commissions and fees generated by that individual. B. Calculate income for each employee under a 5% commission-based system. C. Will a commission-based plan result in efficient relative salaries, efficient salary levels, or both? 12. Optimal Input Mix. Brisco, Van Buren & Associates is a New York City based law firm. Anita van Buren, managing partner of Brisco, Van Buren is reviewing the firm's compensation plan. Currently, the firm pays its staff attorneys salaries based upon the number of years of service. The value of billable hours generated by each staff attorney during the past year are as follows: Staff Billings Salary Ed Green \$5 million \$250,000 Serena Southerlyn 3.5 million 157,500 Jack McCoy 2 million 80,000 Nora Lewin 1.6 million 72,000 Van Buren believes some adjustment to the compensation paid all staff members would be appropriate. Van Buren is considering changing from the current compensation plan to one whereby each staff member would be paid a salary equal to 10% of client billings (gross revenue generated). Van Buren sees such a plan as fairer to the parties involved and believes it would also provide strong incentives for needed client development. A. Calculate Brisco, Van Buren's salary expense for each employee expressed as a percentage of the client billings generated by that individual. B. Calculate income for each employee under a 10% commission-based system. C. Will a commission-based plan result in efficient relative salaries, efficient salary levels, or both? 13. Optimal Input Mix. Hydraulics Ltd. has designed a pipeline that provides a throughput of 70,000 gallons of water per 24-hour period. If the diameter of the pipeline were increased by 1 inch, throughput would increase by 4,000 gallons per day. Alternatively, throughput could be increased by 6,000 gallons per day using the original pipe diameter with pumps that had 100 more horsepower. A. Estimate the marginal rate of technical substitution between pump horsepower and pipe diameter. B. Assuming the cost of additional pump size is \$600 per horsepower and the cost of larger
11. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 11 - diameter pipe is \$200,000 per inch, does the original design exhibit the property required for optimal input combinations? If so, why? If not, why not? 14. Optimal Input Mix. Electron Specialties, Inc. has designed an electric feeder cable that provides a throughput of 2,000 ampere hours (aH) per 24-hour period. If the diameter of the cable were increased by 1/2 inch, throughput would increase by 500 aH per day. Alternatively, throughput could be increased by 1,000 aH per day using the original cable diameter with an additional 100 mf of capacitance electronics designed by the firm. A. Estimate the marginal rate of technical substitution between capacitance electronics and cable diameter. B. Assuming the cost of additional capacitance electronics is \$50 per mf and the cost of larger diameter cable is \$20,000 per 1/2 inch, does the original design exhibit the property required for optimal input combinations? If so, why? If not, why not? 15. Optimal Input Mix. Boch, Ltd., has designed a fuel injector for oil fired generators that provides a throughput of 3 gallons of oil per minute. If the diameter of the industrial injector nozzle were increased by 1 centimeter, throughput would increase 1 gallon per minute. Alternatively, throughput could be increased by 2 gallons per minute using the original injector diameter with fuel pumps that had 50 more pounds of pressure (psi). A. Estimate the marginal rate of technical substitution between pump psi and injector diameter. B. Assuming the cost of additional fuel pump size is \$10 per psi (due to changing of the pump and fuel supply peripheral), and the cost of larger diameter fuel injector is \$400 per centimeter (due to machining of combustion units), does the original design exhibit the property required for optimal input combinations? If so, why? If not, why not? 16. Optimal Input Mix. Third World Solutions, Inc., has designed a manual water pump that attains a flow rate of 5 gallons per minute using 1 manpower. If the diameter of the pump were increased by 1 inch, throughput would increase 4 gallons per minute. Alternatively, throughput could be increased by an additional 8 gallons per minute using the original pump diameter with one hydraulic chamber. A. Estimate the marginal rate of technical substitution between hydraulic chambers and pump diameter. B. Assuming the cost of additional hydraulic chamber size is \$5 per chamber and the cost of a larger pump diameter is \$2.50 per inch, does the original design exhibit the property required for optimal input combinations? If so, why? If not, why not?
12. Presented by Suong Jian & Liu Yan, MGMT Panel , Guangdong University of Finance. - 12 - 17. Optimal Input Level. U-Do-It Furniture, Inc., sells hardwood chairs, in both kits and fully assembled forms. Customers who assemble their own chairs benefit from the lower kit price of \$35 per chair. "Full-service" customers enjoy the luxury of an assembled chair, but pay a higher price of \$60 per chair. Both kit and fully assembled chair prices are stable. The company has observed the following relation between the number of assembly workers employed per day and assembled chair output: Number of Workers per day Finished Chairs 0 0 1 5 2 9 3 12 4 14 5 15 A. Construct a table showing the net marginal revenue product derived from assembly worker employment. B. How many assemblers would U-Do-It Furniture employ at a daily wage rate of \$75? C. What is the highest daily wage rate U-Do-It Furniture would pay to hire four assemblers per day? 18. Optimal Input Level. Do-It-Yourself, Inc., sells budget-priced stereo receivers, in both kit and fully-assembled forms. Customers who assemble their own receivers benefit from the lower kit price of \$100 per receiver. "Full-service" customers enjoy the luxury of an assembled receiver, but pay a higher price of \$150 per receiver. Both kit and fully assembled receiver prices are stable. The company has observed the following relation between the number of assembly workers employed per day and assembled receiver output: Number of Workers per day Finished Receivers 0 0 1 8 2 14 3 18 4 20 5 21 A. Construct a table showing the net marginal revenue product derived from assembly worker employment. B. How many assemblers would Do-It-Yourself employ at a daily wage rate of \$120? C. What is the highest daily wage rate Do-It-Yourself would pay to hire four assemblers per day?