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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5208
Design and Development of Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS)
For Utilization of Waste Energy and Electromechanical Speed
Governor For Road-Lane Safety
Pratik Jaiswal1, Harshal Ugale2, Prasad Patil3, Nitin Chate4, Dr. L.G. Navale5
1 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5 Professor, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract – The term KERS refers to a technology that is
used to recover the kinetic energy of any vehicle that is lost
while retardation or deceleration. Kinetic Energy Recovery
System (KERS) is a system for recovering the moving vehicle's
kinetic energy under braking and also to convert theusualloss
in kinetic energy into gain in kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy
Recovery Systems (KERS) is a type of regenerative braking
system which has different approaches to store and reuse the
lost energy. In case of automobiles, energy conservationcanbe
done by using regenerative braking systems (RBS). When
driving an automobile, a great amount of kinetic energy is
wasted when brakes are applied, which then makes the start
up fairly energy consuming. In case of automobiles, energy
conservation can be done by using regenerative braking
systems (RBS) by kinetic energy recovery system. So the target
of recovering the energy lost in braking is completedunderthe
various types of Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS).The
vehicle may be built using various KERS designs, basedontype
of KERS used. An extra feature is added to control the speed of
vehicle which is more effective during the change of lane on
express highways.
Key Words: KERS, Electromechanical Speed Governor,
Motor, RBS, Battery, Electric Vehicle
1. INTRODUCTION
Conventional KERS systems available in
the market are converting the loss in kinetic
energy of the vehicle into electrical energy and
stored in battery for further use. It is important
to note that the kinetic energy available as high
grade energy (mechanical) is first converted to
electrical energy(low grade) andis storedinthe
battery. This energy is again converted from
electrical energy tomechanical energy byuse of
motor. It is needless to say this conversion
process is in-efficient leading to little energy
recovery thus making the KERS un-economical
and un-viable.
The proposed mechanical tomechanical
KERS uses an innovative planetary gear train
also the dedicated disk brake system to recover
the loss of kinetic energy from the front wheel
axle of the vehicle. This energy is stored in a
spiral spring set-up controlled by use of a
unidirectional sprag clutch. This system is
compact, practical and a low cost solution that
converts the loss of kinetic energy of vehicle
during braking andstores it as mechanical(high
grade) energy. It gives minimal loss in
transmission there by leading to better
efficiency. It has better conversion ratio as
compared to any other earlier KERS systems.
Electromechanical speed governing system is
coupled to the KERS system in an innovative
manner such that even if the vehicle tries to
overcome the speed limit of the given lane the
electromechanical speed governor will activate
the KERS thus the vehicle will be retarded to the
given speed limit but at the same time kinetic
energy will be recovered and saved for further
use.
1.1 Problem Statement
1. Existing systems aimat convertingbasicallythe
kinetic energy of the vehicle into mechanical
energy which is further converted into
electrical energy by dynamo to be stored into
batteries this energystored in batteries is later
reused to accelerate the vehicle using DC
motor.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5209
2. Here conversion losses are observed at each
stage due toin-efficiency of each component of
system –viz, the dynamo, battery and the
electric motor. Thus solution on thisproblemis
that there is need of a simpler system that will
convert and store the kinetic energy into pure
mechanical form and make use of same energy
to accelerate the vehicle.
1.2 OBJECTIVES
To design and develop and fabricate
mechanical KERS system aided with the
support of electromechanical speed governing
lane safety system
2.0 Scope of the project
Modify and Design suitable KERS to recover
kinetic energy for general private and public
vehicles. To develop electromechanical
governor system to assurethe road lane safety
of the vehicle.
3.0 LITERATURE SURVEY
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) by
means of Flywheel Energy Storages (FES). KERS by
means of FES are currently under development both
for motor sport and road hybrid vehicles. The aim of
the work is the optimization and implementationtothe
hybrid and electric road vehicles. Testing equipment
for the experimental analysis of the simplified FES was
designed. A regenerative brake is a mechanism that
reduces vehicle speed by converting some of itskinetic
energy into another useful form of energy - electric
current, compressed air. This captured energy is then
stored for future use or fed back into a power system
for use by other vehicles. For example, electrical
regenerative brakes in electric railway vehicles feed
the generated electricity back into the supply system.
In battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the
energy is stored in a battery or bank of twin layer
capacitors for later use. Other forms of energy storage
which may be used include compressed air and
flywheels. Regenerative braking utilizesthefactthatan
electric motor can also act as generator.
In comparison with other battery storagetechnologies,
KERS offers:
• Cycle durability - 90% efficiency of flywheel
(including power electronics) in bothdirectionsduring
KERS reference duty cycle.
• Extensive operating temperature range.
• High efficiency at whole working speed range.
• No chemistry included, thus no environmental
pollution and great recycling.
4.0 CONSTRUCTION
1. Prime mover :
Prime mover is a single phase AC motor 50 watt
power and speed variable from 0 to 6000 rpm.
2. Input open belt drive (V-belt)
3. Sun Gear : Spur gear mounted on the axle.
4. Disk brake with caliper and brake lever.
5. Planet gear mounted on planet pin mountedon
disk brake.
6. Recovery ring : Internal spur gear mounted on
axle carries the scroll spring.
7. Scroll spring: Spring steel flat spring to be
wound with inner side fixed on the recovery
ring hub and outer side on the sprag clutch
holder.
8. Sprag clutch holder carries the uni-directional
sprag clutch and is in initial lock position using
the lock-release lever on frame.
The Lane safety by low cost automation system and
accident prevention system comprisesofthefollowing:
a) Chassis or Frame: The chassis or frame is fabricated
structure that carries the entire system, rear wheel
shaft is the driver shaft that carries the reduction
pulley driven by motor using an open belt drive. The
end carries the steering mechanism in form of
Ackerman steering with the central steering wheel
controls the steering angle using the slotted lever
arrangement.
b) Motor: Motor is the prime mover, it is single phase
AC motor 50 watt, 0to 6000 rpm variable speed.Motor
speed is regulated using electronic speed regulator.
c) Over speed Sensing mechanism : The over speed
sensing mechanism is a mechanical linkage based on
the bob-weight type centrifugal governor , only that is
used to vary the proximal distance between the probe
and the sensor which is inductive type.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5210
d) Electronic Proximity sensor
The electronic proximity sensor is mounted on the
sheet metal panel on the base frame by means of a Z
shaped clamp. The proximity sensor as the name
suggests senses the proximity of the indexer buttons
which acts as stops, such that when they come in front
of the proximity sensor the table the relay is operated
to stop the table motion. The proximity sensor is
connected tothe electronic relay andthepowersource.
Sensor type: InductivetypeproximitysensorSize:M18
e) Electronic Speed Regulator
Motor is a commutator motor i.e., the current to motor
is supplied to motor by means of carbon brushes. The
power input to motor is varied by changing thecurrent
supply tothese brushes bythe electronicspeedaviator,
thereby the speed is also changes
f) Braking Mechanism: The braking mechanism uses a
Disk brake and brake caliper arrangement. The Disk
brake is used with the view to maximize the braking
and ensure safety. The brake caliper is actuated
electrically using a solenoid, with electromagnetic
operation.
Fig.1 Schematic of mechanical kinetic energy
recovery system with electromechanical governing
5.0 Experimental Validation
5.1 Test and Trial on KERS
 Procedure for Constant Brake Load
1. Start motor
2. Keep Constant load of 0.45 kg
Calculations for 1st Reading:
Data: Wheel diameter: 31.5 cm
Initial Speed= D*N*0.001885
Where
D=Wheel diameter
N=Speed in rpm
Initial Speed = 220*31.5*0.001885= 13.064436 kmph
Load = 0.45 kg
Output Speed = 160 rpm
=160*31.5*0.001885
Output speed = 9.5004kmph
Initial Kinetic Energy = ½ mvi2
= ½ *0.45*13.0644362
= 38.7584 J
Final Kinetic Energy = ½ mvf2
= ½ *0.45*9.50042
= 20.5003 J
Energy Absorbed = Initial Kinetic Energy (J) - Final
Kinetic Energy(J)
= 38.7584 - 20.5003
= 18.2581 J
Brake Torque = Force*Effective radius of disc brake
= 0.45*9.81*0.104
= 0.459 N-m
Power Absorbed = 2**N*T
60
= 2**160*0.459
60
= 7.6906 W
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5211
At constant breaking load, power output of the system
increase with increase in speed.
Chart -1: At Constant Braking Load (0.45kg)
6.0 ADVANTAGES
1. Increase of overall energy efficiency of a
vehicle.
2. Increases the lifespan of friction braking
systems.
3. Cuts down on pollution related to electricity
generation.
4. The system eliminatestheover-speedingwhich
considerably reduces the chances of accidents
due to over-speeding.
5. Ensures safety of the driver and or passengers
as automatically speed is reduced.
6. Reduces brake wear and tear as no need of
excessive braking force to keep vehicle speed
in control.
7. Low system cost as low level electronics is
used.
8. Minimal space requirements hence
modifications in conventional system is
reduced further increases the adaptability of
system
7.0 APPLICATIONS
Addition of the system with passenger cars, sports
utility vehicle and commercial cars, medium to heavy
duty transport vehicles, cargo trucks and public
transport vehicles etc.will be economical and ensure
the road safety.
8.0 CONCLUSIONS
From design, development and testing of the KERS
system it is concluded that the wastage of kinetic
energy in the form of friction and heat can be
stored for further use and the speed of the vehicle
can be controlled by governing system.The
increase in speed results into more energy
recovered.
REFRENCES
[1]Cibulka, J., “Kinetic energy recovery system by
means of flywheel energy storage”, Advanced
Engineering, Vol 3 (2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900
[2]Yaoxing Shang, Xiaochao LIU, Zongxia Jiao, “A
novel integrated self-powered brake system for more
electric aircraft”, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol
31(2018),Issue 5
[3]SamuelWicki a, ErikG.Hansen b,“An innovation
systems perspective on flywheel energy
storage”,Journalof Cleaner Production,Vol118(2017),
Issue1
[4]TanzilaYounas, Imran Hussain,“EnergyRecovery
Using Ratchet Mechanism: An Experimental
Study”,Energy Procedia,Vol 118 (2017) ISSN 104–109
[5] GouYanan, “Research on Electric Vehicle
Regenerative Braking System and Energy
Recovery”,International Journal of Hybrid Information
Technology, Vol.9, No.1 (2016)
[6] Giuseppe Leo Guizzia, Michele Manno, “Kinetic
energy recovery system for sailing yachts”,Energy
Procedia,Vol 45 ( 2014 ) ISSN 799 – 808
[7] www.sciencedirect.com
[8] www.topgear.com
[9]www.researchget.net
[10]www.extremetech.com

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KERS system recovers waste energy from vehicles

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5208 Design and Development of Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) For Utilization of Waste Energy and Electromechanical Speed Governor For Road-Lane Safety Pratik Jaiswal1, Harshal Ugale2, Prasad Patil3, Nitin Chate4, Dr. L.G. Navale5 1 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India 2 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India 3 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India 4 Student, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India 5 Professor, Mechanical Engg. Dept. , Dr.D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pune, Maharashtra, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract – The term KERS refers to a technology that is used to recover the kinetic energy of any vehicle that is lost while retardation or deceleration. Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) is a system for recovering the moving vehicle's kinetic energy under braking and also to convert theusualloss in kinetic energy into gain in kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) is a type of regenerative braking system which has different approaches to store and reuse the lost energy. In case of automobiles, energy conservationcanbe done by using regenerative braking systems (RBS). When driving an automobile, a great amount of kinetic energy is wasted when brakes are applied, which then makes the start up fairly energy consuming. In case of automobiles, energy conservation can be done by using regenerative braking systems (RBS) by kinetic energy recovery system. So the target of recovering the energy lost in braking is completedunderthe various types of Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS).The vehicle may be built using various KERS designs, basedontype of KERS used. An extra feature is added to control the speed of vehicle which is more effective during the change of lane on express highways. Key Words: KERS, Electromechanical Speed Governor, Motor, RBS, Battery, Electric Vehicle 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional KERS systems available in the market are converting the loss in kinetic energy of the vehicle into electrical energy and stored in battery for further use. It is important to note that the kinetic energy available as high grade energy (mechanical) is first converted to electrical energy(low grade) andis storedinthe battery. This energy is again converted from electrical energy tomechanical energy byuse of motor. It is needless to say this conversion process is in-efficient leading to little energy recovery thus making the KERS un-economical and un-viable. The proposed mechanical tomechanical KERS uses an innovative planetary gear train also the dedicated disk brake system to recover the loss of kinetic energy from the front wheel axle of the vehicle. This energy is stored in a spiral spring set-up controlled by use of a unidirectional sprag clutch. This system is compact, practical and a low cost solution that converts the loss of kinetic energy of vehicle during braking andstores it as mechanical(high grade) energy. It gives minimal loss in transmission there by leading to better efficiency. It has better conversion ratio as compared to any other earlier KERS systems. Electromechanical speed governing system is coupled to the KERS system in an innovative manner such that even if the vehicle tries to overcome the speed limit of the given lane the electromechanical speed governor will activate the KERS thus the vehicle will be retarded to the given speed limit but at the same time kinetic energy will be recovered and saved for further use. 1.1 Problem Statement 1. Existing systems aimat convertingbasicallythe kinetic energy of the vehicle into mechanical energy which is further converted into electrical energy by dynamo to be stored into batteries this energystored in batteries is later reused to accelerate the vehicle using DC motor.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5209 2. Here conversion losses are observed at each stage due toin-efficiency of each component of system –viz, the dynamo, battery and the electric motor. Thus solution on thisproblemis that there is need of a simpler system that will convert and store the kinetic energy into pure mechanical form and make use of same energy to accelerate the vehicle. 1.2 OBJECTIVES To design and develop and fabricate mechanical KERS system aided with the support of electromechanical speed governing lane safety system 2.0 Scope of the project Modify and Design suitable KERS to recover kinetic energy for general private and public vehicles. To develop electromechanical governor system to assurethe road lane safety of the vehicle. 3.0 LITERATURE SURVEY Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) by means of Flywheel Energy Storages (FES). KERS by means of FES are currently under development both for motor sport and road hybrid vehicles. The aim of the work is the optimization and implementationtothe hybrid and electric road vehicles. Testing equipment for the experimental analysis of the simplified FES was designed. A regenerative brake is a mechanism that reduces vehicle speed by converting some of itskinetic energy into another useful form of energy - electric current, compressed air. This captured energy is then stored for future use or fed back into a power system for use by other vehicles. For example, electrical regenerative brakes in electric railway vehicles feed the generated electricity back into the supply system. In battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored in a battery or bank of twin layer capacitors for later use. Other forms of energy storage which may be used include compressed air and flywheels. Regenerative braking utilizesthefactthatan electric motor can also act as generator. In comparison with other battery storagetechnologies, KERS offers: • Cycle durability - 90% efficiency of flywheel (including power electronics) in bothdirectionsduring KERS reference duty cycle. • Extensive operating temperature range. • High efficiency at whole working speed range. • No chemistry included, thus no environmental pollution and great recycling. 4.0 CONSTRUCTION 1. Prime mover : Prime mover is a single phase AC motor 50 watt power and speed variable from 0 to 6000 rpm. 2. Input open belt drive (V-belt) 3. Sun Gear : Spur gear mounted on the axle. 4. Disk brake with caliper and brake lever. 5. Planet gear mounted on planet pin mountedon disk brake. 6. Recovery ring : Internal spur gear mounted on axle carries the scroll spring. 7. Scroll spring: Spring steel flat spring to be wound with inner side fixed on the recovery ring hub and outer side on the sprag clutch holder. 8. Sprag clutch holder carries the uni-directional sprag clutch and is in initial lock position using the lock-release lever on frame. The Lane safety by low cost automation system and accident prevention system comprisesofthefollowing: a) Chassis or Frame: The chassis or frame is fabricated structure that carries the entire system, rear wheel shaft is the driver shaft that carries the reduction pulley driven by motor using an open belt drive. The end carries the steering mechanism in form of Ackerman steering with the central steering wheel controls the steering angle using the slotted lever arrangement. b) Motor: Motor is the prime mover, it is single phase AC motor 50 watt, 0to 6000 rpm variable speed.Motor speed is regulated using electronic speed regulator. c) Over speed Sensing mechanism : The over speed sensing mechanism is a mechanical linkage based on the bob-weight type centrifugal governor , only that is used to vary the proximal distance between the probe and the sensor which is inductive type.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5210 d) Electronic Proximity sensor The electronic proximity sensor is mounted on the sheet metal panel on the base frame by means of a Z shaped clamp. The proximity sensor as the name suggests senses the proximity of the indexer buttons which acts as stops, such that when they come in front of the proximity sensor the table the relay is operated to stop the table motion. The proximity sensor is connected tothe electronic relay andthepowersource. Sensor type: InductivetypeproximitysensorSize:M18 e) Electronic Speed Regulator Motor is a commutator motor i.e., the current to motor is supplied to motor by means of carbon brushes. The power input to motor is varied by changing thecurrent supply tothese brushes bythe electronicspeedaviator, thereby the speed is also changes f) Braking Mechanism: The braking mechanism uses a Disk brake and brake caliper arrangement. The Disk brake is used with the view to maximize the braking and ensure safety. The brake caliper is actuated electrically using a solenoid, with electromagnetic operation. Fig.1 Schematic of mechanical kinetic energy recovery system with electromechanical governing 5.0 Experimental Validation 5.1 Test and Trial on KERS  Procedure for Constant Brake Load 1. Start motor 2. Keep Constant load of 0.45 kg Calculations for 1st Reading: Data: Wheel diameter: 31.5 cm Initial Speed= D*N*0.001885 Where D=Wheel diameter N=Speed in rpm Initial Speed = 220*31.5*0.001885= 13.064436 kmph Load = 0.45 kg Output Speed = 160 rpm =160*31.5*0.001885 Output speed = 9.5004kmph Initial Kinetic Energy = ½ mvi2 = ½ *0.45*13.0644362 = 38.7584 J Final Kinetic Energy = ½ mvf2 = ½ *0.45*9.50042 = 20.5003 J Energy Absorbed = Initial Kinetic Energy (J) - Final Kinetic Energy(J) = 38.7584 - 20.5003 = 18.2581 J Brake Torque = Force*Effective radius of disc brake = 0.45*9.81*0.104 = 0.459 N-m Power Absorbed = 2**N*T 60 = 2**160*0.459 60 = 7.6906 W
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 06 Issue: 04 | Apr 2019 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 5211 At constant breaking load, power output of the system increase with increase in speed. Chart -1: At Constant Braking Load (0.45kg) 6.0 ADVANTAGES 1. Increase of overall energy efficiency of a vehicle. 2. Increases the lifespan of friction braking systems. 3. Cuts down on pollution related to electricity generation. 4. The system eliminatestheover-speedingwhich considerably reduces the chances of accidents due to over-speeding. 5. Ensures safety of the driver and or passengers as automatically speed is reduced. 6. Reduces brake wear and tear as no need of excessive braking force to keep vehicle speed in control. 7. Low system cost as low level electronics is used. 8. Minimal space requirements hence modifications in conventional system is reduced further increases the adaptability of system 7.0 APPLICATIONS Addition of the system with passenger cars, sports utility vehicle and commercial cars, medium to heavy duty transport vehicles, cargo trucks and public transport vehicles etc.will be economical and ensure the road safety. 8.0 CONCLUSIONS From design, development and testing of the KERS system it is concluded that the wastage of kinetic energy in the form of friction and heat can be stored for further use and the speed of the vehicle can be controlled by governing system.The increase in speed results into more energy recovered. REFRENCES [1]Cibulka, J., “Kinetic energy recovery system by means of flywheel energy storage”, Advanced Engineering, Vol 3 (2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900 [2]Yaoxing Shang, Xiaochao LIU, Zongxia Jiao, “A novel integrated self-powered brake system for more electric aircraft”, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Vol 31(2018),Issue 5 [3]SamuelWicki a, ErikG.Hansen b,“An innovation systems perspective on flywheel energy storage”,Journalof Cleaner Production,Vol118(2017), Issue1 [4]TanzilaYounas, Imran Hussain,“EnergyRecovery Using Ratchet Mechanism: An Experimental Study”,Energy Procedia,Vol 118 (2017) ISSN 104–109 [5] GouYanan, “Research on Electric Vehicle Regenerative Braking System and Energy Recovery”,International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, Vol.9, No.1 (2016) [6] Giuseppe Leo Guizzia, Michele Manno, “Kinetic energy recovery system for sailing yachts”,Energy Procedia,Vol 45 ( 2014 ) ISSN 799 – 808 [7] www.sciencedirect.com [8] www.topgear.com [9]www.researchget.net [10]www.extremetech.com