Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
CE 3121: Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory
Introduction
Moisture Content, Unit...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
 Handouts: Syllabus, Report Format
 Class website:
http://www.classes.ce.ttu.e...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Syllabus
 Text books:
 Soil Mechanics: Laboratory
Manual by Braja M. Das
 Lec...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Report Format
 Each group will submit one report per lab
 Reports are due one ...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Report Format - Conclusion
 Report your results (use a table)
 Do the results ...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Significance of this Class
 Why do you need to learn about soils?
Almost all st...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Transcosna Grain Elevator, Canada
Oct. 18, 1913
West side of foundation sank 24-...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Settlement
Palacio de las Bellas, Artes,
Mexico City
Leaning Tower, Pisa
8
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Shear Failure – Slope Stability
9
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Organization of the Lab Tests
Physical
(Soil Characteristics)
Mechanical
Moistur...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Today’s Lab
 Determination of unit weight (density)
 Determination of moisture...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
1- Unit Weight, g
 Take several measurements for diameter and
height
 Take the...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
2- Moisture Content, w
 Definition: Moisture content is an indicator of the
amo...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
2- Moisture Content – Sample Size
 Minimum mass of moist material selected to b...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
2- Moisture Content - Procedure
Video Demos
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
2- Moisture Content – Sample Calculation
16
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
3- Specific Gravity, Gs
 Definition; specific gravity, Gs, of soil solids is th...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
3- Specific Gravity – Sample Size
 The procedure employs Archimedes’s principle...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
3- Specific Gravity - Apparatus
Report Gs in terms of GS (200C) = GS (Ti0C) x A
...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
3- Specific Gravity – Expected Values
 Expected Values for Gs
Type of Soil Gs
S...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
 Phase Relationships
 Three phase diagram
 Weight relationships
 Volumetric ...
Phase Relationships: A 3-Phase Material
Solid
Water
Air
22
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
The Mineral Skeleton
Volume
Solid Particles
Voids (air or water)
23
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Three Phase Soil
(Partially Saturated)
Solids
Air
Water
Mineral Skeleton Idealiz...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Two Phase Soil
(1) Fully Saturated Soils
Fully Saturated
Water
Solids
Mineral Sk...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Two Phase Soil
(2) Dry Soils [Oven Dried]
Mineral Skeleton Dry Soil
Air
Solids
26
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Weight-Volume Relationships
Volume Weight
Solids
Air
Water
WT
Ws
Ww
Wa~0
Vs
Va
V...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Weight Relationships (weight -ratios)
 Weight ratios
 Moisture Content, w
 Sp...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Specific Gravity (weight ratio)
WaterofVolumeEqualanofWeight
ceSubsaofWeight
Gra...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Typical Values for Specific Gravity, Gs
30
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Volumetric Relationships (Vol. ratios)
 Volumetric ratios
 Void ratio, e
 Por...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Volumetric Relationships
s
v
V
V
eRatioVoid ,
%100(%), 
V
w
V
V
SSaturationof...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Weight-Volume Relationships
 Steps to develop the weight-volume relationship
 ...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Example:
 Determine moisture content, void
ratio, porosity and degree of
satura...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Solid
Air
Water
Ma~0
Volumes Weights
1013.0g585.0cm3
904.0g
Gs =2.65
109.0g
341....
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Sample Calculation (cont.)
g
w
M
M
MwMMwM
insubstitute
MwM
M
M
wbut
MMM
T
s
sssT...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Weight-Volume Relationships (cont.)
 From the previous figure we can find:
 Mo...
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Weight-Volume Relationships (cont.)
38
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
Typical Unit weights
39
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
40
Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University
This Report Should Include
1. Unit Weight of Soil, g
2. Water Content, w
3. Spec...
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×
Nächste SlideShare
Class 3 (b) Soil Classification ( Geotechnical Engineering )
Weiter
Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen und im Vollbildmodus anzuzeigen.

46

Teilen

Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen

Class 1 Moisture Content - Specific Gravity ( Geotechnical Engineering )

Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen

Class 1 Moisture Content - Specific Gravity ( Geotechnical Engineering )

Ähnliche Bücher

Kostenlos mit einer 30-tägigen Testversion von Scribd

Alle anzeigen

Ähnliche Hörbücher

Kostenlos mit einer 30-tägigen Testversion von Scribd

Alle anzeigen

Class 1 Moisture Content - Specific Gravity ( Geotechnical Engineering )

  1. 1. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University CE 3121: Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Introduction Moisture Content, Unit Weight, Specific Gravity and Phase Relationships Abdulrahman Alhabshi Sources: Soil Mechanics – Laboratory Manual, B.M. DAS (Chapters 2 - 3) 1
  2. 2. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University  Handouts: Syllabus, Report Format  Class website: http://www.classes.ce.ttu.edu/ce3121/  Significance of the Class  Lab No.1: Moisture Content, Specific gravity and Unit Weight of soil  Background: Phase Relationship Class Outlines 2
  3. 3. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Syllabus  Text books:  Soil Mechanics: Laboratory Manual by Braja M. Das  Lecture Notes  ASTM Standards 2005  Class organization  1 hour class  2 hours lab  Class Schedule (No classes Oct 18 & 19)  Attendance 3
  4. 4. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Report Format  Each group will submit one report per lab  Reports are due one day before the class at 9am (Ex: for Wed. class, submit report on Tuesday at 9am)  All reports should follow the report format  Title and Table of Contents  Purpose & Objective  Apparatus & Procedures  Deviation from ASTM Standards  Table of results  Figures  Sample Calculations  Discussion and Conclusion 4
  5. 5. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Report Format - Conclusion  Report your results (use a table)  Do the results fall within the expected range or not? (Check tables and match your results)  If not, Explain why (what went wrong?) 5
  6. 6. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Significance of this Class  Why do you need to learn about soils? Almost all structures are either constructed of soil, supported on soil, or both.  Who must be concerned with soils? Civil engineers (structural, environmental and geotechnical) must have basic understanding of the soil properties in order to use them effectively in construction. 6
  7. 7. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Transcosna Grain Elevator, Canada Oct. 18, 1913 West side of foundation sank 24-ft 7
  8. 8. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Settlement Palacio de las Bellas, Artes, Mexico City Leaning Tower, Pisa 8
  9. 9. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Shear Failure – Slope Stability 9
  10. 10. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Organization of the Lab Tests Physical (Soil Characteristics) Mechanical Moisture Content Unit Weight CompressibilityPermeability Specific Gravity Gradation Atterberg Limits Strength (Shear) Geotechnical engineering Structural engineering Pavement engineering Environmental engineering Geotechnical engineering Structural engineering Pavement engineering Soil Properties (Soil Classification) 10
  11. 11. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Today’s Lab  Determination of unit weight (density)  Determination of moisture content  Determination of specific gravity  Establishing the phase (weight-volume) relationship diagram  Calculation of:  Dry unit weight  Void ratio  Porosity  Degree of saturation 11
  12. 12. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 1- Unit Weight, g  Take several measurements for diameter and height  Take the average for H, D  Calculate g V M g  H D V where 4 2   H D 12
  13. 13. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 2- Moisture Content, w  Definition: Moisture content is an indicator of the amount of the water present in soil.  Moisture content, w(%)  ASTM 2216 (Conventional Oven Method)  ASTM D 4643 (Microwave Oven Method)  3 minutes at 50% Power (mass ≈ 50 g)   T w s w M M notbut M M w 100%  Mw – Mass of waters Ms – Mass of solids MT – Total mass 13
  14. 14. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 2- Moisture Content – Sample Size  Minimum mass of moist material selected to be representative of the total samples: Maximum Particle Size (95-100% Passing) Standard Sieve Size Recommended Min. Mass of moist specimen 2 mm or less # 10 20 g 4.75 mm # 4 100 g 9.5 mm 3/8-in 50 g 19.0 mm ¾-in 250 g 37.5 mm 11/2 -in 1000 g 75.0 mm 3-in 5000 g 14
  15. 15. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 2- Moisture Content - Procedure Video Demos
  16. 16. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 2- Moisture Content – Sample Calculation 16
  17. 17. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 3- Specific Gravity, Gs  Definition; specific gravity, Gs, of soil solids is the ratio of the density of the aggregate soil solids to the density of water.  Mathematically,  ASTM D 854  This method is applicable for soils composed of “Particles smaller than 4.75mm in size”. w s sws w w s s w s s M M GhenceVVbut V M V M G   ;  g w = 1 g/cm3 at 40C or w = 62.4 lb/ft3 17
  18. 18. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 3- Specific Gravity – Sample Size  The procedure employs Archimedes’s principle “A body submerged in water will displace a volume of water equal to its own volume.”  The key to successful application of this procedure is the removal of entrapped air  Recommended mass for test specimen Soil Type Specimen Dry Mass (g) 250 mL Pycnometer Specimen Dry Mass (g) 500 mL Pycnometer SP, SP-SM 60 ± 10 100 ± 10 SP-SC, SM, SC 45 ± 10 75 ± 10 Silt or Clay 35 ± 5 45 ± 10 18
  19. 19. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 3- Specific Gravity - Apparatus Report Gs in terms of GS (200C) = GS (Ti0C) x A A – From Table 3-2 Pg 12  See Example in Table 3-3 Pg 13 19 Video Demos
  20. 20. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 3- Specific Gravity – Expected Values  Expected Values for Gs Type of Soil Gs Sand 2.65 - 2.67 Silty sand 2.67 – 2.70 Inorganic clay 2.70 – 2.80 Soils with mica or iron 2.75 – 3.00 Organic soils < 2.00 20
  21. 21. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University  Phase Relationships  Three phase diagram  Weight relationships  Volumetric relationships  Weight – Volume relationship  Examples Phase Relationships 21
  22. 22. Phase Relationships: A 3-Phase Material Solid Water Air 22
  23. 23. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University The Mineral Skeleton Volume Solid Particles Voids (air or water) 23
  24. 24. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Three Phase Soil (Partially Saturated) Solids Air Water Mineral Skeleton Idealization: Three Phase Diagram 24
  25. 25. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Two Phase Soil (1) Fully Saturated Soils Fully Saturated Water Solids Mineral Skeleton 25
  26. 26. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Two Phase Soil (2) Dry Soils [Oven Dried] Mineral Skeleton Dry Soil Air Solids 26
  27. 27. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Weight-Volume Relationships Volume Weight Solids Air Water WT Ws Ww Wa~0 Vs Va Vw Vv VT 27
  28. 28. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Weight Relationships (weight -ratios)  Weight ratios  Moisture Content, w  Specific Gravity, Gs  Weight Components:  Weight of Solids = Ws  Weight of Water = Ww  Weight of Air, Wa ~ 0 %100(%),  s w W W wContentWater Solids Air Water WT Ws Ww Wa~ 0 28
  29. 29. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Specific Gravity (weight ratio) WaterofVolumeEqualanofWeight ceSubsaofWeight GravitySpecific tan  WaterofWeightUnit ceSubsaofWeightUnit GravitySpecific tan  %100,  ws s w s s s V WV W GGravitySpecific gg Unit weight of Water, gw or w  gw = 1.0 g/cm3 (strictly accurate at 4° C)  gw = 62.4 pcf  gw = 9.81 kN/m3 29
  30. 30. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Typical Values for Specific Gravity, Gs 30
  31. 31. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Volumetric Relationships (Vol. ratios)  Volumetric ratios  Void ratio, e  Porosity, n(%)  Degree of Saturation, S (%)  Volume Components:  Volume of Solids = Vs  Volume of Water = Vw  Volume of Air = Va  Volume of Voids = Va + Vw = Vv Solid Air Water Vs Va Vw Vv VT 31
  32. 32. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Volumetric Relationships s v V V eRatioVoid , %100(%),  V w V V SSaturationofDegree %100(%),  T v V V nPorosity 32
  33. 33. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Weight-Volume Relationships  Steps to develop the weight-volume relationship  Separate the three phases  The total volume of a soil  Assuming the weight of air (Wa) to be negligible, the total weight is then given as awsvs VVVVVV  wsT WWW  33
  34. 34. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Example:  Determine moisture content, void ratio, porosity and degree of saturation of a soil core sample. Also determine the dry unit weight, gd Data:  Weight of soil sample, MT = 1013g  Vol. of soil sample, VT = 585.0cm3  Specific Gravity, Gs = 2.65  Moisture Content, w = 12.1% 34
  35. 35. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Solid Air Water Ma~0 Volumes Weights 1013.0g585.0cm3 904.0g Gs =2.65 109.0g 341.1cm3 109.0cm3 243.9cm3 134.9cm3 gw = 1.0 g/cm3 Sample Calc. gMMM sTw 1099041013  3 9.134)1091.341(585)( cmVVVV wsTa  3 3 109 )/(0.1 )(109 cm cmg gW V V W w w w w w w  g g 3 3 1.341 )/(0.165.2 )(904 cm cmg g G W V V W G ws s s ws s s    gg gVVV awv 9.2439.134109  35 g w M M MwMMwM insubstitute MwM M M wbut MMM T s sssT sw s w swT 904 121.01 1013 1 )1( )1()2( )2( )1(           w =12.1%
  36. 36. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Sample Calculation (cont.) g w M M MwMMwM insubstitute MwM M M wbut MMM T s sssT sw s w swT 904 121.01 1013 1 )1( )1()2( )2( )1(           gVVV awv 9.2439.134109  3 3 1.341 )/(0.165.2 )(904 cm cmg g G W V V W G ws s s ws s s    gg 3 3 109 )/(0.1 )(109 cm cmg gW V V W w w w w w w  g g 3 9.134)1091.341(585)( cmVVVV wsTa  gMMM sTw 1099041013  1 2 3 4 5 6 36
  37. 37. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Weight-Volume Relationships (cont.)  From the previous figure we can find:  Moisture content, w  Void ratio, e  Porosity, n  Degree of saturation, S  Dry unit weight, gd 3 55.1 585 904 cm g V W T s d g %7.44100 9.243 109  v w V V S 715.0 1.341 9.243 3 3  cm cm V V e s v %7.41100 )(0.585 )(9.243 3 3  cm cm V V n T v %1.12100 )(904 )(109  g g W W w s w 37
  38. 38. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Weight-Volume Relationships (cont.) 38
  39. 39. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University Typical Unit weights 39
  40. 40. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 40
  41. 41. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University This Report Should Include 1. Unit Weight of Soil, g 2. Water Content, w 3. Specific Gravity, Gs 4. Three Phase Diagram 5. Void ratio, e 6. Porosity, n 7. Degree of Saturation, S 8. Dry Unit Weight, gd 41
  • TafaraMagarire

    Jul. 25, 2021
  • NazifaTabassumMou

    Apr. 25, 2021
  • KaisekiMajhi1

    Apr. 24, 2021
  • Yannnnnnnz

    Apr. 20, 2021
  • payelpayel3

    Mar. 10, 2021
  • AmirulRidzuan5

    Jan. 22, 2021
  • DivyanshMishra15

    Nov. 26, 2020
  • MAYURMALAVIYA2

    Nov. 19, 2020
  • ZaheerKhan69

    Sep. 23, 2020
  • MarkGeraldTaong

    Sep. 21, 2020
  • RoselynMoralde1

    Sep. 17, 2020
  • IqbalHamzah

    Apr. 24, 2020
  • GEOSELWI

    Apr. 12, 2020
  • Ramjeetpatel

    Dec. 20, 2019
  • SohailAhmed352

    Dec. 8, 2019
  • Hopper29

    Oct. 23, 2019
  • tahmidashamsuddin

    Oct. 16, 2019
  • saumitragayan75

    Sep. 24, 2019
  • AqibAhmed21

    Jul. 25, 2019
  • AjayRajak10

    Mar. 29, 2019

Class 1 Moisture Content - Specific Gravity ( Geotechnical Engineering )

Aufrufe

Aufrufe insgesamt

35.080

Auf Slideshare

0

Aus Einbettungen

0

Anzahl der Einbettungen

21

Befehle

Downloads

904

Geteilt

0

Kommentare

0

Likes

46

×