D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Techniques for Eliciting
Requ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/1997...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3
Main topics
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4
Main topics
 Where does the major content come from...
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Next topics…
 Where does the major content come fro...
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©
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Requirements
Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty
3rd ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Software Engineering
Ian Sommerville
9th Edition, 792 ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9
The traditional software
development process:
Percep...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12
Requirements and
Requirements Engineering
– An Over...
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Requirement: A definition
According to Wiegers & Be...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Definition according to Wiege...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Requirem...
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Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitat...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Management
Tracking
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19
Topics of other related lectures
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Engineering
Elicitat...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirem...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirem...
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Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirem...
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Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Requirem...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25
A Requirements Development
process framework
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Elicitat...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
27
Elicitation
Analysis
Specifica...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28
A structured approach to
Requirements Development
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29
A structured approach to RD
(1) Define stakeholders...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come fr...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33
Requirements Elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
34
Elicitation
Analysis
Specifica...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
35
Elicitation
Analysis
Specifica...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Elicitation: Definition
36
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
El...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37
Key actions in elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
38
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Id...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
39
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Id...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
40
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Id...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
41
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
Id...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42
WHO
– The stakeholders –
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A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45
Stakeholder: A definition
According to Wiegers & Be...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46
Examples potential stakeholders
Outside the develop...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2009...
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The customer
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Customer: A definition
According to Wiegers & Beatt...
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Expectation gap
Time
Customer contact points
Expect...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51
Expectation gap
Time
Customer contact points
Expect...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52
Classifying users
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Differentiating user classes
 access privilege or sec...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
A possible hierarchy
54
Stakeholders
Customers
Direct ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
User classes
55
According to Wiegers & Beatty
Favoured...
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Reaching agreements
– Sign-off –
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Is a consensus possible?
Image © Stuart Miles @ htt...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Reaching agreements
 Customers agree that the require...
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But not like this…
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WHAT and HOW
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A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63
Product vision
and project scope
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64
Aligning the goals…
Image © arztsamui @ http://www....
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Product vision
 It is what the product is about an...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66
Project scope
 It draws the boundary between what'...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come fr...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69
Techniques for eliciting
requirements
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Interviews
71
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Asking users:...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Interviews: Useful tips
72
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Im...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Workshops
73
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Meeting with m...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Workshops: Useful tips
74
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 E...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Focus groups
75
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Ambro...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Observations
76
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Observing e...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Questionnaires
77
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Image © Jer...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Questionnaires: Useful tips
78
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatt...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Document analysis
79
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
 Examin...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
System interface analysis
80
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
User interface analysis
81
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Im...
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Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan a...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
83
In the elicitation process for a new product v...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84
Planning elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Elicitation plan
85
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitati...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 86
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come fr...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88
Activities for a single
requirements elicitation se...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90
Preparing for elicitation
Decide on
elicitation
sco...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92
Performing elicitation
Perform
elicitation
activiti...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93
Elicitation activities
Perform
elicitation
session
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94
Following up
Follow up
after
elicitation
Adapted fr...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 96
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan a...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Quiz
97
Which is a right sequence of activities in a s...
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Classifying customer input
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Organise categories
Image © Ambro @ http://www.free...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 100
How do you know you are done?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Dilbert
 Scott Adams
At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
When done?
 No more use cases or user stories.
 New ...
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So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come f...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105
Some cautions about elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Some cautions
 Balance stakeholder representation: fe...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 107
Good practices:
Requirements elicitation
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Good practices (i)
 Define product vision and project...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Good practices (ii)
 Observe users performing their j...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110
So far…
 Where does the major content come from?
...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111
Active learning exercise
Image © renjith krishnan ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 112
The content so far
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113
Next topics…
 Where does the major content come f...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114
To take away…
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Key actions
115
Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
Elicitation
I...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 116
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117
Elicitation techniques
Images © http://www.freedig...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118
Elicitation activities
Decide on
elicitation
scope...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119
What comes next?
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120
Subdisciplines of
Requirements Development
Require...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
RD process framework
121
Elicitation
Analysis
Specific...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122
A structured approach to RD
Granular goals
CG3
CG2...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123
Other references
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements-Engineering
und -Management: Aus der
Prax...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Other books
125
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich, Ch. Wünch (201...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Further reading
 IREB - International Requirements En...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 21st International Working Confere...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Conference sites…
 23rd IEEE International Requiremen...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130
Homework:
“Reflect on the topics that were
covered...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131
The traditional software
development process:
Perc...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133
The ideal, perfect, still possible
software develo...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135
Done!
 Where does the major content come from?
 ...
D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
Requirements Engineering
Techniques for Eliciting
Requ...
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Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements (lecture slides)

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Online lecture at the School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK, as part of the 11th Europe Week from 2nd to 6th March 2015.

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Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements (lecture slides)

  1. 1. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 90 Minutes
  2. 2. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/1997-05-09/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Sometimes it happens… 2
  3. 3. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 3 Main topics
  4. 4. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 4 Main topics  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  5. 5. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 5 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  6. 6. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 6 ©
  7. 7. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Requirements Karl Wiegers and Joy Beatty 3rd Edition, 672 pp. Microsoft Press, 2013 ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-7966-5 (See more at http://aka.ms/SoftwareReq3E/files) 7 Wiegers & Beatty
  8. 8. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Software Engineering Ian Sommerville 9th Edition, 792 pp. Addison-Wesley, 2010 ISBN-13: 978-0137035151 (10th Edition: April 2015. See more at http://iansommerville.com/software- engineering-book/) 8 Sommerville
  9. 9. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 9 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  10. 10. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 10Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  11. 11. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 11Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  12. 12. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 12 Requirements and Requirements Engineering – An Overview –
  13. 13. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 13 Requirement: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A requirement is a] statement of a customer need or objective, or of a condition or capability that a product must possess to satisfy such a need or objective. A property that a product must have to provide value to a stakeholder.” See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  14. 14. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Definition according to Wiegers & Beatty: Requirements engineering is the subdiscipline of systems engineering and software engineering that encompasses all project activities associated with understanding a product's necessary capabilities and attributes. Includes both requirements development and requirements management. 14 See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  15. 15. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 15 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering
  16. 16. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 16 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  17. 17. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 17 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  18. 18. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 18 Subdisciplines of Requirements Management Tracking Requirements Engineering Managing Controlling Tracing Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for more on this topic!
  19. 19. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 19 Topics of other related lectures
  20. 20. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 20 Subdisciplines of Requirements Engineering Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management All are topics of lecture: “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis”
  21. 21. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 21 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of (this) lecture “Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements”
  22. 22. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 22 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  23. 23. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 23 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Also topic of lecture “Modelling Software Requirements. Important diagrams and templates”
  24. 24. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 24 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation Topic of lecture “Methods for Validating and Testing Software Requirements”
  25. 25. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 25 A Requirements Development process framework
  26. 26. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 26 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Elicitation Requirements Engineering Analysis Specification Validation Requirements Development Requirements Management Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  27. 27. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 27 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  28. 28. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 28 A structured approach to Requirements Development
  29. 29. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 29 A structured approach to RD (1) Define stakeholders!  Who is interested in the system?  Who makes decisions?  Who are the users, managers, developers, etc.? In other words, WHO has influence on the software requirements? (2) Define goals!  Stakeholders have goals (define coarse goals!)  These goals can be divided into more specific goals (define granular goals!) In other words, WHAT should be implemented or achieved? (3) Define requirements!  Goals can be derived into concrete requirements  How to get to the requirements? (goal-based!)  Model those requirements using diagrams, templates, etc. In other words, HOW will the goals be achieved?
  30. 30. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 30 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  31. 31. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 31 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  32. 32. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 32 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  33. 33. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 33 Requirements Elicitation
  34. 34. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 34 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  35. 35. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 35 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  36. 36. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Elicitation: Definition 36 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation “[Elicitation is the] process of identifying, discovering requirements from various sources through interviews, workshops, focus groups, observations, document analysis, and other mechanisms.”
  37. 37. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 37 Key actions in elicitation
  38. 38. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 38 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  39. 39. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 39 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  40. 40. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 40 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  41. 41. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 41 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. Working with individuals who represent each user class to understand their functionality needs and their quality expectations. According to Wiegers & Beatty
  42. 42. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 42 WHO – The stakeholders –
  43. 43. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 43 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW See lecture “A Structured Approach to Requirements Analysis” for details!
  44. 44. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 44 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW
  45. 45. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 45 Stakeholder: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A stakeholder is an] individual, group, or organization that is actively involved in a project, is affected by its process or outcome, or can influence its process or outcome.”
  46. 46. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 46 Examples potential stakeholders Outside the developing organisation Developing organisation Developing team Project manager Business analyst Data modeller Process analyst Documentation writer Database administrator Hardware engineer Quality assurance staff Tester Designer Developer Product owner Development manager Marketing Company owner Sales staff Executive sponsor Training staff Manufacturing Operational support staff Installer Maintainer Usability expert Portfolio architect Direct user Indirect user Legal staff Auditor Consultant Certifier Software supplier Venture capitalist Beta Tester General public Government agency Program manager Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  47. 47. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2009-04-05/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Busy stakeholders… 47
  48. 48. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 48 The customer
  49. 49. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 49 Customer: A definition According to Wiegers & Beatty: “[A customer is an] individual or organization that derives either direct or indirect benefit from a product. Software customers might request, pay for, select, specify, use, or receive the output generated by a software product.”
  50. 50. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 50 Expectation gap Time Customer contact points Expectation gap without customer engagement Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  51. 51. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 51 Expectation gap Time Customer contact points Expectation gap with customer engagement Expectation gap without customer engagement Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  52. 52. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 52 Classifying users
  53. 53. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Differentiating user classes  access privilege or security level (admin/guest/...)  tasks performed (during business operations)  features used  frequency of product use  experience, expertise (application domain, computer systems)  platforms and devices used (desktop/laptop PC, tablet, smartphone, etc.)  native language  interaction with the system (direct/indirect) 53 According to Wiegers & Beatty
  54. 54. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield A possible hierarchy 54 Stakeholders Customers Direct and indirect users Favoured user classes Disfavoured user classes Ignored user classes Other user classes Other customers Other stakeholders Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  55. 55. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield User classes 55 According to Wiegers & Beatty Favoured user classes Disfavoured user classes Ignored user classes Other user classes Their satisfaction is most closely aligned with achieving the project’s business objectives.  Preferential treatment! They are not supposed to use the product for legal/security/safety reasons.  Build in features to deliberative make that hard! They will use the product, but you don’t specifically build it to suit them. Others other than favoured, disfavoured or ignored.
  56. 56. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 56 Reaching agreements – Sign-off –
  57. 57. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 57 Is a consensus possible? Image © Stuart Miles @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  58. 58. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Reaching agreements  Customers agree that the requirements address their needs.  Developers agree that they understand the requirements and that they are feasible.  Testers agree that the requirements are verifiable.  Management agrees that the requirements will achieve their business objectives. 58 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Sign-off but be open for changes! (Agile)
  59. 59. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 59 But not like this…
  60. 60. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 60 WHAT and HOW
  61. 61. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 61 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  62. 62. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 62 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  63. 63. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 63 Product vision and project scope
  64. 64. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 64 Aligning the goals… Image © arztsamui @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  65. 65. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 65 Product vision  It is what the product is about and what it ultimately could become.  Usually stable “[The product vision is a] statement that describes the strategic concept or the ultimate purpose and form of a new system [and that] will achieve the business objectives.” According to Wiegers & Beatty:
  66. 66. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 66 Project scope  It draws the boundary between what's in and what's out for a project.  Usually variable “[The project scope is the] portion of the ultimate product vision that the current project will address.” According to Wiegers & Beatty:
  67. 67. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 67 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  68. 68. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 68 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  69. 69. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 69 Techniques for eliciting requirements
  70. 70. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-02-20/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) Gathering requirements… 70
  71. 71. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Interviews 71 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Asking users: most obvious way to find out what they need!  Mechanism to get direct user involvement.  Appropriate for eliciting business requirements from “busy” executives.  Questions should be carefully prepared in advance. Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  72. 72. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Interviews: Useful tips 72 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Establish rapport: introduce yourself, review the agenda, remind session objectives, address preliminary concerns.  Stay in scope: keep discussion focused.  Prepare questions and straw man models ahead of time.  Suggest ideas and alternatives creatively.  Listen actively: active listening and paraphrasing.
  73. 73. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Workshops 73 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Meeting with multiple stakeholders and formal roles.  Several types of stakeholders participate.  Encourage stakeholder collaboration in defining requirements concurrently.  Facilitator plays critical role.  A scribe assists by capturing points.  Can be resource intensive. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  74. 74. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Workshops: Useful tips 74 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Establish and enforce ground rules: Starting/ending on time, silencing electronic devices, one conversation at a time, etc.  Fill all of the team roles: Facilitator, note taking, time keeping, scope management, ground rule management, scribe.  Stay in scope: Refer to business requirements, keep focused.  Use parking lots for items for later consideration.  Plan agenda ahead of time.  Timebox discussions.  Keep everyone engaged.  Team small but with the right stakeholders. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  75. 75. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Focus groups 75 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Representative group of users.  Must be interactive: chance for all users to voice their thoughts.  Useful for exploring users’ attitudes, impressions, preferences and needs.  Must be facilitated.  Subjective feedback that can be further evaluated.
  76. 76. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Observations 76 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Observing exactly how users perform their tasks.  Time consuming; time should be limited.  Multiple user classes and important or high-risk tasks should be selected.  Can be silent (busy users cannot be interrupted) or interactive (asking questions allowed).  Observed information should be documented for further analysis. Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  77. 77. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Questionnaires 77 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Way to survey large groups of users to understand their needs.  Inexpensive, geographically independent.  Also used for feedback about products.  Biggest challenge: preparing well-written questions!  Analysed results can be used as input to other elicitation techniques.
  78. 78. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Questionnaires: Useful tips 78 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © Jeroen van Oostrom @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  See “Creating Questionnaire Questions” from the Colorado State University for useful tips! http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1410&guideid=68  Important issues: - Open-ended vs. closed-ended - Format - Wording - Content - Order of questions
  79. 79. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Document analysis 79 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Examining existing documentation for potential software requirements.  Past documentation can reveal functionality that might need to be retained.  Reduces the elicitation meeting time needed.  Can reveal information people “don’t tell”.  Risk: documents up to date? Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  80. 80. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield System interface analysis 80 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty  Examining the systems to which your system connects.  It reveals functional requirements regarding data and services exchange between systems.  Identifying functionalities that may lead to requirements. Image © nuttakit @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  81. 81. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield User interface analysis 81 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Image © stockimages @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/  Studying existing systems to discover user and functional requirements.  Uses screen shots if no direct interaction possible.  Helps learning common steps by navigating existing user interfaces.  Helps understanding how an existing system works.
  82. 82. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 82 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  83. 83. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 83 In the elicitation process for a new product version, you receive from the customer the user’s guides and the reference manuals of all products developed by her company in the past. Which eliciting technique would be more appropriate to start with? (A) Observation. (B) Interviews. (C) Document analysis. (D) Workshops.
  84. 84. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 84 Planning elicitation
  85. 85. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Elicitation plan 85 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation plan Elicitation objectives Elicitation strategy and planned techniques Schedule and resource estimates Documents and systems needed Expected products of elicitation efforts Elicitation risks
  86. 86. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 86 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  87. 87. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 87 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  88. 88. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 88 Activities for a single requirements elicitation session
  89. 89. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 89 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Prepare for elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  90. 90. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 90 Preparing for elicitation Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Prepare for elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Plan session scope and agenda (available time?).  Prepare resources(room, tech, participants, documentation).  Learn about the stakeholders (relevant ones?).  Prepare questions (“What do you need to do?”, “Why?”, “What happens when…?”, etc.).  Prepare straw man models (drafts of analysis models).
  91. 91. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 91 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Perform elicitation session Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty Prepare questions and straw man models
  92. 92. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 92 Performing elicitation Perform elicitation activities Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Educate stakeholders, teach them about your elicitation approach.  Take good notes with help if necessary (attendees, decisions made, actions to be taken, responsibilities, outstanding issues, key discussions).  Prepare questions ahead to keep conversation going.  Exploit the physical space e.g. to draw diagrams. Perform elicitation session
  93. 93. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 93 Elicitation activities Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models
  94. 94. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 94 Following up Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty  Organise and share the notes.  Consolidate the input from multiple sources.  Share and ask for review.  Document open issues to be further explored. Organise and share notes Document open issues
  95. 95. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 95 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  96. 96. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 96 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  97. 97. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Quiz 97 Which is a right sequence of activities in a single requirements elicitation session? (A) Decide on scope, prepare questions, perform elicitation, document open issues. (B) Prepare questions, decide on agenda, perform elicitation, prepare models. (C) Share notes, perform elicitation, prepare resources, document open issues. (D) Decide on agenda, organise notes, prepare questions, perform elicitation.
  98. 98. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 98 Classifying customer input
  99. 99. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 99 Organise categories Image © Ambro @ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/ Business requirements User requirements Business rules Functional requirements Quality attributes External Interface requirements Constraints Data requirements Solution ideas Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  100. 100. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 100 How do you know you are done?
  101. 101. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Dilbert  Scott Adams At http://dilbert.com/strip/2002-04-04/ (Educational/Classroom usage permission is granted by Universal Uclick. All Rights Reserved) When done? 101
  102. 102. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield When done?  No more use cases or user stories.  New scenarios, but no new functional requirements.  Repetition of issues already covered.  Out of scope new features, user requirements, or functional requirements.  New requirements are all low priority.  New capabilities “nice to have some time in the future” rather than “in the specific product we’re talking about right now.”  Few questions from developers and testers who review the requirements. 102 Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  103. 103. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 103 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  104. 104. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 104 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  105. 105. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 105 Some cautions about elicitation
  106. 106. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Some cautions  Balance stakeholder representation: few product champions by representative user classes.  Define scope appropriately: modify product vision and project scope if necessary.  Avoid the “requirements vs. design” argument: Focus on the ‘what’, but also on the ‘how’.  Research within reason: Prototyping in case new issues? Incremental development for exploring? 106 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  107. 107. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 107 Good practices: Requirements elicitation
  108. 108. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Good practices (i)  Define product vision and project scope.  Identify user classes and their characteristics.  Select a product champion for each user class.  Conduct focus groups with typical users.  Work with user representatives to identify user requirements.  Identify system events and responses.  Hold elicitation interviews.  Hold facilitated elicitation workshops. 108 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  109. 109. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Good practices (ii)  Observe users performing their jobs.  Distribute questionnaires.  Perform document analysis.  Examine problem reports of current systems for requirement ideas.  Reuse existing requirements. 109 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty
  110. 110. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 110 So far…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  111. 111. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 111 Active learning exercise Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  112. 112. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 112 The content so far
  113. 113. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 113 Next topics…  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  114. 114. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 114 To take away…
  115. 115. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Key actions 115 Acc. to Wiegers & Beatty Elicitation Identifying the product’s expected user classes and other stakeholders. Understanding user tasks and goals and the business objectives with which those tasks align. Learning about the environment in which the new product will be used. Working with individuals who represent each user class to understand their functionality needs and their quality expectations.
  116. 116. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 116 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  117. 117. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 117 Elicitation techniques Images © http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  118. 118. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 118 Elicitation activities Decide on elicitation scope and agenda Prepare resources Prepare questions and straw man models Perform elicitation session Organise and share notes Document open issues Prepare for elicitation Perform elicitation activities Follow up after elicitation Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty
  119. 119. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 119 What comes next?
  120. 120. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 120 Subdisciplines of Requirements Development Requirements Engineering Requirements Development Requirements Management Elicitation Specification Validation Topics of lecture “Requirements Engineering Methods for Documenting Requirements” Analysis
  121. 121. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield RD process framework 121 Elicitation Analysis Specification Validation re-evaluate Adapted from Wiegers & Beatty identifying, discovering evaluating, verifying documenting, SRS classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating RD: Requirements Development SRS: Software Requirements Specification
  122. 122. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 122 A structured approach to RD Granular goals CG3 CG2 CG1 Coarse goals Define stakeholders Define goals Define requirements Diagrams Templates Models WHO WHAT HOW classifying, representing, deriving, negotiating identifying, discovering documenting, SRS + + evaluating, verifying +
  123. 123. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 123 Other references
  124. 124. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements-Engineering und -Management: Aus der Praxis von klassisch bis agil Chris Rupp & die SOPHISTen 6th Edition, 570 pp. Carl Hanser Verlag München, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-3-446-43893-4 In German (Chapters and related topics in English are available for free at https://www.sophist.de/) 124 Rupp & The SOPHISTs
  125. 125. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Other books 125
  126. 126. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich, Ch. Wünch (2010): “Molecular Requirements Engineering: The Blueprint of a Perfect Requirement”.  Ch. Rupp (2010): “In medias RE”.  Ch. Rupp, E. Wolf (2011): “The SOPHIST Set of REgulations”.  Ch. Rupp, R. Joppich (2010): “Templates – Construction Plans for Requirements and for More”. All available at https://www.sophist.de/en/information- pool/downloads/open-download-area/ 126
  127. 127. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Further reading  IREB - International Requirements Engineering Board e.V. http://www.ireb.org/en/service/downloads.html 127
  128. 128. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2015), Essen, Germany http://refsq.org/2015/ 128
  129. 129. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Conference sites…  23rd IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE’15), Ottawa, Canada http://re15.org/ 129
  130. 130. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 130 Homework: “Reflect on the topics that were covered so far and write down your own notes and conclusions!” Image © renjith krishnan at http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
  131. 131. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 131 The traditional software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  132. 132. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 132Cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  133. 133. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 133 The ideal, perfect, still possible software development process: Perceptions, communication patterns and interests…
  134. 134. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 134Adapted from cartoon  http://projectcartoon.com/
  135. 135. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield 135 Done!  Where does the major content come from?  Requirements Engineering and Requirements Development: An Overview  Requirements Elicitation - Key actions in elicitation - Who, what and how?  Techniques for eliciting requirements. Planning  Activities for a single elicitation session  Some cautions and good practices  What’s next? Further reading, sources of inspiration
  136. 136. D. Monett – Europe Week 2015, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Requirements Engineering Techniques for Eliciting Requirements Prof. Dr. Dagmar Monett Díaz Computer Science Dept. Faculty of Cooperative Studies Berlin School of Economics and Law dagmar@monettdiaz.com Europe Week, 2nd – 6th March 2015 monettdiaz@dmonett

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