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Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
DOI: 10.5121/bioej.2018.5401 1
PHONOCARDIOGRAM-BASED DIAGNOSIS
USING MACHINE LEARNING: PARAMETRIC
ESTIMATION WITH MULTIVARIANT
CLASSIFICATION
Shaima Abdelmageed1
, Mohammed Elmusrati2
School of Technology and Innovation, University of Vasa, Vasa, Finland
ABSTRACT
The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced
cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physician. mHealth
has been the adopted approach towards quick diagnosis using mobile devices. However, it has been
challenging due to the required high quality of data, high computation load, and high-power consumption.
The aim of this paper is to diagnose the heart condition based on Phonocardiogram analysis using
Machine Learning techniques assuming limited processing power to be encapsulated later in a mobile
device. The cardiovascular system is modelled in a transfer function to provide PCG signal recording as it
would be recorded at the wrist. The signal is, then, decomposed using filter bank and the analysed using
discriminant function. The results showed that PCG with a 19 dB Signal-to-Noise-Ratio can lead to 97.33%
successful diagnosis.
KEYWORDS
Analysis, Classification, data quality, diagnosis, filter banks, mHealth, PCG, SNR, transfer function,
Wavelet Transform
1. INTRODUCTION
This paper presents the analysis of the heart’s acoustic signal at the wrist. To find this signal, a
transfer function is proposed to represent the impact of the travelled distance from the heart to the
wrist on the characteristics of the PCG. This signal is expected to have low quality and low
signal-to-noise ratio. To reduce the required computation load and power consumption and speed
up the processing time the signal is downsampled by 100 sample/s before it is decomposed using
filter bank into four subbands. Each subband is described using two features; mean and
covariance. The system is trained using 300 cases to diagnose the heart condition against six
hypothetical diseases. The classification is based on the discriminant function of the unclassified
signal. The most probable diagnosis is found by maximising the discriminant function and in
other words, minimising the Mahalanobis distance [1]. For the experiment, nonstationary noise is
used to simulate nonstationary environment such as the chaotic accident environments.
2. OBTAINING PCG AT THE WRIST
This is achieved by modelling the heart-wrist acoustic wave propagation system using
SIMULINK MATLAB, see Figure 1 for the model. A healthy heart acoustic signal with sampling
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
date of 44100 sample/s is used as a reference
the computation load and speed up the processing time. I
acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies
like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This
could affect the accuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal
could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and
indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200
components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter
Bank, since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to
diagnose the phonocardiogram signal (PCG) with machine lea
load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a
random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the
model. The resultant signal at o
shows the original signal after downsampling and the resultant signal at the wrist.
Figure 1. Heart
Figure 2. Original and received signal at the wrist
2.1. Generating the Hypotheses
The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these
hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a
unique transfer function that alters the healthy heart acoustic s
disease, the resultant is then sent through the heart
function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid
simple words, an unhealthy heart is a
system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space.
This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be
audible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
is used as a reference, it is downsampled by 100 sample/second to reduce
the computation load and speed up the processing time. It should be noted that down sampling
acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies
like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This
ccuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal
could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and
indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200
components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter
, since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to
diagnose the phonocardiogram signal (PCG) with machine learning with limited computation
load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a
random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the
model. The resultant signal at output of the model is a distorted version of the input.
shows the original signal after downsampling and the resultant signal at the wrist.
Figure 1. Heart-wrist acoustic propagation model
Figure 2. Original and received signal at the wrist
2.1. Generating the Hypotheses
The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these
hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a
unique transfer function that alters the healthy heart acoustic signal to form a hypothetical
disease, the resultant is then sent through the heart-wrist model (acoustic propagation transfer
function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid
simple words, an unhealthy heart is a heart that produces faulty PCG. When the cardiovascular
system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space.
This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be
ible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
2
, it is downsampled by 100 sample/second to reduce
t should be noted that down sampling
acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies
like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This
ccuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal
could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and
indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200 frequency
components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter
, since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to
rning with limited computation
load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a
random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the
utput of the model is a distorted version of the input. Figure 2
The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these
hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a
ignal to form a hypothetical
wrist model (acoustic propagation transfer
function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid - In
heart that produces faulty PCG. When the cardiovascular
system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space.
This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be
ible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
3
and potentially classified with sensitive sensors and proper machine learning algorithms. A heart
disease could be modelled as a linear corruption of signal of the healthy sound. This corruption
has been performed by applying the healthy heart sound signal to different linear filters with
different characteristics. There is no medical basis for selecting these filters during the simulation.
However, this could be another research for modelling different heart problems with
linear/nonlinear transfer functions. The diagnostic system’s job is to identify this noise and
consequently conclude the most probable condition.
3. THE EXPERIMENT
The experiment is to apply the proposed solution to classify 300 cases. All cases are generated
from the hypotheses discussed in 2.1, below are the steps of the experiment.
3.1. Decomposing with filter bank
The signal is decomposed using Wavelet Transform and specifically Filter Banks [2] with
different number of levels for every cycle of this experiment. The training and test sets were
decomposed into a number of bands equivalent to 2x Filter Levels. For each band, the mean and
covariance were calculated, so that each case is described by a number of features equivalent to
2x the number of bands. These features are concatenated in a 1 x the number of features matrix
named “descriptive matrix”. The number of levels was selected using trial and error as the
method of optimisation. Starting the 1 level (2 bands), the experiment trials and compare results
from 2 levels (4 bands), 3 levels (8 bands), 4 levels (16 bands), 5 levels (32 bands), and finally 6
levels (64 bands). Increasing the levels beyond 6 did not add any value to the classification nor
did it improve the classification result, for that this experiment was stopped at 6 levels.
3.2. Training the system
Training the system in this approach is about using the training set to construct the discriminant
function. By calculating the mean of the descriptive matrix to get a 1x128 vector and calculate the
covariance of the descriptive matrix, which is a square matrix of 128x128. These values are used
to construct the Discriminant Function (DF) [1] that is given by Equation 1
DF=-0.5 log(det(s))-0.5 (x-m)^'*inverse(s)*(x-m) (1)
Where s is the covariance matrix, m is the mean vector, and x is the training case. It certainly
helped to add a confirmation step here that tests the DF using the training set, by simply
calculating the DF for the training set and maximising the result, in order to confirm the validity
of the training. This is a simple test; because if the training is valid the classification must be
100% correct. During the confirmation step, it became evident that the determinant of the
covariance matrix is zero in many cases, which made the first component of the DF function
(-infinity). For that, the discriminant function equation was rewritten as follow
DF=-0.5 (x-m)' * inverse(s) * (x-m) (2)
This formula was used when the filter levels reached 4 (16 bands, 32 features).
3.3. Testing the system
To test the system, the discriminant function calculated in step (2) is used to classify the test set.
The classification was 97.33% successful using 8 features (2 levels), with only 4 false
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31
cases out of the 150 cases were falsel
4. DISCUSSION
After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the
best possible configuration for this scenario using this approach is to use a
levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8
features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is
more features will improve the su
of the approach, this result is eye
it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that
decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of
features is twice as much with 4 bands. All this makes sense and is well
and concept of sub-band decomposition. What makes this result e
against that. When studying the
decomposition levels, it was evident that
others, these bands are from a 6
Figure 3-a, where the scatter plot shows
correlation with moderate-strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the
values within these bands.As opposed to what can be seen in
shows little to no correlation across the first band of every hypotheses from a 2
(4 bands and 8 features).
Figure 3. Correlation between
4. RELATED RESEARCH
The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced
cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physi
Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to
diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with
Neural Networks. In 2016, team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable
wrist sensor [3]. Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart
acoustic system was based on a similar model to what is used in this paper.
finding the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest
and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at
the wrist. Moreover, in 2017, wavelet transform, and a neural net
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31
cases out of the 150 cases were falsely classified, while the rest 119 were correctly classified.
After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the
best possible configuration for this scenario using this approach is to use a Filter Bank with 2
levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8
features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is
more features will improve the success rate of the classification. Despite defying the proposition
of the approach, this result is eye-opening. Decomposing signals is considered insightful, because
it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that
decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of
features is twice as much with 4 bands. All this makes sense and is well-known from the theory
band decomposition. What makes this result eye-opening, is that it argues
When studying the correlation coefficients between the cases with different
decomposition levels, it was evident that the first band of every hypothesis correlate with the
others, these bands are from a 6-level filter bank (64 bands and 128 features). This is visible in
, where the scatter plot shows that apart from some outliners, there is a positive linear
strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the
values within these bands.As opposed to what can be seen in Figure 3-b, where the scatter plot
shows little to no correlation across the first band of every hypotheses from a 2-level filter bank
Figure 3. Correlation between subbands in different decomposition levels.
The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced
cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physi
Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to
diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with
team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable
. Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart
a similar model to what is used in this paper. they worked on
g the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest
and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at
n 2017, wavelet transform, and a neural network were used to process and
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
4
classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31
y classified, while the rest 119 were correctly classified.
After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the
Filter Bank with 2
levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8
features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is
ccess rate of the classification. Despite defying the proposition
opening. Decomposing signals is considered insightful, because
it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that is
decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of
known from the theory
opening, is that it argues
between the cases with different
the first band of every hypothesis correlate with the
This is visible in
apart from some outliners, there is a positive linear
strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the
, where the scatter plot
level filter bank
The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced
cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physician.
Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to
diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with
team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable
. Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart
they worked on
g the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest
and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at
work were used to process and
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
5
identify the heart condition using the heart sound signal obtained from a novel digital stethoscope
[4].Digital stethoscope is an advancement in the field of heart sound diagnosis, because it
overcomes the limitation of the acoustic stethoscope, such as; its reliance on the physician’s
hearing sensitivity and the impossibility of saving its sound into the patients’ record. The novel
stethoscope converts the analogue audio into digital signal, amplify, and low-pass filter the signal
to produce an audible digital signal. The signal was decomposed using filter bank with 10-
decomposition level, then a simple neural network with two layers and 75 neurons each, was used
to identify the heart condition in question, the accuracy level varied 70% - 100% depending on
the heart condition at hand, the research considered six conditions.And in 2018, CWT was used to
classify heart sound recordings [5]. They built an automatic detecting system of the anomalies in
the heart sounds, to get objective classification away from the subjectivity of the physician’s
hearing sensitivity. The phonocardiogram (discussed more in next chapter) obtained from
Physionet database [6] was processed to extract features using adoptive segmentation, the features
are then used along with k-nearest neighbour method to classify the heart sounds as normal and
abnormal. Their results had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.
5. CONCLUSION
The cardiovascular system is modelled in a transfer function to provide PCG signal recording as it
would be recorded at the wrist. The signal is, then, decomposed using filter bank and the analysed
using discriminant function. The results showed that PCG with a 19 dB Signal-to-Noise-Ratio can
lead to 97.33% successful diagnosis. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that smaller
bands tend to have stronger correlation across the hypotheses, which causes the classification to
be more error prone. Such bands result from decomposing the signal using filter banks with large
number of levels. This could have been caused by the down sampling, since it removed
information held in high frequencies and left some bands with just noise. However, the trade-off
was worthy, because the down sampling that was performed at the beginning of the experiment
reduced the required computational load and processing power. Not to mention that it served the
purpose of this research; limited energy and processing power (the use of mobile devices).
Similar result had been noted in image texture recognition that filter banks with smaller number
of levels performed better than larger ones [7].
REFERENCES
[1] Alpaydin, E. (2016). Introduction to Machine Learning. 3rd ed. ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
[2] Mertins, A. (1999). Signal Analysis: Wavelets, Filter Banks, Time‐Frequency Transforms and
Applications. Chichester [u.a.]: Wiley.
[3] Shi, W.Y. and Chiao, J.-. (2016). Neural Network Based Real-Time Heart Sound Monitor using a
Wireless Wearable Wrist Sensor. IEEE Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7791150
Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1109/DCAS.2016.7791150.
[4] Suseno, J.E. and Burhanudin, M. (2017). The Signal Processing of Heart Sound from Digital
Stethoscope for Identification of Heart Condition using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network.
IEEE Available from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8276354 Available from:
http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1109/ICICOS.2017.8276354.
[5] BüşraKübraKaraca, et al. (July 2018). Classification of Heart Sound Recordings with Continuous
Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm. 2018 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications
Conference (SIU) 2-5 May 2018. Turkey: IEEE Xplore.
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
[6] Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB,
Peng CK, Stanley HE. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research
Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation 101(23):e215
Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 108
10.1161/01.CIR.101.23.e215
[7] Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian
University of Science and Technology Stavanger College.
AUTHORS
Shaima Tajalsir Abdelmageed Abdel Rahman is a Doctoral
Vasa, Finland. She has been a researcher in the field of mHealth since 2011.
Prof. Mohammed Elmusrati is full professor and head of communications and systems
engineering group at the University of Vasa. He is also a visiting professor at Aalto
Univeristy. Prof. Mohammed is also supervising Shaima’s Ph.D.
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB,
. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research
Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation 101(23):e215-e220 [Circulation Electronic
Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 108
Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian
University of Science and Technology Stavanger College.
Shaima Tajalsir Abdelmageed Abdel Rahman is a Doctoral student at the University of
Vasa, Finland. She has been a researcher in the field of mHealth since 2011.
Prof. Mohammed Elmusrati is full professor and head of communications and systems
engineering group at the University of Vasa. He is also a visiting professor at Aalto
Univeristy. Prof. Mohammed is also supervising Shaima’s Ph.D.
Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018
6
Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB,
. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research
e220 [Circulation Electronic
Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 10851218; doi:
Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian

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PHONOCARDIOGRAM-BASED DIAGNOSIS USING MACHINE LEARNING: PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION WITH MULTIVARIANT CLASSIFICATION

  • 1. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 DOI: 10.5121/bioej.2018.5401 1 PHONOCARDIOGRAM-BASED DIAGNOSIS USING MACHINE LEARNING: PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION WITH MULTIVARIANT CLASSIFICATION Shaima Abdelmageed1 , Mohammed Elmusrati2 School of Technology and Innovation, University of Vasa, Vasa, Finland ABSTRACT The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physician. mHealth has been the adopted approach towards quick diagnosis using mobile devices. However, it has been challenging due to the required high quality of data, high computation load, and high-power consumption. The aim of this paper is to diagnose the heart condition based on Phonocardiogram analysis using Machine Learning techniques assuming limited processing power to be encapsulated later in a mobile device. The cardiovascular system is modelled in a transfer function to provide PCG signal recording as it would be recorded at the wrist. The signal is, then, decomposed using filter bank and the analysed using discriminant function. The results showed that PCG with a 19 dB Signal-to-Noise-Ratio can lead to 97.33% successful diagnosis. KEYWORDS Analysis, Classification, data quality, diagnosis, filter banks, mHealth, PCG, SNR, transfer function, Wavelet Transform 1. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the analysis of the heart’s acoustic signal at the wrist. To find this signal, a transfer function is proposed to represent the impact of the travelled distance from the heart to the wrist on the characteristics of the PCG. This signal is expected to have low quality and low signal-to-noise ratio. To reduce the required computation load and power consumption and speed up the processing time the signal is downsampled by 100 sample/s before it is decomposed using filter bank into four subbands. Each subband is described using two features; mean and covariance. The system is trained using 300 cases to diagnose the heart condition against six hypothetical diseases. The classification is based on the discriminant function of the unclassified signal. The most probable diagnosis is found by maximising the discriminant function and in other words, minimising the Mahalanobis distance [1]. For the experiment, nonstationary noise is used to simulate nonstationary environment such as the chaotic accident environments. 2. OBTAINING PCG AT THE WRIST This is achieved by modelling the heart-wrist acoustic wave propagation system using SIMULINK MATLAB, see Figure 1 for the model. A healthy heart acoustic signal with sampling
  • 2. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 date of 44100 sample/s is used as a reference the computation load and speed up the processing time. I acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This could affect the accuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200 components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter Bank, since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to diagnose the phonocardiogram signal (PCG) with machine lea load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the model. The resultant signal at o shows the original signal after downsampling and the resultant signal at the wrist. Figure 1. Heart Figure 2. Original and received signal at the wrist 2.1. Generating the Hypotheses The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a unique transfer function that alters the healthy heart acoustic s disease, the resultant is then sent through the heart function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid simple words, an unhealthy heart is a system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space. This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be audible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 is used as a reference, it is downsampled by 100 sample/second to reduce the computation load and speed up the processing time. It should be noted that down sampling acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This ccuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200 components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter , since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to diagnose the phonocardiogram signal (PCG) with machine learning with limited computation load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the model. The resultant signal at output of the model is a distorted version of the input. shows the original signal after downsampling and the resultant signal at the wrist. Figure 1. Heart-wrist acoustic propagation model Figure 2. Original and received signal at the wrist 2.1. Generating the Hypotheses The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a unique transfer function that alters the healthy heart acoustic signal to form a hypothetical disease, the resultant is then sent through the heart-wrist model (acoustic propagation transfer function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid simple words, an unhealthy heart is a heart that produces faulty PCG. When the cardiovascular system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space. This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be ible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 2 , it is downsampled by 100 sample/second to reduce t should be noted that down sampling acts as a filter that removes the high frequencies, which works well in the case of low frequencies like the one at hand. The new resultant signal has slower sample rate than the original signal. This ccuracy of the experiment negatively, since the down sampling of the signal could lose some of the disease’s indications that are held in high frequencies. All information and indications held beyond 200 Hz are lost, the down sampled signal shows only 200 frequency components. Not to mention that it would limit the number of levels that can be in the Filter , since some sub bands would show only noise. However, the purpose of this research is to rning with limited computation load and processing power (mobile devices), down sampling serves this purpose.After which, a random noise is added to account for measurement noise, the total signal is used as an input to the utput of the model is a distorted version of the input. Figure 2 The experiment starts by defining five hypotheses, each representing a heart disease, these hypotheses are used as reference classes for the diagnostic system. This is done by introducing a ignal to form a hypothetical wrist model (acoustic propagation transfer function) to be received as hypothesis x. And here is what makes these hypotheses valid - In heart that produces faulty PCG. When the cardiovascular system has a problem, the acoustic signal of the heart should reflect that in time/frequency space. This appears as corruption in the heart sound. Such change in the acoustic signals might not be ible or sensed by human ears (not even experienced cardiologist). However, it could be sensed
  • 3. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 3 and potentially classified with sensitive sensors and proper machine learning algorithms. A heart disease could be modelled as a linear corruption of signal of the healthy sound. This corruption has been performed by applying the healthy heart sound signal to different linear filters with different characteristics. There is no medical basis for selecting these filters during the simulation. However, this could be another research for modelling different heart problems with linear/nonlinear transfer functions. The diagnostic system’s job is to identify this noise and consequently conclude the most probable condition. 3. THE EXPERIMENT The experiment is to apply the proposed solution to classify 300 cases. All cases are generated from the hypotheses discussed in 2.1, below are the steps of the experiment. 3.1. Decomposing with filter bank The signal is decomposed using Wavelet Transform and specifically Filter Banks [2] with different number of levels for every cycle of this experiment. The training and test sets were decomposed into a number of bands equivalent to 2x Filter Levels. For each band, the mean and covariance were calculated, so that each case is described by a number of features equivalent to 2x the number of bands. These features are concatenated in a 1 x the number of features matrix named “descriptive matrix”. The number of levels was selected using trial and error as the method of optimisation. Starting the 1 level (2 bands), the experiment trials and compare results from 2 levels (4 bands), 3 levels (8 bands), 4 levels (16 bands), 5 levels (32 bands), and finally 6 levels (64 bands). Increasing the levels beyond 6 did not add any value to the classification nor did it improve the classification result, for that this experiment was stopped at 6 levels. 3.2. Training the system Training the system in this approach is about using the training set to construct the discriminant function. By calculating the mean of the descriptive matrix to get a 1x128 vector and calculate the covariance of the descriptive matrix, which is a square matrix of 128x128. These values are used to construct the Discriminant Function (DF) [1] that is given by Equation 1 DF=-0.5 log(det(s))-0.5 (x-m)^'*inverse(s)*(x-m) (1) Where s is the covariance matrix, m is the mean vector, and x is the training case. It certainly helped to add a confirmation step here that tests the DF using the training set, by simply calculating the DF for the training set and maximising the result, in order to confirm the validity of the training. This is a simple test; because if the training is valid the classification must be 100% correct. During the confirmation step, it became evident that the determinant of the covariance matrix is zero in many cases, which made the first component of the DF function (-infinity). For that, the discriminant function equation was rewritten as follow DF=-0.5 (x-m)' * inverse(s) * (x-m) (2) This formula was used when the filter levels reached 4 (16 bands, 32 features). 3.3. Testing the system To test the system, the discriminant function calculated in step (2) is used to classify the test set. The classification was 97.33% successful using 8 features (2 levels), with only 4 false
  • 4. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31 cases out of the 150 cases were falsel 4. DISCUSSION After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the best possible configuration for this scenario using this approach is to use a levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8 features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is more features will improve the su of the approach, this result is eye it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of features is twice as much with 4 bands. All this makes sense and is well and concept of sub-band decomposition. What makes this result e against that. When studying the decomposition levels, it was evident that others, these bands are from a 6 Figure 3-a, where the scatter plot shows correlation with moderate-strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the values within these bands.As opposed to what can be seen in shows little to no correlation across the first band of every hypotheses from a 2 (4 bands and 8 features). Figure 3. Correlation between 4. RELATED RESEARCH The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physi Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with Neural Networks. In 2016, team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable wrist sensor [3]. Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart acoustic system was based on a similar model to what is used in this paper. finding the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at the wrist. Moreover, in 2017, wavelet transform, and a neural net Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31 cases out of the 150 cases were falsely classified, while the rest 119 were correctly classified. After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the best possible configuration for this scenario using this approach is to use a Filter Bank with 2 levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8 features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is more features will improve the success rate of the classification. Despite defying the proposition of the approach, this result is eye-opening. Decomposing signals is considered insightful, because it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of features is twice as much with 4 bands. All this makes sense and is well-known from the theory band decomposition. What makes this result eye-opening, is that it argues When studying the correlation coefficients between the cases with different decomposition levels, it was evident that the first band of every hypothesis correlate with the others, these bands are from a 6-level filter bank (64 bands and 128 features). This is visible in , where the scatter plot shows that apart from some outliners, there is a positive linear strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the values within these bands.As opposed to what can be seen in Figure 3-b, where the scatter plot shows little to no correlation across the first band of every hypotheses from a 2-level filter bank Figure 3. Correlation between subbands in different decomposition levels. The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physi Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable . Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart a similar model to what is used in this paper. they worked on g the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at n 2017, wavelet transform, and a neural network were used to process and Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 4 classifications. With 128 features (6 levels), the classification was 79.33% successful. Total of 31 y classified, while the rest 119 were correctly classified. After repeating the above steps for every all Filter Levels from 1 to 6, it was concluded that the Filter Bank with 2 levels. This decomposes the signal into total of 4 bands and allows the signal to be described by 8 features. This is an interesting result because it defies the proposition behind this approach, that is ccess rate of the classification. Despite defying the proposition opening. Decomposing signals is considered insightful, because it provides more descriptive details about the original signal. For example, a signal that is decomposed to 4 bands is more descriptive than one decomposed to 2 bands. Since the number of known from the theory opening, is that it argues between the cases with different the first band of every hypothesis correlate with the This is visible in apart from some outliners, there is a positive linear strength across the first band of every hypotheses for majority of the , where the scatter plot level filter bank The heart sound signal, Phonocardiogram (PCG) is difficult to interpret even for experienced cardiologists. Interpretation are very subjective depending on the hearing ability of the physician. Therefore, many researchers attempted to analyse and classify heart acoustic signals in order to diagnose the heart condition, especially using Wavelet Transform and many cases combined with team of two attempted building heart sound monitor using wearable . Although they focused on the hardware, the mathematical model of the heart they worked on g the inverse function for the pulse wave between two locations along the same artery; chest and wrist and used that to estimate the recorded pulse wave at the chest from the one recorded at work were used to process and
  • 5. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 5 identify the heart condition using the heart sound signal obtained from a novel digital stethoscope [4].Digital stethoscope is an advancement in the field of heart sound diagnosis, because it overcomes the limitation of the acoustic stethoscope, such as; its reliance on the physician’s hearing sensitivity and the impossibility of saving its sound into the patients’ record. The novel stethoscope converts the analogue audio into digital signal, amplify, and low-pass filter the signal to produce an audible digital signal. The signal was decomposed using filter bank with 10- decomposition level, then a simple neural network with two layers and 75 neurons each, was used to identify the heart condition in question, the accuracy level varied 70% - 100% depending on the heart condition at hand, the research considered six conditions.And in 2018, CWT was used to classify heart sound recordings [5]. They built an automatic detecting system of the anomalies in the heart sounds, to get objective classification away from the subjectivity of the physician’s hearing sensitivity. The phonocardiogram (discussed more in next chapter) obtained from Physionet database [6] was processed to extract features using adoptive segmentation, the features are then used along with k-nearest neighbour method to classify the heart sounds as normal and abnormal. Their results had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. 5. CONCLUSION The cardiovascular system is modelled in a transfer function to provide PCG signal recording as it would be recorded at the wrist. The signal is, then, decomposed using filter bank and the analysed using discriminant function. The results showed that PCG with a 19 dB Signal-to-Noise-Ratio can lead to 97.33% successful diagnosis. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that smaller bands tend to have stronger correlation across the hypotheses, which causes the classification to be more error prone. Such bands result from decomposing the signal using filter banks with large number of levels. This could have been caused by the down sampling, since it removed information held in high frequencies and left some bands with just noise. However, the trade-off was worthy, because the down sampling that was performed at the beginning of the experiment reduced the required computational load and processing power. Not to mention that it served the purpose of this research; limited energy and processing power (the use of mobile devices). Similar result had been noted in image texture recognition that filter banks with smaller number of levels performed better than larger ones [7]. REFERENCES [1] Alpaydin, E. (2016). Introduction to Machine Learning. 3rd ed. ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press. [2] Mertins, A. (1999). Signal Analysis: Wavelets, Filter Banks, Time‐Frequency Transforms and Applications. Chichester [u.a.]: Wiley. [3] Shi, W.Y. and Chiao, J.-. (2016). Neural Network Based Real-Time Heart Sound Monitor using a Wireless Wearable Wrist Sensor. IEEE Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7791150 Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1109/DCAS.2016.7791150. [4] Suseno, J.E. and Burhanudin, M. (2017). The Signal Processing of Heart Sound from Digital Stethoscope for Identification of Heart Condition using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network. IEEE Available from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8276354 Available from: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1109/ICICOS.2017.8276354. [5] BüşraKübraKaraca, et al. (July 2018). Classification of Heart Sound Recordings with Continuous Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm. 2018 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU) 2-5 May 2018. Turkey: IEEE Xplore.
  • 6. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 [6] Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB, Peng CK, Stanley HE. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation 101(23):e215 Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 108 10.1161/01.CIR.101.23.e215 [7] Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian University of Science and Technology Stavanger College. AUTHORS Shaima Tajalsir Abdelmageed Abdel Rahman is a Doctoral Vasa, Finland. She has been a researcher in the field of mHealth since 2011. Prof. Mohammed Elmusrati is full professor and head of communications and systems engineering group at the University of Vasa. He is also a visiting professor at Aalto Univeristy. Prof. Mohammed is also supervising Shaima’s Ph.D. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB, . PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation 101(23):e215-e220 [Circulation Electronic Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 108 Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian University of Science and Technology Stavanger College. Shaima Tajalsir Abdelmageed Abdel Rahman is a Doctoral student at the University of Vasa, Finland. She has been a researcher in the field of mHealth since 2011. Prof. Mohammed Elmusrati is full professor and head of communications and systems engineering group at the University of Vasa. He is also a visiting professor at Aalto Univeristy. Prof. Mohammed is also supervising Shaima’s Ph.D. Bioscience & Engineering: An International Journal (BIOEJ), Vol.5, No.1/2/3/4, October 2018 6 Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB, . PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research e220 [Circulation Electronic Pages; http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/23/e215.full]; 2000 (June 13). PMID: 10851218; doi: Randen, T. (1997). Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition. Norwegian