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D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Techniques for Eliciting
Requirements
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
90 Minutes
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/1997-05-09/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Sometimes it happens…
2
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3
Main topics
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4
Main topics
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6
©
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Requirements
Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty
3rd Edition, 672 pp.
Microsoft Press, 2013
ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5
(See more at
http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files)
7
Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Engineering
Ian Sommerville
9th Edition, 792 pp.
Addison-Wesley, 2010
ISBN-13: 978-0137035151
(10th Edition: April 2015. See more at
http://iansommerville.com/software-
engineering-book/)
8
Sommerville
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12
Requirements and
Requirements Engineering
– An Overview –
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13
Requirement: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[A requirement is a] statement of a
customer need or objective, or of a condition
or capability that a product must possess to
satisfy such a need or objective. A property
that a product must have to provide value to
a stakeholder.”
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty:
Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of
systems engineering and software engineering that
encompasses all project activities associated with
understanding a product's necessary capabilities and
attributes. Includes both requirements development
and requirements management.
14
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Management
Tracking
Requirements
Engineering
Managing Controlling Tracing
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19
Topics of other related lectures
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
All are topics of lecture:
“A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of (this) lecture
“Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Specification Validation
Topics of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements”
Analysis
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Also topic of lecture
“Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation
Topic of lecture
“Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25
A Requirements Development
process framework
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitation
Requirements
Engineering
Analysis Specification Validation
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
27
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28
A structured approach to
Requirements Development
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29
A structured approach to RD
(1) Define stakeholders!
 Who is interested in the system?
 Who makes decisions?
 Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.?
In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements?
(2) Define goals!
 Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)
 These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!)
In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved?
(3) Define requirements!
 Goals can be derived into concrete requirements
 How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)
 Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc.
In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33
Requirements Elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
34
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
35
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Elicitation: Definition
36
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
“[Elicitation is the] process of identifying,
discovering requirements from various sources
through interviews, workshops, focus groups,
observations, document analysis, and other
mechanisms.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37
Key actions in elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
38
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Identifying the product’s expected user classes and
other stakeholders.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
39
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Identifying the product’s expected user classes and
other stakeholders.
Understanding user tasks and goals and the
business objectives with which those tasks align.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
40
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Identifying the product’s expected user classes and
other stakeholders.
Understanding user tasks and goals and the
business objectives with which those tasks align.
Learning about the environment in which the new
product will be used.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
41
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Identifying the product’s expected user classes and
other stakeholders.
Understanding user tasks and goals and the
business objectives with which those tasks align.
Learning about the environment in which the new
product will be used.
Working with individuals who represent each user
class to understand their functionality needs and
their quality expectations.
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42
WHO
– The stakeholders –
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45
Stakeholder: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[A stakeholder is an] individual, group, or
organization that is actively involved in a
project, is affected by its process or
outcome, or can influence its process or
outcome.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46
Examples potential stakeholders
Outside the developing organisation
Developing organisation
Developing team
Project manager
Business analyst
Data modeller
Process analyst
Documentation writer
Database administrator
Hardware engineer
Quality assurance staff
Tester
Designer
Developer
Product owner
Development manager
Marketing
Company owner
Sales staff
Executive sponsor
Training staff
Manufacturing
Operational support staff
Installer
Maintainer
Usability expert
Portfolio architect
Direct user
Indirect user
Legal staff
Auditor
Consultant
Certifier
Software supplier
Venture capitalist
Beta Tester
General public
Government agency
Program manager
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2009-04-05/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Busy stakeholders…
47
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48
The customer
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49
Customer: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
“[A customer is an] individual or
organization that derives either direct or
indirect benefit from a product. Software
customers might request, pay for, select,
specify, use, or receive the output generated
by a software product.”
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50
Expectation gap
Time
Customer contact points
Expectation
gap without
customer
engagement
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51
Expectation gap
Time
Customer contact points
Expectation
gap with
customer
engagement
Expectation
gap without
customer
engagement
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52
Classifying users
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Differentiating user classes
 access privilege or security level (admin/guest/...)
 tasks performed (during business operations)
 features used
 frequency of product use
 experience, expertise (application domain,
computer systems)
 platforms and devices used (desktop/laptop PC,
tablet, smartphone, etc.)
 native language
 interaction with the system (direct/indirect)
53
According to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
A possible hierarchy
54
Stakeholders
Customers
Direct and
indirect users
Favoured
user classes
Disfavoured
user classes
Ignored
user classes
Other
user classes
Other
customers
Other
stakeholders
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
User classes
55
According to Wiegers & Beatty
Favoured
user classes
Disfavoured
user classes
Ignored
user classes
Other
user classes
Their satisfaction is most closely aligned with
achieving the project’s business objectives.
 Preferential treatment!
They are not supposed to use the product for
legal/security/safety reasons.
 Build in features to deliberative make that hard!
They will use the product, but you don’t specifically
build it to suit them.
Others other than favoured, disfavoured or ignored.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 56
Reaching agreements
– Sign-off –
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 57
Is a consensus possible?
Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Reaching agreements
 Customers agree that the requirements address
their needs.
 Developers agree that they understand the
requirements and that they are feasible.
 Testers agree that the requirements are
verifiable.
 Management agrees that the requirements will
achieve their business objectives.
58
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Sign-off but be open for changes! (Agile)
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59
But not like this…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60
WHAT and HOW
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 61
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63
Product vision
and project scope
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64
Aligning the goals…
Image © arztsamui @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 65
Product vision
 It is what the product is about and what it
ultimately could become.
 Usually stable
“[The product vision is a] statement that
describes the strategic concept or the ultimate
purpose and form of a new system [and that]
will achieve the business objectives.”
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66
Project scope
 It draws the boundary between what's in and
what's out for a project.
 Usually variable
“[The project scope is the] portion of the
ultimate product vision that the current project
will address.”
According to Wiegers & Beatty:
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69
Techniques for eliciting
requirements
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-02-20/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
Gathering requirements…
70
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Interviews
71
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Asking users: most obvious way to
find out what they need!
 Mechanism to get direct user
involvement.
 Appropriate for eliciting business
requirements from “busy”
executives.
 Questions should be carefully
prepared in advance.
Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Interviews: Useful tips
72
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
 Establish rapport: introduce yourself,
review the agenda, remind session
objectives, address preliminary concerns.
 Stay in scope: keep discussion focused.
 Prepare questions and straw man models
ahead of time.
 Suggest ideas and alternatives creatively.
 Listen actively: active listening and
paraphrasing.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Workshops
73
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Meeting with multiple stakeholders and formal
roles.
 Several types of stakeholders participate.
 Encourage stakeholder collaboration in defining
requirements concurrently.
 Facilitator plays critical role.
 A scribe assists by capturing
points.
 Can be resource intensive.
Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Workshops: Useful tips
74
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Establish and enforce ground rules: Starting/ending on time,
silencing electronic devices, one conversation at a time, etc.
 Fill all of the team roles: Facilitator, note taking, time keeping,
scope management, ground rule management, scribe.
 Stay in scope: Refer to business requirements, keep focused.
 Use parking lots for items for later consideration.
 Plan agenda ahead of time.
 Timebox discussions.
 Keep everyone engaged.
 Team small but with the right
stakeholders.
Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Focus groups
75
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
 Representative group of users.
 Must be interactive: chance for all users to voice
their thoughts.
 Useful for exploring users’ attitudes, impressions,
preferences and needs.
 Must be facilitated.
 Subjective feedback that can
be further evaluated.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Observations
76
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Observing exactly how users perform their tasks.
 Time consuming; time should be limited.
 Multiple user classes and important or high-risk
tasks should be selected.
 Can be silent (busy users cannot be interrupted) or
interactive (asking questions allowed).
 Observed information should be
documented for further analysis.
Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Questionnaires
77
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
 Way to survey large groups of users to understand
their needs.
 Inexpensive, geographically independent.
 Also used for feedback about products.
 Biggest challenge: preparing
well-written questions!
 Analysed results can be used
as input to other elicitation
techniques.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Questionnaires: Useful tips
78
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
 See “Creating Questionnaire Questions” from
the Colorado State University for useful tips!
http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1410&guideid=68
 Important issues:
- Open-ended vs. closed-ended
- Format
- Wording
- Content
- Order of questions
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Document analysis
79
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Examining existing documentation for potential
software requirements.
 Past documentation can reveal functionality that
might need to be retained.
 Reduces the elicitation meeting time needed.
 Can reveal information people
“don’t tell”.
 Risk: documents up to date?
Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
System interface analysis
80
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Examining the systems to which your system
connects.
 It reveals functional requirements regarding data
and services exchange between systems.
 Identifying functionalities that may lead to
requirements.
Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
User interface analysis
81
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
 Studying existing systems to discover user and
functional requirements.
 Uses screen shots if no direct interaction possible.
 Helps learning common steps by navigating
existing user interfaces.
 Helps understanding how an
existing system works.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 82
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
83
In the elicitation process for a new product version, you
receive from the customer the user’s guides and the
reference manuals of all products developed by her
company in the past. Which eliciting technique would be
more appropriate to start with?
(A) Observation.
(B) Interviews.
(C) Document analysis.
(D) Workshops.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84
Planning elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Elicitation plan
85
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
plan
Elicitation objectives
Elicitation strategy and planned techniques
Schedule and resource estimates
Documents and systems needed
Expected products of elicitation efforts
Elicitation risks
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 86
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88
Activities for a single
requirements elicitation session
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
Prepare
for
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90
Preparing for elicitation
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
Prepare
for
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
 Plan session scope and agenda (available time?).
 Prepare resources(room, tech, participants,
documentation).
 Learn about the stakeholders (relevant ones?).
 Prepare questions (“What do you need to do?”, “Why?”,
“What happens when…?”, etc.).
 Prepare straw man models (drafts of analysis models).
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Perform
elicitation
session
Prepare
for
elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activities
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92
Performing elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activities
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
 Educate stakeholders, teach them about your elicitation
approach.
 Take good notes with help if necessary (attendees,
decisions made, actions to be taken, responsibilities,
outstanding issues, key discussions).
 Prepare questions ahead to keep conversation going.
 Exploit the physical space e.g. to draw diagrams.
Perform
elicitation
session
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93
Elicitation activities
Perform
elicitation
session
Organise and
share notes
Document
open issues
Prepare
for
elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activities
Follow up
after
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94
Following up
Follow up
after
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
 Organise and share the notes.
 Consolidate the input from multiple sources.
 Share and ask for review.
 Document open issues to be further explored.
Organise and
share notes
Document
open issues
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
Perform
elicitation
session
Organise and
share notes
Document
open issues
Prepare
for
elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activities
Follow up
after
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 96
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
97
Which is a right sequence of activities in a single
requirements elicitation session?
(A) Decide on scope, prepare questions, perform
elicitation, document open issues.
(B) Prepare questions, decide on agenda, perform
elicitation, prepare models.
(C) Share notes, perform elicitation, prepare resources,
document open issues.
(D) Decide on agenda, organise notes, prepare
questions, perform elicitation.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 98
Classifying customer input
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 99
Organise categories
Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
Business
requirements
User
requirements
Business
rules
Functional
requirements
Quality
attributes
External
Interface
requirements
Constraints
Data
requirements
Solution
ideas
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 100
How do you know you are done?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-04-04/
(Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved)
When done?
101
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
When done?
 No more use cases or user stories.
 New scenarios, but no new functional
requirements.
 Repetition of issues already covered.
 Out of scope new features, user requirements, or
functional requirements.
 New requirements are all low priority.
 New capabilities “nice to have some time in the
future” rather than “in the specific product we’re
talking about right now.”
 Few questions from developers and testers who
review the requirements.
102
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 103
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105
Some cautions about elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Some cautions
 Balance stakeholder representation: few product
champions by representative user classes.
 Define scope appropriately: modify product vision
and project scope if necessary.
 Avoid the “requirements vs. design” argument:
Focus on the ‘what’, but also on the ‘how’.
 Research within reason: Prototyping in case new
issues? Incremental development for exploring?
106
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 107
Good practices:
Requirements elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Good practices (i)
 Define product vision and project scope.
 Identify user classes and their characteristics.
 Select a product champion for each user class.
 Conduct focus groups with typical users.
 Work with user representatives to identify user
requirements.
 Identify system events and responses.
 Hold elicitation interviews.
 Hold facilitated elicitation workshops.
108
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Good practices (ii)
 Observe users performing their jobs.
 Distribute questionnaires.
 Perform document analysis.
 Examine problem reports of current systems for
requirement ideas.
 Reuse existing requirements.
109
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 112
The content so far
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114
To take away…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
115
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Identifying the product’s expected user classes and
other stakeholders.
Understanding user tasks and goals and the
business objectives with which those tasks align.
Learning about the environment in which the new
product will be used.
Working with individuals who represent each user
class to understand their functionality needs and
their quality expectations.
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 116
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117
Elicitation techniques
Images © http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope and
agenda
Prepare
resources
Prepare
questions
and straw
man models
Perform
elicitation
session
Organise and
share notes
Document
open issues
Prepare
for
elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activities
Follow up
after
elicitation
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119
What comes next?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirements
Engineering
Requirements
Development
Requirements
Management
Elicitation Specification Validation
Topics of lecture
“Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements”
Analysis
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
121
Elicitation
Analysis
Specification
Validation
re-evaluate
Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
identifying, discovering
evaluating,
verifying
documenting, SRS
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
RD: Requirements Development
SRS: Software Requirements Specification
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
CG1
Coarse goals
Define
stakeholders
Define
goals
Define
requirements
Diagrams
Templates
Models
WHO
WHAT
HOW
classifying,
representing,
deriving,
negotiating
identifying, discovering
documenting, SRS
+
+
evaluating, verifying
+
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123
Other references
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements-Engineering
und -Management: Aus der
Praxis von klassisch bis agil
Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen
6th Edition, 570 pp.
Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014
ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4
In German
(Chapters and related topics in English are
available for free at https://www.sophist.de/)
124
Rupp & The SOPHISTs
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Other books
125
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich, Ch. Wünch (2010): “Molecular
Requirements Engineering: The Blueprint of a Perfect
Requirement”.
 Ch. Rupp (2010): “In medias RE”.
 Ch. Rupp, E. Wolf (2011): “The SOPHIST Set of
REgulations”.
 Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich (2010): “Templates – Construction
Plans for Requirements and for More”.
All available at https://www.sophist.de/en/information-
pool/downloads/open-download-area/
126
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 IREB - International Requirements Engineering
Board e.V.
http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html
127
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 21st International Working Conference on
Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software
Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany
http://refsq.org/2015/
128
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering
Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada
http://re15.org/
129
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130
Homework:
“Reflect on the topics that were
covered so far and write down
your own notes and conclusions!”
Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131
The traditional software
development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133
The ideal, perfect, still possible
software development process:
Perceptions, communication patterns
and interests…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135
Done!
 Where does the major content come from?
 Requirements Engineering and Requirements
Development: An Overview
 Requirements Elicitation
- Key actions in elicitation
- Who, what and how?
 Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning
 Activities for a single elicitation session
 Some cautions and good practices
 What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Techniques for Eliciting
Requirements
Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz
Computer Science Dept.
Faculty of Cooperative Studies
Berlin School of Economics and Law
dagmar@monettdiaz.com
Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015
monettdiaz@dmonett

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Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements (lecture slides)

  • 1. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 90 Minutes
  • 2. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/1997-05-09/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Sometimes it happens… 2
  • 3. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3 Main topics
  • 4. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4 Main topics  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 5. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 6. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6 ©
  • 7. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Requirements Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty 3rd Edition, 672 pp. Microsoft Press, 2013 ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5 (See more at http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files) 7 Wiegers & Beatty
  • 8. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Engineering Ian Sommerville 9th Edition, 792 pp. Addison-Wesley, 2010 ISBN-13: 978-0137035151 (10th Edition: April 2015. See more at http://iansommerville.com/software- engineering-book/) 8 Sommerville
  • 9. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 10. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 11. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 12. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12 Requirements and Requirements Engineering – An Overview –
  • 13. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13 Requirement: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A requirement is a] statement of a customer need or objective, or of a condition or capability that a product must possess to satisfy such a need or objective. A property that a product must have to provide value to a stakeholder.” See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 14. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty: Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that encompasses all project activities associated with understanding a product's necessary capabilities and attributes. Includes both requirements development and requirements management. 14 See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 15. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering
  • 16. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 17. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 18. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18 Subdisciplines of Requirements Management Tracking Requirements Engineering Managing Controlling Tracing Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  • 19. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19 Topics of other related lectures
  • 20. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management All are topics of lecture: “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
  • 21. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of (this) lecture “Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
  • 22. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  • 23. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Also topic of lecture “Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
  • 24. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
  • 25. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25 A Requirements Development process framework
  • 26. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 27. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 27 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 28. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28 A structured approach to Requirements Development
  • 29. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29 A structured approach to RD (1) Define stakeholders!  Who is interested in the system?  Who makes decisions?  Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.? In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements? (2) Define goals!  Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)  These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!) In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved? (3) Define requirements!  Goals can be derived into concrete requirements  How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)  Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc. In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
  • 30. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 31. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 32. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 33. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33 Requirements Elicitation
  • 34. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 34 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 35. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 35 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 36. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Elicitation: Definition 36 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation “[Elicitation is the] process of identifying, discovering requirements from various sources through interviews, workshops, focus groups, observations, document analysis, and other mechanisms.”
  • 37. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37 Key actions in elicitation
  • 38. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 38 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 39. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 39 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 40. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 40 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 41. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 41 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. Working with individuals who represent each user class to understand their functionality needs and their quality expectations. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 42. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42 WHO – The stakeholders –
  • 43. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  • 44. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW
  • 45. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45 Stakeholder: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A stakeholder is an] individual, group, or organization that is actively involved in a project, is affected by its process or outcome, or can influence its process or outcome.”
  • 46. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46 Examples potential stakeholders Outside the developing organisation Developing organisation Developing team Project manager Business analyst Data modeller Process analyst Documentation writer Database administrator Hardware engineer Quality assurance staff Tester Designer Developer Product owner Development manager Marketing Company owner Sales staff Executive sponsor Training staff Manufacturing Operational support staff Installer Maintainer Usability expert Portfolio architect Direct user Indirect user Legal staff Auditor Consultant Certifier Software supplier Venture capitalist Beta Tester General public Government agency Program manager Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 47. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2009-04-05/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Busy stakeholders… 47
  • 48. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48 The customer
  • 49. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49 Customer: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A customer is an] individual or organization that derives either direct or indirect benefit from a product. Software customers might request, pay for, select, specify, use, or receive the output generated by a software product.”
  • 50. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50 Expectation gap Time Customer contact points Expectation gap without customer engagement Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 51. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51 Expectation gap Time Customer contact points Expectation gap with customer engagement Expectation gap without customer engagement Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 52. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52 Classifying users
  • 53. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Differentiating user classes  access privilege or security level (admin/guest/...)  tasks performed (during business operations)  features used  frequency of product use  experience, expertise (application domain, computer systems)  platforms and devices used (desktop/laptop PC, tablet, smartphone, etc.)  native language  interaction with the system (direct/indirect) 53 According to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 54. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield A possible hierarchy 54 Stakeholders Customers Direct and indirect users Favoured user classes Disfavoured user classes Ignored user classes Other user classes Other customers Other stakeholders Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 55. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield User classes 55 According to Wiegers & Beatty Favoured user classes Disfavoured user classes Ignored user classes Other user classes Their satisfaction is most closely aligned with achieving the project’s business objectives.  Preferential treatment! They are not supposed to use the product for legal/security/safety reasons.  Build in features to deliberative make that hard! They will use the product, but you don’t specifically build it to suit them. Others other than favoured, disfavoured or ignored.
  • 56. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 56 Reaching agreements – Sign-off –
  • 57. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 57 Is a consensus possible? Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 58. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Reaching agreements  Customers agree that the requirements address their needs.  Developers agree that they understand the requirements and that they are feasible.  Testers agree that the requirements are verifiable.  Management agrees that the requirements will achieve their business objectives. 58 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Sign-off but be open for changes! (Agile)
  • 59. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59 But not like this…
  • 60. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60 WHAT and HOW
  • 61. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 61 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 62. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 63. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63 Product vision and project scope
  • 64. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64 Aligning the goals… Image © arztsamui @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 65. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 65 Product vision  It is what the product is about and what it ultimately could become.  Usually stable “[The product vision is a] statement that describes the strategic concept or the ultimate purpose and form of a new system [and that] will achieve the business objectives.” According to Wiegers & Beatty:
  • 66. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66 Project scope  It draws the boundary between what's in and what's out for a project.  Usually variable “[The project scope is the] portion of the ultimate product vision that the current project will address.” According to Wiegers & Beatty:
  • 67. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 68. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 69. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69 Techniques for eliciting requirements
  • 70. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-02-20/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Gathering requirements… 70
  • 71. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Interviews 71 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Asking users: most obvious way to find out what they need!  Mechanism to get direct user involvement.  Appropriate for eliciting business requirements from “busy” executives.  Questions should be carefully prepared in advance. Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 72. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Interviews: Useful tips 72 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Establish rapport: introduce yourself, review the agenda, remind session objectives, address preliminary concerns.  Stay in scope: keep discussion focused.  Prepare questions and straw man models ahead of time.  Suggest ideas and alternatives creatively.  Listen actively: active listening and paraphrasing.
  • 73. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Workshops 73 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Meeting with multiple stakeholders and formal roles.  Several types of stakeholders participate.  Encourage stakeholder collaboration in defining requirements concurrently.  Facilitator plays critical role.  A scribe assists by capturing points.  Can be resource intensive. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 74. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Workshops: Useful tips 74 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Establish and enforce ground rules: Starting/ending on time, silencing electronic devices, one conversation at a time, etc.  Fill all of the team roles: Facilitator, note taking, time keeping, scope management, ground rule management, scribe.  Stay in scope: Refer to business requirements, keep focused.  Use parking lots for items for later consideration.  Plan agenda ahead of time.  Timebox discussions.  Keep everyone engaged.  Team small but with the right stakeholders. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 75. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Focus groups 75 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Representative group of users.  Must be interactive: chance for all users to voice their thoughts.  Useful for exploring users’ attitudes, impressions, preferences and needs.  Must be facilitated.  Subjective feedback that can be further evaluated.
  • 76. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Observations 76 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Observing exactly how users perform their tasks.  Time consuming; time should be limited.  Multiple user classes and important or high-risk tasks should be selected.  Can be silent (busy users cannot be interrupted) or interactive (asking questions allowed).  Observed information should be documented for further analysis. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 77. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Questionnaires 77 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Way to survey large groups of users to understand their needs.  Inexpensive, geographically independent.  Also used for feedback about products.  Biggest challenge: preparing well-written questions!  Analysed results can be used as input to other elicitation techniques.
  • 78. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Questionnaires: Useful tips 78 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  See “Creating Questionnaire Questions” from the Colorado State University for useful tips! http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1410&guideid=68  Important issues: - Open-ended vs. closed-ended - Format - Wording - Content - Order of questions
  • 79. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Document analysis 79 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Examining existing documentation for potential software requirements.  Past documentation can reveal functionality that might need to be retained.  Reduces the elicitation meeting time needed.  Can reveal information people “don’t tell”.  Risk: documents up to date? Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 80. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield System interface analysis 80 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Examining the systems to which your system connects.  It reveals functional requirements regarding data and services exchange between systems.  Identifying functionalities that may lead to requirements. Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 81. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield User interface analysis 81 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Studying existing systems to discover user and functional requirements.  Uses screen shots if no direct interaction possible.  Helps learning common steps by navigating existing user interfaces.  Helps understanding how an existing system works.
  • 82. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 82 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 83. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 83 In the elicitation process for a new product version, you receive from the customer the user’s guides and the reference manuals of all products developed by her company in the past. Which eliciting technique would be more appropriate to start with? (A) Observation. (B) Interviews. (C) Document analysis. (D) Workshops.
  • 84. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84 Planning elicitation
  • 85. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Elicitation plan 85 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation plan Elicitation objectives Elicitation strategy and planned techniques Schedule and resource estimates Documents and systems needed Expected products of elicitation efforts Elicitation risks
  • 86. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 86 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 87. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 88. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88 Activities for a single requirements elicitation session
  • 89. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Prepare for elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 90. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90 Preparing for elicitation Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Prepare for elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Plan session scope and agenda (available time?).  Prepare resources(room, tech, participants, documentation).  Learn about the stakeholders (relevant ones?).  Prepare questions (“What do you need to do?”, “Why?”, “What happens when…?”, etc.).  Prepare straw man models (drafts of analysis models).
  • 91. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Perform elicitation session Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty Prepare questions and straw man models
  • 92. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92 Performing elicitation Perform elicitation activities Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Educate stakeholders, teach them about your elicitation approach.  Take good notes with help if necessary (attendees, decisions made, actions to be taken, responsibilities, outstanding issues, key discussions).  Prepare questions ahead to keep conversation going.  Exploit the physical space e.g. to draw diagrams. Perform elicitation session
  • 93. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93 Elicitation activities Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models
  • 94. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94 Following up Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Organise and share the notes.  Consolidate the input from multiple sources.  Share and ask for review.  Document open issues to be further explored. Organise and share notes Document open issues
  • 95. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 96. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 96 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 97. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 97 Which is a right sequence of activities in a single requirements elicitation session? (A) Decide on scope, prepare questions, perform elicitation, document open issues. (B) Prepare questions, decide on agenda, perform elicitation, prepare models. (C) Share notes, perform elicitation, prepare resources, document open issues. (D) Decide on agenda, organise notes, prepare questions, perform elicitation.
  • 98. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 98 Classifying customer input
  • 99. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 99 Organise categories Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/ Business requirements User requirements Business rules Functional requirements Quality attributes External Interface requirements Constraints Data requirements Solution ideas Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 100. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 100 How do you know you are done?
  • 101. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-04-04/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) When done? 101
  • 102. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield When done?  No more use cases or user stories.  New scenarios, but no new functional requirements.  Repetition of issues already covered.  Out of scope new features, user requirements, or functional requirements.  New requirements are all low priority.  New capabilities “nice to have some time in the future” rather than “in the specific product we’re talking about right now.”  Few questions from developers and testers who review the requirements. 102 Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 103. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 103 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 104. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 105. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105 Some cautions about elicitation
  • 106. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Some cautions  Balance stakeholder representation: few product champions by representative user classes.  Define scope appropriately: modify product vision and project scope if necessary.  Avoid the “requirements vs. design” argument: Focus on the ‘what’, but also on the ‘how’.  Research within reason: Prototyping in case new issues? Incremental development for exploring? 106 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 107. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 107 Good practices: Requirements elicitation
  • 108. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Good practices (i)  Define product vision and project scope.  Identify user classes and their characteristics.  Select a product champion for each user class.  Conduct focus groups with typical users.  Work with user representatives to identify user requirements.  Identify system events and responses.  Hold elicitation interviews.  Hold facilitated elicitation workshops. 108 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 109. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Good practices (ii)  Observe users performing their jobs.  Distribute questionnaires.  Perform document analysis.  Examine problem reports of current systems for requirement ideas.  Reuse existing requirements. 109 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  • 110. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 111. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 112. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 112 The content so far
  • 113. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 114. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114 To take away…
  • 115. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 115 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. Working with individuals who represent each user class to understand their functionality needs and their quality expectations.
  • 116. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 116 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 117. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117 Elicitation techniques Images © http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 118. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  • 119. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119 What comes next?
  • 120. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  • 121. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 121 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  • 122. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  • 123. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123 Other references
  • 124. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements-Engineering und -Management: Aus der Praxis von klassisch bis agil Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen 6th Edition, 570 pp. Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4 In German (Chapters and related topics in English are available for free at https://www.sophist.de/) 124 Rupp & The SOPHISTs
  • 125. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Other books 125
  • 126. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich, Ch. Wünch (2010): “Molecular Requirements Engineering: The Blueprint of a Perfect Requirement”.  Ch. Rupp (2010): “In medias RE”.  Ch. Rupp, E. Wolf (2011): “The SOPHIST Set of REgulations”.  Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich (2010): “Templates – Construction Plans for Requirements and for More”. All available at https://www.sophist.de/en/information- pool/downloads/open-download-area/ 126
  • 127. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  IREB - International Requirements Engineering Board e.V. http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html 127
  • 128. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany http://refsq.org/2015/ 128
  • 129. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada http://re15.org/ 129
  • 130. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130 Homework: “Reflect on the topics that were covered so far and write down your own notes and conclusions!” Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  • 131. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 132. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 133. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133 The ideal, perfect, still possible software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  • 134. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  • 135. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135 Done!  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  • 136. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 monettdiaz@dmonett