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A Study of Cultural
Dimensions in The
Business Organizations
ROLL NO- 91/ANT/121023
REGISTRATION NO- 142-1121-0067-09
EXAM...
BUSINESS ANTHROPOLOGY
• Is what ?
• What fall in its purview?
Anthropologist
• Dr. Gillian Tett
• Genevieve Bell
• Geert Hofstede
Who Employs Anthropologists?
 Intel
 Citicorp
 AT&T
 Kodak
 Sapient
 Hauser Design
 Boeing
 Motorola
 Walt Disney...
CULTURE
• Anthropological Origins of “Culture”
• a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group
learned as it solved...
CULTURE
• Diagram developed by
Hofstede represents
humans as onions. The
outer layers (Symbols-
Heroes-Rituals) reflect
ex...
ORGANISATIONAL
CULTURE
• Definition.
• Models given by
• Edgar Schein
• Greet Hofstede
Defination taken from http://www.bu...
Levels of Organizational Culture
Schein's organizational culture
model
Figure 2 Levels of Organizational Culture
HOFSTEDE’S MODEL OF
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
• Long-term vs. short-term orientation
• Femininity vs. masculinity
• Power-distan...
Low/High power
distance
Table 1 Extremes of Hofstede’s ‘power distance’ dimension
Power-distance.
Individualism/
Collectivism
Table 2 Extremes of Hofstede’s ‘collectivist/individualist’ dimension
Collectivism vs. individ...
Femininity vs. Masculinity
Table 3 Extremes of the ‘masculine/feminine’ dimension
Femininity vs. Masculinity
Low/High Uncertainty
avoidance
Table 4 Extremes for Hofstede’s ‘uncertainty avoidance’ dimension
Uncertainty avoidance.
Long-term vs. Short-term
Orientation
Table 5 Hofstede’s fifth dimension
Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation.
LEADERSHIP
What is Leadership?
•Ability to
persuade others to do things for the
good of the organization
make difficult decisions
...
Why is the Leader Important?
• Establishes vision
• Develops and implements strategies
• Allocates and controls resources
...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
• Where does West Bengal fit in on Hofstede’s cultural
dimensions?
• The main objective of this thesis...
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
• SAMPLING AND ACCESS
• THE STAGES OF DATA COLLECTION
• THE ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
• LIMITS
• ETHICS
Data Analysis
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Female 20-
24
Female 25-
29
Female 30-
34
Male 25-29 Male 30-34 Male 35-39 Male 40-44 Male...
Data Analysis
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Postgraduate/Doctorate
Postgraduate/Doctorate
ProfessionalDegree
Graduation
Postgraduate/Doc...
Data Analysis
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Officeworkerorsecretary
Academicallytrainedprofessional
orequivalent(butnotamanagerof
people...
Data Analysis
• GREET HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS SCORE OF
PRESENT STUDY
Dimensions Present
Findings
Hofstede’s estimates...
Data Analysis
• Communication
Power Manupulation
Expression Negotiation
Communication
Figure 3 What effective communicatio...
Data Analysis
• Creativity
Individual Organization
Ideas Strategy Structure
Behaviour that
encourages
innovation
Productiv...
Data Analysis
• Flexibility
Flexibility
Handle
Rejection
Overcome
Obstacles
Ability to Adapt
Confidence
Figure 5 Flexibili...
Data Analysis
• Initiative
• Initiative drive
Data Analysis
• Leadership
Communication Creativity
Flexibility Initiative
Leadership
Figure 6 Leadership model
Data Analysis
• Interview analyses:
Symbols – Values –
Heroes – Rituals
Present study
Symbols
 Think Less,
 Cheap labour...
Discussion & Conclusion
• Present score differs from Hofstede’s score of India.
• Main factors influencing leadership in t...
References
• Baba, M. 2006. “Anthropology and Business.” In Encyclopedia of Anthropology, by H. James Birx, 83-117. Thousa...
Thank You
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A Study of Cultural Dimensions in The Business Organizations

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The purpose of thesis was to investigate how Hofstede's (2013) five cultural dimensions: individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity Vs Feminism, Long term orientation Vs short term Orientation, uncertainty avoidance and power distance appear in west bengal Organization.

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A Study of Cultural Dimensions in The Business Organizations

  1. 1. A Study of Cultural Dimensions in The Business Organizations ROLL NO- 91/ANT/121023 REGISTRATION NO- 142-1121-0067-09 EXAMINATION- M.SC. 4thSEMESTER EXAMINATION 2014 IN ANTHROPOLOGY DEPT. OF ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
  2. 2. BUSINESS ANTHROPOLOGY • Is what ? • What fall in its purview?
  3. 3. Anthropologist • Dr. Gillian Tett • Genevieve Bell • Geert Hofstede
  4. 4. Who Employs Anthropologists?  Intel  Citicorp  AT&T  Kodak  Sapient  Hauser Design  Boeing  Motorola  Walt Disney  Microsoft  General Mills  Hallmark  Travel One  Hanseatic Group  Manchester Memorial  Palisades Pharmaceuticals  Celanese Corporation  Samsung  …and the list goes on information taken from www.aaanet.org
  5. 5. CULTURE • Anthropological Origins of “Culture” • a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Edgar Schein (2006,p.17) • ”Collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.” Greet Hofstede (2001, p.9)
  6. 6. CULTURE • Diagram developed by Hofstede represents humans as onions. The outer layers (Symbols- Heroes-Rituals) reflect external practices. • Hofstede discovered that Values and etiquette, on the other hand, are programmed according to one’s own culture. • Values are at the core and thus internal. Figure 1 Manifestations of culture: From shallow to deep.
  7. 7. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE • Definition. • Models given by • Edgar Schein • Greet Hofstede Defination taken from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational- culture.html
  8. 8. Levels of Organizational Culture Schein's organizational culture model Figure 2 Levels of Organizational Culture
  9. 9. HOFSTEDE’S MODEL OF CULTURAL DIMENSIONS • Long-term vs. short-term orientation • Femininity vs. masculinity • Power-distance • Collectivism vs. individualism • Uncertainty avoidance
  10. 10. Low/High power distance Table 1 Extremes of Hofstede’s ‘power distance’ dimension Power-distance.
  11. 11. Individualism/ Collectivism Table 2 Extremes of Hofstede’s ‘collectivist/individualist’ dimension Collectivism vs. individualism.
  12. 12. Femininity vs. Masculinity Table 3 Extremes of the ‘masculine/feminine’ dimension Femininity vs. Masculinity
  13. 13. Low/High Uncertainty avoidance Table 4 Extremes for Hofstede’s ‘uncertainty avoidance’ dimension Uncertainty avoidance.
  14. 14. Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation Table 5 Hofstede’s fifth dimension Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation.
  15. 15. LEADERSHIP
  16. 16. What is Leadership? •Ability to persuade others to do things for the good of the organization make difficult decisions make unpopular decisions deliver results create long-term commitments
  17. 17. Why is the Leader Important? • Establishes vision • Develops and implements strategies • Allocates and controls resources • Chooses key employees • Shapes culture • Affects organizational performance • Projects image to the public
  18. 18. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES • Where does West Bengal fit in on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions? • The main objective of this thesis was to study the degree to which Organizational Cultures differ in west Bengal?
  19. 19. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • SAMPLING AND ACCESS • THE STAGES OF DATA COLLECTION • THE ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER • LIMITS • ETHICS
  20. 20. Data Analysis 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Female 20- 24 Female 25- 29 Female 30- 34 Male 25-29 Male 30-34 Male 35-39 Male 40-44 Male 45-49 Male 50-54 Male 55 or above Distribution Questionnaires by Age and Gender Table 6 Distribution Questionnaires by Age and Gender
  21. 21. Data Analysis 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Postgraduate/Doctorate Postgraduate/Doctorate ProfessionalDegree Graduation Postgraduate/Doctorate ProfessionalDegree Graduation Matriculations ProfessionalDegree ProfessionalDegree PhD ProfessionalDegree Postgraduate/Doctorate ProfessionalDegree Postgraduate/Doctorate ProfessionalDegree Graduation Female Female Male Female Male Male Male Male Male Male 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55 or above Distrubution of samples according age gender and Education Table 7 Distribution of samples according age gender and Education
  22. 22. Data Analysis 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Officeworkerorsecretary Academicallytrainedprofessional orequivalent(butnotamanagerof people) Craftsperson,technician,IT- specialist,nurse,artistorequivalent Managerofoneormore subordinates(non-managers) Officeworkerorsecretary Academicallytrainedprofessional orequivalent(butnotamanagerof people) Craftsperson,technician,IT- specialist,nurse,artistorequivalent ManagerofoneormoreManagers Managerofoneormore subordinates(non-managers) ManagerofoneormoreManagers Managerofoneormore subordinates(non-managers) Teaching&Research ManagerofoneormoreManagers Academicallytrainedprofessional orequivalent(butnotamanagerof people) ManagerofoneormoreManagers ManagerofoneormoreManagers Managerofoneormore subordinates(non-managers) 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55 or above Distribution According to Designation and Age Table 8 Distribution According to Designation and age
  23. 23. Data Analysis • GREET HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS SCORE OF PRESENT STUDY Dimensions Present Findings Hofstede’s estimates on India PDI 62.45 77 UAI 88.35 40 IDV 35.89 48 MAS 83.05 56 LTO 53.7 - Present Data Greet Hofstede's Scores 0 20 40 60 80 100 Pdi UAI IDV MAS LTO Cultural Dimension Index Score Present Data Greet Hofstede's Scores Table 9 Cultural Dimensions Index Scores
  24. 24. Data Analysis • Communication Power Manupulation Expression Negotiation Communication Figure 3 What effective communication means for Organization
  25. 25. Data Analysis • Creativity Individual Organization Ideas Strategy Structure Behaviour that encourages innovation Productive Easy to apply Easy to comply Vision and mission Purposefulness - Flexibility - Freedom: Autonomy Empowerment Decision making - Cooperative teams and group interaction – Mistake handling – Idea generating –Continuous learning culture - Risk taking – Competitiveness – Support for change – Conflict handling Creativity And Innovation Figure 4 Influence of organizational culture on creativity and innovation
  26. 26. Data Analysis • Flexibility Flexibility Handle Rejection Overcome Obstacles Ability to Adapt Confidence Figure 5 Flexibility Model came out from Data
  27. 27. Data Analysis • Initiative • Initiative drive
  28. 28. Data Analysis • Leadership Communication Creativity Flexibility Initiative Leadership Figure 6 Leadership model
  29. 29. Data Analysis • Interview analyses: Symbols – Values – Heroes – Rituals Present study Symbols  Think Less,  Cheap labour Values  Competitiveness ,  Responsible,  Manipulative  Team work, Heroes  Managers  Directors Rituals  Award ceremony  Durga Puja Mistakes  Egocentric Personality  Bad behaviour  Stealing  Lethargic
  30. 30. Discussion & Conclusion • Present score differs from Hofstede’s score of India. • Main factors influencing leadership in the studied organization are communication, initiative, flexibility, creativity. Communication Initiative Flexibility Creativity Information Technology(IT) Marketing Banking Marketing Marketing Engineering IT IT Banking IT Marketing Banking
  31. 31. References • Baba, M. 2006. “Anthropology and Business.” In Encyclopedia of Anthropology, by H. James Birx, 83-117. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. • Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s consequences: international differences in work related values. Beverly Hill, CA: Sage. • Hofstede, G. 1998. Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimensions of National Cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Hofstede, G. 1980. “Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American theories apply abroad? .” Organizational Dynamics (Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1): 42-63. Retrieved May 12, 2011, from Ebsco database.) 42-63. • Hofstede, G. 1983. “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories.” Journal of International Business Studies, 75-89. • Jones, A. M. 2005. “The Anthropology of Leadership: Culture and Corporate Leadership in the American South.” Leadership, Vol 1(3) 259–278. • Schein, E. 1990. “Organizational Culture.” American Psychologist 109-119. • Yukl, G.A. 1994. Leadership in organizations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  32. 32. Thank You

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