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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064
Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013
www.ijsr.net
Dual U-Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna with
Enhanced Bandwidth
Sapna Panwar1
, Bhagwan Swaroop Sharma2
1
RKDF Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2
Deptt. of Electronics & Communication, RKDF Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract: A small H-shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) with enhanced bandwidth is presented. The H-shaped antenna is first
studied and then fully simulated by HFSS. A dual U slot H patch configuration is proposed to increase the narrow bandwidth, radiation
efficiency and directivity. A novel H-shaped patch antenna suitable for wireless and satellite communications is presented. This paper
presents the dual U slot H-shaped microstrip patch antenna feed by transmission line. The decrease in the prices of handheld devices
and services has made available on the move internet and web services facility to the customers, small antennas requirement are
increasing. In this paper H-shaped patch antenna is designed using FR4 substrate. The proposed modified H shaped antenna is
designed and simulated using HFSS and caters to various wireless applications such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi, UMTS and Digital Multimedia
Broadcasting (DMB) e.g. T V, etc.
Keywords: MPA, Wimax, DMB, HFSS.
1. Introduction
A simple microstrip patch antenna in its simplest form
consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric
substrate and a ground plane on the other side as shown in
figure 1[1]. Due to some of their key advantages microstrip
antennas are in general preferred over conventional wire and
metallic antennas, for many applications such as Global
Positioning System (GPS), Direct Broadcasting Satellite
(DBS) Systems, mobile communications, WiMAX,
Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc. Their advantages include low profile,
light weight, low cost, robustness, ease of fabrication using
printed-circuit technology, integration with RF devices and
conformal to mounting structures etc. However simple
microstrip patch antennas often suffer low gain, bandwidth
and low power-handling capability. For wireless
communication system, antenna is one of the most critical
components. A good design of the antenna can relax system
requirements and improve overall system performance. With
the available modern day services such as on the move
internet browsing, e-banking, digital cable TV, etc and small
handheld devices it is often require that the antenna to be
achieve low profile good gain and wideband/multi-band
characteristics. A number of approaches have been reported
to obtain compact dual band microstrip antenna such as
loading of rectangular, circular and triangular patches by
shorting pins, crossed slot and the use of a rectangular ring.
One of the other techniques to achieve multi-band operations
is to use fractal structures.
Figure 1: Structure of simple edge feed microstrip patch
antenna
This paper work presents the design and analysis of H-
shaped microstrip patch antenna. The designed H-shaped
antennas have dual/triple band operations and provide better
gain as compared to simple rectangular shaped patch
antennas of same dimensions.
2. Geometry of Microstrip Patch Antenna
In an H-shaped patch antenna designing, a simple
rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMSA) is considered
having different kind of feeding techniques. In the current
design we have considered to use edge feeding technique as
it is advantageous in small size applications [2]. The feeding
is designed over the patch substrate itself.
In this design we have used an FR-4 substrate with dielectric
constant ( r ) of 4.4 & tan δ of 0.09. The substrate height is
considered 62 mil. The calculation for dimension of patch is
calculated according to the below mentioned formula:
Width of the patch is calculated by given equation:
1
2
2fo
C
W  r (1)
Where c= 3x108 m/sec
f= Solution frequency
r = Dielectric constant
Length of the patch is calculated by following equation:
 2
2 efff
C
L

(2)
Where eff = Effective dielectric const.
= Length Extension.
Length of the ground is calculated by given equation:
L6hLg  (3)
145
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064
Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013
www.ijsr.net
Where L= Length of Patch
h= Height of Substrate
Width of the ground is calculated by given equation:
W6hWg  (4)
Where W= Width of Patch
h= Height of Substrate
Table 1: Patch Dimensions
Dielectric Substrate (FR4) εr = 4.4; tan δ= 0.09
Substrate height (h) 62 mil
1
2
2fo
C
W  r
37.26mm
2
1
121
2
1
2
1










W
hrr
reff


4.08











8.0)258.0(
264.0)3.0(
412.0
h
W
h
W
hL
reff
reff


0.738mm
effo
eff
f
C
L
2

28.83mm
 2
2 effof
C
L

27.35mm
The table 1 above shows the mathematical calculation results
to determine the dimensions. The results are for resonant
frequency of 2.45 GHz. Hence the patch dimensions can be
calculated and the rectangular microstrip antenna is designed
with W=37mm and L=27.3 mm.
As we see electrically, the patch is a combination of R, L and
C components arranged in series/Parallel combination [3].
Now, define two notches in the patch to increase the total
surface area of the patch. The notches result in variation in
the current distribution of microstrip patch, as a cut along the
non-radiating edge, the notches added hence increases the
resistance & capacitance of the layout. This happens due to
increase in the length of the current path in the antenna
which in result adds an extra capacitance & extra resistance
in the circuit.
Now by taking up this theory, we had decided to increase the
surface area of the patch by giving extra slots on the top of
the patch which increases the gain and bandwidth of the
patch antenna.
3. Design Parameters
Fig 2 and Fig 3 show the top view of the H-shape patch
antenna designed on HFSS (High frequency Structure
Simulator) software.
Figure 2: Top view of dual U slot H-shaped patch antenna
Edge feed is used in the design to feed the antenna. The feed
location is calculated for 50Ω match and a little hit & trial is
done. In an edge feed, the matching is basically achieved at
the lower end of the patch [4].
Two U-shaped notches are cut in the H-Patch. The
dimensions are shown in the figure below:
Figure 3: Dimensions of dual U slot H-shaped patch antenna
4. Simulation Results
Place The H-shaped patch antenna with double U slot in to it
was achieved. The slots cause the increase in inductance on
the current path of the signal. This should increase the
bandwidth of the antenna as well as gain.
The figure below shows the return loss & Bandwidth of the
patch antenna.
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
Freq [GHz]
-45.00
-40.00
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
dB(St(1,1))
Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1Return Loss
m4
m5
m6
m7
m8
m9
Curve Info
dB(St(1,1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
Name X Y
m4 7.1338 -41.4253
m5 4.3117 -25.0100
m6 3.4739 -31.9003
m7 2.8124 -29.3652
m8 2.1510 -20.3228
m9 1.4014 -12.0467
Figure 4: Return Loss
146
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064
Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013
www.ijsr.net
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00
Freq [GHz]
-45.00
-40.00
-35.00
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00dB(St(1,1))
Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1Bandwidth
m1 m2m3
Curve Info
dB(St(1,1))
Setup1 : Sweep1
Name X Y
m1 5.5464 -9.6657
m2 9.0299 -10.1780
m3 2.2392 -10.6424
Figure 5: Bandwidth
As in the figure we can see that the return loss is -42dB. For
bandwidth maximum bandwidth is achieved between
frequency 5.5GHz & 9GHz. The formula for bandwidth is
calculated as follows:
BW= f (high) – f (low)
= m2 – m1
= 9.0GHz – 5.5 GHz = 3.5 GHz
The Figure 6 & 7 below shows total gain of the antenna
achieved at solution frequency.
Figure 6: Total Gain (3D Polar plot)
-200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00
Theta [deg]
-27.50
-25.00
-22.50
-20.00
-17.50
-15.00
-12.50
-10.00
-7.50
-5.00
dB(GainTotal)
Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1ff_2D_GainTotal
m1
m2
m3
Curve Info
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Freq='2.45GHz' Phi='0deg'
Name X Y
m1 -124.0000 -21.4329
m2 0.0000 -6.8741
m3 134.0000 -25.1820
Figure 7: Total Gain (2D, Rectangular Plot)
5. Conclusion
In this paper, design and analysis of Dual U slot H-shaped
patch antenna is presented. The results shown here is done
by HFSS simulation. The designed antenna achieves
bandwidth of 3.5 GHz and giving us high return loss,
directivity and gain is also simulated by High Frequency
Structure Simulator. The result also simulated that the
antenna can be used for wide range of frequency. A gain of
-25dB is achieved.
Thus the designed antenna can be used for various
applications such as WIMAX, Wi-Fi, Digital broadcasting,
geological & metrological signal, Radar navigation etc. The
future works on enhancing the bandwidth can be done by
increasing the surface area of the patch, but attention should
be given to manage the gain as well.
References
[1] Indrasen Singh et al, Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl., Vol 2
(5), 1595-1599, “Micro strip Patch Antenna and its
Applications: a Survey” Page no-1.
[2] Constantine A. Balanis, "Antenna Theory - Analysis
and Design", 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc.,
1997.
[3] Rahul Batra, P.L.Zade & Dipika Sagne, "Design and
analysis of modified H-shape antenna for wireless
communication”, 3rd IEEE, IACC, 2013.
[4] “Broadband patch antenna with ring slot coupling” by
Y. Qin, S. Gao, A. Sambell, E. Korolkiewicz and M.
Elsdon ELECTRONICS LETTERS 8th January 2004
Vol. 40 No. 1
[5] J. A. Ansari, Satya Kesh Dubey, Prabhakar Singh, R.
U. Khan, and Babau R. Vishvakarma, "Analysis of
compact H-shaped microstrip antenna", Microwave and
Optical Technology Letters / Vol. 50, No. 7, July 2008.
Author Profile
Asst. Prof. Bhagwan Swaroop Sharma is an M. Tech
in Spatial Information Technology from school of
Electronics DAVV Indore. He completed his M. Tech
in 2011. He did his BE in Electronics & Comm.
Engineering from PCST, RGPV in 2009. Since then he has been
working with RKDF-IST, Bhopal as Asst. Prof. in Electronics &
communication department.
Sapna Panwar is a B. Tech graduate in Electronics &
Communication from SIET, Gr. Noida in 2009. She is
now pursuing her M. Tech with RKDF-IST, Bhopal in
Microwave & Millimeter Dept.
147

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Dual U-Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth

  • 1. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013 www.ijsr.net Dual U-Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna with Enhanced Bandwidth Sapna Panwar1 , Bhagwan Swaroop Sharma2 1 RKDF Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 Deptt. of Electronics & Communication, RKDF Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: A small H-shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) with enhanced bandwidth is presented. The H-shaped antenna is first studied and then fully simulated by HFSS. A dual U slot H patch configuration is proposed to increase the narrow bandwidth, radiation efficiency and directivity. A novel H-shaped patch antenna suitable for wireless and satellite communications is presented. This paper presents the dual U slot H-shaped microstrip patch antenna feed by transmission line. The decrease in the prices of handheld devices and services has made available on the move internet and web services facility to the customers, small antennas requirement are increasing. In this paper H-shaped patch antenna is designed using FR4 substrate. The proposed modified H shaped antenna is designed and simulated using HFSS and caters to various wireless applications such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi, UMTS and Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) e.g. T V, etc. Keywords: MPA, Wimax, DMB, HFSS. 1. Introduction A simple microstrip patch antenna in its simplest form consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate and a ground plane on the other side as shown in figure 1[1]. Due to some of their key advantages microstrip antennas are in general preferred over conventional wire and metallic antennas, for many applications such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Direct Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) Systems, mobile communications, WiMAX, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc. Their advantages include low profile, light weight, low cost, robustness, ease of fabrication using printed-circuit technology, integration with RF devices and conformal to mounting structures etc. However simple microstrip patch antennas often suffer low gain, bandwidth and low power-handling capability. For wireless communication system, antenna is one of the most critical components. A good design of the antenna can relax system requirements and improve overall system performance. With the available modern day services such as on the move internet browsing, e-banking, digital cable TV, etc and small handheld devices it is often require that the antenna to be achieve low profile good gain and wideband/multi-band characteristics. A number of approaches have been reported to obtain compact dual band microstrip antenna such as loading of rectangular, circular and triangular patches by shorting pins, crossed slot and the use of a rectangular ring. One of the other techniques to achieve multi-band operations is to use fractal structures. Figure 1: Structure of simple edge feed microstrip patch antenna This paper work presents the design and analysis of H- shaped microstrip patch antenna. The designed H-shaped antennas have dual/triple band operations and provide better gain as compared to simple rectangular shaped patch antennas of same dimensions. 2. Geometry of Microstrip Patch Antenna In an H-shaped patch antenna designing, a simple rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMSA) is considered having different kind of feeding techniques. In the current design we have considered to use edge feeding technique as it is advantageous in small size applications [2]. The feeding is designed over the patch substrate itself. In this design we have used an FR-4 substrate with dielectric constant ( r ) of 4.4 & tan δ of 0.09. The substrate height is considered 62 mil. The calculation for dimension of patch is calculated according to the below mentioned formula: Width of the patch is calculated by given equation: 1 2 2fo C W  r (1) Where c= 3x108 m/sec f= Solution frequency r = Dielectric constant Length of the patch is calculated by following equation:  2 2 efff C L  (2) Where eff = Effective dielectric const. = Length Extension. Length of the ground is calculated by given equation: L6hLg  (3) 145
  • 2. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013 www.ijsr.net Where L= Length of Patch h= Height of Substrate Width of the ground is calculated by given equation: W6hWg  (4) Where W= Width of Patch h= Height of Substrate Table 1: Patch Dimensions Dielectric Substrate (FR4) εr = 4.4; tan δ= 0.09 Substrate height (h) 62 mil 1 2 2fo C W  r 37.26mm 2 1 121 2 1 2 1           W hrr reff   4.08            8.0)258.0( 264.0)3.0( 412.0 h W h W hL reff reff   0.738mm effo eff f C L 2  28.83mm  2 2 effof C L  27.35mm The table 1 above shows the mathematical calculation results to determine the dimensions. The results are for resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. Hence the patch dimensions can be calculated and the rectangular microstrip antenna is designed with W=37mm and L=27.3 mm. As we see electrically, the patch is a combination of R, L and C components arranged in series/Parallel combination [3]. Now, define two notches in the patch to increase the total surface area of the patch. The notches result in variation in the current distribution of microstrip patch, as a cut along the non-radiating edge, the notches added hence increases the resistance & capacitance of the layout. This happens due to increase in the length of the current path in the antenna which in result adds an extra capacitance & extra resistance in the circuit. Now by taking up this theory, we had decided to increase the surface area of the patch by giving extra slots on the top of the patch which increases the gain and bandwidth of the patch antenna. 3. Design Parameters Fig 2 and Fig 3 show the top view of the H-shape patch antenna designed on HFSS (High frequency Structure Simulator) software. Figure 2: Top view of dual U slot H-shaped patch antenna Edge feed is used in the design to feed the antenna. The feed location is calculated for 50Ω match and a little hit & trial is done. In an edge feed, the matching is basically achieved at the lower end of the patch [4]. Two U-shaped notches are cut in the H-Patch. The dimensions are shown in the figure below: Figure 3: Dimensions of dual U slot H-shaped patch antenna 4. Simulation Results Place The H-shaped patch antenna with double U slot in to it was achieved. The slots cause the increase in inductance on the current path of the signal. This should increase the bandwidth of the antenna as well as gain. The figure below shows the return loss & Bandwidth of the patch antenna. 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 Freq [GHz] -45.00 -40.00 -35.00 -30.00 -25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 dB(St(1,1)) Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1Return Loss m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 m9 Curve Info dB(St(1,1)) Setup1 : Sweep1 Name X Y m4 7.1338 -41.4253 m5 4.3117 -25.0100 m6 3.4739 -31.9003 m7 2.8124 -29.3652 m8 2.1510 -20.3228 m9 1.4014 -12.0467 Figure 4: Return Loss 146
  • 3. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online ISSN: 2319-7064 Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013 www.ijsr.net 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 Freq [GHz] -45.00 -40.00 -35.00 -30.00 -25.00 -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00dB(St(1,1)) Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1Bandwidth m1 m2m3 Curve Info dB(St(1,1)) Setup1 : Sweep1 Name X Y m1 5.5464 -9.6657 m2 9.0299 -10.1780 m3 2.2392 -10.6424 Figure 5: Bandwidth As in the figure we can see that the return loss is -42dB. For bandwidth maximum bandwidth is achieved between frequency 5.5GHz & 9GHz. The formula for bandwidth is calculated as follows: BW= f (high) – f (low) = m2 – m1 = 9.0GHz – 5.5 GHz = 3.5 GHz The Figure 6 & 7 below shows total gain of the antenna achieved at solution frequency. Figure 6: Total Gain (3D Polar plot) -200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 Theta [deg] -27.50 -25.00 -22.50 -20.00 -17.50 -15.00 -12.50 -10.00 -7.50 -5.00 dB(GainTotal) Ansoft LLC Patch_Antenna_ADKv1ff_2D_GainTotal m1 m2 m3 Curve Info dB(GainTotal) Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq='2.45GHz' Phi='0deg' Name X Y m1 -124.0000 -21.4329 m2 0.0000 -6.8741 m3 134.0000 -25.1820 Figure 7: Total Gain (2D, Rectangular Plot) 5. Conclusion In this paper, design and analysis of Dual U slot H-shaped patch antenna is presented. The results shown here is done by HFSS simulation. The designed antenna achieves bandwidth of 3.5 GHz and giving us high return loss, directivity and gain is also simulated by High Frequency Structure Simulator. The result also simulated that the antenna can be used for wide range of frequency. A gain of -25dB is achieved. Thus the designed antenna can be used for various applications such as WIMAX, Wi-Fi, Digital broadcasting, geological & metrological signal, Radar navigation etc. The future works on enhancing the bandwidth can be done by increasing the surface area of the patch, but attention should be given to manage the gain as well. References [1] Indrasen Singh et al, Int. J. Comp. Tech. Appl., Vol 2 (5), 1595-1599, “Micro strip Patch Antenna and its Applications: a Survey” Page no-1. [2] Constantine A. Balanis, "Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design", 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1997. [3] Rahul Batra, P.L.Zade & Dipika Sagne, "Design and analysis of modified H-shape antenna for wireless communication”, 3rd IEEE, IACC, 2013. [4] “Broadband patch antenna with ring slot coupling” by Y. Qin, S. Gao, A. Sambell, E. Korolkiewicz and M. Elsdon ELECTRONICS LETTERS 8th January 2004 Vol. 40 No. 1 [5] J. A. Ansari, Satya Kesh Dubey, Prabhakar Singh, R. U. Khan, and Babau R. Vishvakarma, "Analysis of compact H-shaped microstrip antenna", Microwave and Optical Technology Letters / Vol. 50, No. 7, July 2008. Author Profile Asst. Prof. Bhagwan Swaroop Sharma is an M. Tech in Spatial Information Technology from school of Electronics DAVV Indore. He completed his M. Tech in 2011. He did his BE in Electronics & Comm. Engineering from PCST, RGPV in 2009. Since then he has been working with RKDF-IST, Bhopal as Asst. Prof. in Electronics & communication department. Sapna Panwar is a B. Tech graduate in Electronics & Communication from SIET, Gr. Noida in 2009. She is now pursuing her M. Tech with RKDF-IST, Bhopal in Microwave & Millimeter Dept. 147