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VIRFAC | The Virtual Factory
Finite Element Simulation of
Advanced Processes
Case Studies:
Welding & Additive Manufacturin...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cladding
example
Welding
example
Global
picture
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
 To control parts deformations during manufacturing …
 Improving quality mastering before launch...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
OUR VISION
 Physics simulation and modelling will help achieving these goals
 GeonX is building ...
LET’S TAKE AN EXAMPLE !
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
INPUT DATA
 From: Tanker
 Compon...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
 Live visualization of temperature, deformations,
stresse...
1
-6
Y [mm]
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
TYPICAL OUTPUTS
 Final deformation of the sti...
VIRTUAL WELDING, OR
ADVANCED WELDING SIMULATION
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Welding ob...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Private Belgian company incorporated in October 2012
Speci...
GEONX SOFTWARE PRODUCT
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Morfeo Virfac®
© 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
VIRFAC® IN A NUTSHELL
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
CAD modelling
 Parasolid kernel lib...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cladding
example
Welding
example
Global
picture
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
The present study aims to:
1. Use Virfac Welding for an application representative aerospace inter...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
A “fake” exhaust carter was designed for non-confidentiality purposes:
1. External diameter : 200 ...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Experimental data:
1. Material : steel
2. Clamping system : central core
3. Welding process : LBW
...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Influence of the operating conditions:
1. Welding parameters
2. Clamping system
3. Welding sequenc...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Influence of the welding sequence:
© 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
MINIMIZATION OF DISTORT...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Influence of the welding sequence:
Changing the welding sequence leads to a reduction of distortio...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cladding
example
Welding
example
Global
picture
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
The present lecture aims to:
1. Apply Virfac to laser cladding simulation and predict distortions ...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
Machining
Simple (for validation purposes) additive manufacturing application (laser
cladding: tub...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com
MA
-
Corrective
Machining
The present study aims to setup a demonstrator of process chaining simul...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Additive Layer
Manufacturing
Stage n°1: Additive Layer Man...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
ALM sequence:
 Same starting point for each layer
 Same ...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Residual distortions (after ALM + cooling):
 Comparison a...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Alternative layer sequences:
Influence on residual distort...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
i
i+1Cross section
δtop = -0.475 mm
δmax = -0.594 mm
Refer...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
δtop = -0.66 mm
δmax = -0.747 mm
Cross section
Reference (...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
δtop = -0.577 mm
δmax = -0.700 mm
Cross section
i
i+1
Refe...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Additive Layer
Manufacturing
Stage n°2: Machining
1. Opera...
Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
Machining thickness sensitivity:
 Effect of machining on ...
FURTHER DETAILS
Contact details
Dr. Laurent D’Alvise
Mail: sales@geonx.com
Skype: geonx_
Visit: www.geonx.com
Follow us on...
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Simulation of Advanced Processes: Welding & Additive Manufacturing Cases Studies

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GeonX is a high-tech start-up company specializing in virtual manufacturing. Created in 2012 from the enthusiasm of its two founders, and an investment by a group of private investors, GeonX develops and markets its VIRTUAL FACTORY, Virfac®. This product is based on the finite element solver Morfeo, which has been actively developed since 2003, with the aim of carrying out massively parallel simulations of various manufacturing processes.

GeonX develops and distributes its integrated software solution Virfac® for simulations of welding (fusion and friction), additive manufacturing, machining, heat treatment, surface treatment, and damage resistance (crack propagation based on the XFEM). GeonX has clients in Europe, Japan, North America, in the aeronautics, automobile, naval, and nuclear sectors. GeonX’s leading aerospace client is the SAFRAN Group (France).

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Simulation of Advanced Processes: Welding & Additive Manufacturing Cases Studies

  1. 1. VIRFAC | The Virtual Factory Finite Element Simulation of Advanced Processes Case Studies: Welding & Additive Manufacturing Copyright GeonX © 2014 Dr. Laurent D’Alvise CEO & co-founder www.geonx.com sales@geonx.com
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Cladding example Welding example Global picture
  3. 3. Virfac® | www.geonx.com  To control parts deformations during manufacturing …  Improving quality mastering before launching production !  To control residual stresses generated during manufacturing …  Assessing the impact of manufacturing on life and durability !  To understand the complex phenomena occurring during manufacturing and the influence of process operating conditions …  Reducing scrap and improving cash return ! WELDING SIMULATION : WHY ? © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
  4. 4. Virfac® | www.geonx.com OUR VISION  Physics simulation and modelling will help achieving these goals  GeonX is building the integrated Virtual Factory that will enable production engineers to simulate before making !  NOT an expert tool for expert engineers  BUT a powerful software tightly integrated with manufacturing machines and modern computing capabilities. © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
  5. 5. LET’S TAKE AN EXAMPLE ! Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved INPUT DATA  From: Tanker  Components: 2 Stiffened Panels (AH36)  Dimensions: 3,48 x 16 m  Thickness: 13 mm  Weld Length: 16 m  Objective: control distortions
  6. 6. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved  Live visualization of temperature, deformations, stresses, metallurgical transformations, etc. TYPICAL OUTPUTS
  7. 7. 1 -6 Y [mm] Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved TYPICAL OUTPUTS  Final deformation of the stiffened panels after 1 weldline operation.  Possibility to optimize the welding sequence, operating conditions, clamping system, jig positions, etc. in order to minimize deformations.  Particularly well suited when the structure is complex and with a high number of welds.
  8. 8. VIRTUAL WELDING, OR ADVANCED WELDING SIMULATION Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Welding objectives: • Minimization of distortions • Minimization of residual stresses (crack prediction) • Optimization of weld joint properties (hardness) and microstructure • Verification of weldability or defaults Operating conditions to tune/optimize: • the welding speed/energy • the welding sequence • the clamping or fixture setup • and other operating conditions, if any OUT IN IN Virtual Welding OUT
  9. 9. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Private Belgian company incorporated in October 2012 Specialized scientific and industrial software editing Development of a new generation manufacturing software: • The Virtual Factory, Virfac® powered by Morfeo: powerful user-interface (since 2012) • Morfeo (Manufacturing ORiented Finite Element tOol): parallel FE solver (since 2003 in partnership with Cenaero) The Virtual Factory Virfac® addresses the following processes: •Fusion & Friction Welding (LBW, EBW, FSW, IFW, etc.) •Additive Manufacturing (Cladding, etc.) •Advanced Machining •Damage tolerance and durability •Welding → In-service behavior (crack propagation) •For large industrial mechanical components •Specifically designed for High Performance Computing systems •Extensively tested on industrial and demanding applications •Within the industrial environment (mimetic) GEONX IN A NUTSHELL
  10. 10. GEONX SOFTWARE PRODUCT Virfac® | www.geonx.com Morfeo Virfac® © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved
  11. 11. VIRFAC® IN A NUTSHELL Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved CAD modelling  Parasolid kernel library (Siemens PLM)  Import and export of Parasolid native file (x_t, xmt_txt, xmt_bin, x_b, …)  Model transformation (intersection, union, scaling, rotation, translation, etc.)  CAD geometry entities management (creation, destruction, …)  Import of other CAD format: translators for CATIA, Pro-E, IGES and STEP  Discrete model importer with cleaning functionalities Meshing:  DISTENE MeshGems on Parasolid model for :  Surface triangulation  3D tetrahedra meshing  Size control – Face – Edge – Node – Curvature  Anisotropic meshing  Extruded unstructured meshes  Partnership with Beta-System (ANSA mesher)
  12. 12. TABLE OF CONTENTS Cladding example Welding example Global picture
  13. 13. Virfac® | www.geonx.com The present study aims to: 1. Use Virfac Welding for an application representative aerospace interests 2. Simulate the welding process on a exhaust carter and display distortions taking place during the welding operations 3. Verify the influence of the welding sequence on the residual distortions 4. Compare two modelling approaches from a computing performance and accuracy standpoints Welding sequence n°1 Welding Sequence n°2 © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Transient Thermo- Mechanical analysis Inherent Strain Method EXAMPLE N°1 - OBJECTIVES
  14. 14. Virfac® | www.geonx.com A “fake” exhaust carter was designed for non-confidentiality purposes: 1. External diameter : 200 mm 2. External ring thickness : 12 mm 3. Number of welds : 16 4. Nominal sequence: shown hereafter © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved APPLICATION DESCRIPTION
  15. 15. Virfac® | www.geonx.com Experimental data: 1. Material : steel 2. Clamping system : central core 3. Welding process : LBW 4. Welding power : 800 W Nominal welding sequence: 1. Distortions are magnified 40 times 2. External ring strongly deformed 3. Visible rotation of the part 4. Twist of the carter 5. Computation time: 21 minutes © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved RESULTS
  16. 16. Virfac® | www.geonx.com Influence of the operating conditions: 1. Welding parameters 2. Clamping system 3. Welding sequence © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved MINIMIZATION OF DISTORTIONS
  17. 17. Virfac® | www.geonx.com Influence of the welding sequence: © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved MINIMIZATION OF DISTORTIONS
  18. 18. Virfac® | www.geonx.com Influence of the welding sequence: Changing the welding sequence leads to a reduction of distortions: • This information may be useful to address quality issues • This information is available through a virtual environment prior any experimental test • Timeframe for obtaining such results on this simple application:  Set the model with Virfac: ~4 hours  Computation time: 21 minutes per simulation • Process optimization is possible within a virtual environment: Virfac Welding Scheduler • Further results in terms of residual stresses and metallurgy are also possible: full transient methodology : Virfac Welding Designer © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
  19. 19. TABLE OF CONTENTS Cladding example Welding example Global picture
  20. 20. Virfac® | www.geonx.com The present lecture aims to: 1. Apply Virfac to laser cladding simulation and predict distortions after corrective machining. 2. Demonstrate the feasibility and pertinence of manufacturing chaining simulation. 3. Perform sensitivity studies on the operating conditions and check the influence on quality criteria in terms of residual distortions. © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved EXAMPLE N°2 - OBJECTIVES
  21. 21. Virfac® | www.geonx.com Machining Simple (for validation purposes) additive manufacturing application (laser cladding: tube on support) followed by machining. Additive Layer Manufacturing Distortions, Residual Stresses and Metallurgy from the T/M/M simulation Final part within geometrical tolerances © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved APPLICATION DESCRIPTION • Large excursions of temperature • Cycling heat load over one location • Cycling material melting & solidification • Large excursions of material properties • Important metallurgical transformations Export : • Final geometry • Residual stresses
  22. 22. Virfac® | www.geonx.com MA - Corrective Machining The present study aims to setup a demonstrator of process chaining simulation. The following questions will be addressed: 1. How far the ALM part will be from the nominal geometry ? 2. How will the machining process influence the distortions of the final part ? 3. Which tolerance will be reached after machining ? Important notice: this numerical model will be used as a simulation demonstrator and not yet for experimental validation purposes (see perspectives). ALM - Additive Layer Manufacturing © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved WORK PLAN
  23. 23. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Additive Layer Manufacturing Stage n°1: Additive Layer Manufacturing 1. Operating conditions:  Tube on plate: ext.diam. 52.4 mm, length 25 mm, thickness 2.2 mm  Material: Inconel 718  Number of cladding layers: 14  Loading speed: 13.3 mm/s  Loading time: 172 s  Post-ALM cooling time (on threshold 20°C): 1579 s 2. Modelling hypothesis:  Thermo-Mechanical-Metallurgical coupling  Transient analysis  HEXAhedra elements conforming to the clad  Automatic mesh elements’ activation according to a moving box of selection  Heat loading: energy density applied in the activated FE elements (volume)  Thermal properties as a function of temperature  Mechanical properties as a function of temperature (Elasto-Plastic # Power Law)  Distributed Multi-Processing analysis: 12 processors SIMULATION DESCRIPTION - ALM
  24. 24. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved ALM sequence:  Same starting point for each layer  Same loading direction for all layers SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  25. 25. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Residual distortions (after ALM + cooling):  Comparison against the nominal geometry  Cross section parallel to the ALM start  Deflection at the top of the tube: -0.637 mm  Maximum deflection (radial): -0.755 mm δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.755 mm Cross section SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  26. 26. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Alternative layer sequences: Influence on residual distortions Configuration T2:  Same start for each layer  Alternating loading direction from one layer to the next Configuration T3:  90° shift start for each layer  Same loading direction for all layers Configuration T4:  90° shift start for each layer  Alternating loading direction from one layer to the next i i+1 i i+1 SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  27. 27. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved i i+1Cross section δtop = -0.475 mm δmax = -0.594 mm Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T2: SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  28. 28. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved δtop = -0.66 mm δmax = -0.747 mm Cross section Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T3: SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  29. 29. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved δtop = -0.577 mm δmax = -0.700 mm Cross section i i+1 Reference (configuration T1): δtop = -0.637 mm δmax = -0.751 mm Configuration T4: SIMULATION RESULTS - ALM
  30. 30. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Additive Layer Manufacturing Stage n°2: Machining 1. Operating conditions:  Tube on plate: deformed from the Additive Manufacturing process  Geometry: Configuration T2 selected  Machining process: surface finish (cylindrical shape)  Thickness of removed material: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mm  Objective: flat surfaces 2. Modelling hypothesis:  Deformed mesh from the upstream analysis (ALM)  Residual Stresses mapped from the upstream process (ALM)  Mechanical analysis based on XFEM  Cutting passes represented by Level-Sets  Computation time : several minutes Machining Mesh’’ MODELLING DESCRIPTION
  31. 31. Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved Machining thickness sensitivity:  Effect of machining on residual distortions  Without Stress Relief Heat Treatment  The 0.6 mm thickness leads to flat external surfaces Thickness (mm) Rtop (mm) Rmin (mm) Tolerance (mm) 0.2 25.882 25.775 0,107 0.4 25.798 25.776 0.022 0.6 25.592 25.599 0.007 i i+1Cross section Additive Layer Manufacturing Machining Flat surface SIMULATION RESULTS - MA
  32. 32. FURTHER DETAILS Contact details Dr. Laurent D’Alvise Mail: sales@geonx.com Skype: geonx_ Visit: www.geonx.com Follow us on Twitter: @geonx_ Virfac® | www.geonx.com © 2012-2014 GeonX – All rights reserved

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