SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 143
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
Tech Trends 2014
Inspiring Disruption
Contents
Introduction | 2
Disruptors
CIO as venture capitalist | 6
Cognitive analytics | 18
Industrialized crowdsourcing | 30
Digital engagement | 42
Wearables | 54
Enablers
Technical debt reversal | 66
Social activation | 78
Cloud orchestration | 88
In-memory revolution | 100
Real-time DevOps | 112
Exponentials | 124
Appendix | 136
Welcome to Deloitte’s fifth annual Technology Trends report. Each year, we study the ever-
evolving technology landscape, focusing on disruptive trends that are transforming business,
government, and society. Once again, we’ve selected 10 topics that have the opportunity to impact
organizations across industries, geographies, and sizes over the next 18 to 24 months.
The theme of this year’s report is Inspiring Disruption. In it, we discuss 10 trends that exemplify
the unprecedented potential for emerging technologies to reshape how work gets done, how
businesses grow, and how markets and industries evolve. These disruptive technologies challenge
CIOs to anticipate their potential organizational impacts. And while today’s demands are by no
means trivial, the trends we describe offer CIOs the opportunity to shape tomorrow—to inspire
others, to create value, and to transform “business as usual.”
The list of trends is developed using an ongoing process of primary and secondary research
that involves:
•	 Feedback from client executives on current and future priorities
•	 Perspectives from industry and academic luminaries
•	 Research by alliance partners, industry analysts, and competitor positioning
•	 Crowdsourced ideas and examples from our global network of practitioners
As in prior years, we’ve organized the trends into two categories. Disruptors are areas that
can create sustainable positive disruption in IT capabilities, business operations, and sometimes
even business models. Enablers are technologies in which many CIOs have already invested time
and effort, but that warrant another look because of new developments, new capabilities, or new
potential use cases. Each trend is presented with multiple examples of adoption to show the trend
at work. This year, we’ve added a longer-form Lesson from the front lines to each chapter to offer a
more detailed look at an early use case. Also, each chapter includes a personal point of view in the
My take section.
Information technology continues to be dominated by five forces: analytics, mobile, social,
cloud, and cyber. Their continuing impact is highlighted in chapters dedicated to wearables, cloud
orchestration, social activation, and cognitive analytics. Cyber is a recurring thread throughout the
report: more important than ever, but embedded into thinking about how to be secure, vigilant, and
resilient in approaching disruptive technologies.
Introduction
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
2
For the first time, we’ve added a section dedicated to what our contributing authors at Singularity
University refer to as “exponential” technologies. We highlight five innovative technologies that
may take longer than our standard 24-month time horizon for businesses to harness them—but
whose eventual impact may be profound. Examples include artificial intelligence, robotics, and
additive manufacturing (3-D printing). The research, experimentation, and invention behind these
“exponentials” are the building blocks for many of our technology trends. Our goal is to provide
a high-level introduction to each exponential—a snapshot of what it is, where it comes from, and
where it’s going.
Each of the 2014 trends is relevant today. Each has significant momentum and potential to make
a business impact. And each warrants timely consideration—even if the strategy is to wait and
see. But whatever you do, don’t be caught unaware—or unprepared. Use these forces to inspire, to
transform. And to disrupt.
We welcome your comments, questions, and feedback. And a sincere “thank you” to the many
executives and organizations that have helped provide input for Tech Trends 2014; your time and
insights were invaluable. We look forward to your continued innovation, impact, and inspiration.
Bill Briggs						
Chief Technology Officer				
Deloitte Consulting LLP								
wbriggs@deloitte.com				
Twitter: @wdbthree
Introduction
3
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
4
Disruptors
CIOs have historically focused on core
delivery and operations with a budget and
operating model built around low risk—buying
enterprise-class software, building a talent base
that could support a well-defined future state,
driving for efficiencies in light of constant
cost pressures. More and more CIOs, faced
with disruptive forces such as crowdsourcing,1
mobile only,2
big data,3
and cybersecurity,4
are
shifting from a world of known problems into
one filled with unknowns. To make matters
worse, organizational governance has become
more complex as barriers for other parts
of the business to enter the technical arena
have fallen.
CIOs are seeing this divergent behavior—
and realizing that their current tools for
managing risk and leveraging assets may
not work in this new world. Instead, many
are beginning to manage their technology
portfolios in ways that drive enterprise value,
actively monitor the performance of the
portfolios, and communicate the portfolios’
positions in language the business can grasp.
To do this, CIOs are borrowing from the
playbook of today’s leading venture capitalists
(VCs). As a result, they are reshaping how they
run the business of IT.5
Thinking like a VC
Effective VCs are often shrewd
businesspeople who operate across a
range of intertwined capabilities. They
manage portfolios of investments,
continually evaluating individual and
aggregate performance in terms of value,
risk, and reward. They deliberately attract
entrepreneurial talent with technical skills
and business savvy—as well as vision, passion,
and the intangible spark of leadership. And
they cultivate agile organizations to anticipate
and respond to changing market conditions—
open to decisions to exit, take public, reinvest,
or divest. These capabilities are closely
related to the CIO’s leadership role in today’s
growth-oriented organization.
Portfolio investment strategy. CIOs today
juggle an ever-growing portfolio of projects,
ranging from long-term strategic initiatives
to keeping the lights on. CIOs need clear lines
of sight across their portfolio of programs
and projects—the objectives, dependencies,
status, finances, associated resources, and risk
profiles. But in-flight initiatives are only one
piece of their balance sheet. CIOs should also
understand their assets—hardware, software,
facilities, delivery model (the way work gets
CIO as venture capitalist
Trading on IT’s assets, talent, risk, and results
CIOs who want to help drive business growth and innovation will likely need
to develop a new mindset and new capabilities. Like venture capitalists, CIOs
should actively manage their IT portfolio in a way that drives enterprise value
and evaluate portfolio performance in terms that business leaders understand—
value, risk, and time horizon to reward. CIOs who can combine this with agility
and align the desired talent can reshape how they run the business of IT.
CIO as venture capitalist
7
done), contracts, vendors, and people. The
portfolio of IT is a complex one. But that
complexity is no excuse for flying blind.
Valuation. An effective portfolio view
enables the CIO to continually evaluate the
strategic performance of each asset, project,
and vendor in terms that business leaders
understand. A CIO with a VC mindset doesn’t
just report on the organization’s to-do list or
inventory of assets; the CIO communicates
the quantitative and qualitative value the IT
organization contributes to the business. This
means delineating the strategic importance
of programs, projects, and assets. What
initiatives are mission-critical for the business?
What is the confidence level around on-time,
on-budget delivery? How deliberately are
business case results tracked? Which hardware
and software assets are identified for growth?
For sunsetting? For active retirement? How
“heavy” a balance sheet do you want to carry?
Handicap. In many emerging areas, there
are no clearly identifiable winners. How much
do you know about the product roadmap
of your existing providers? Are you actively
scanning small and emergent players? No
part of your portfolio should be off-limits—
software, hardware, services, talent, data,
methods, and tools. Do you have the skills and
the discipline to evaluate and predict how the
landscape will evolve—not only in the market
but, more importantly, for your company,
for your customers, and for your business
partners? Make sure you are getting what you
need in order to provide what the business
wants from IT. And be ready to reevaluate
in light of market shifts, M&A events, or
leadership transitions.
Portfolio management1
As IT budgets continue to increase, it is more important to
manage them closely. In 2013, 38% of organizations created
a portfolio approach to IT.2
IT needs the right skillset to maintain systems and innovate.
Capabilities map for CIOs
61%operational spending
Increase Maintain
Business skill gaps within IT Technical skill gaps
Decrease
Talent alignment3
2012 2013
83% of businesses have future
plans to implement agile, an
increase from 59% last year.
57%capital spending
42%business analysis
30%technology strategy
29%analytics & big data
52%thinking like the business
46%thinking strategically
42%communicating effectively
42%business analysis
30%technology strategy
29%analytics & big data
CIOs are adopting agile methods to expedite delivery times
and improve business alignment. Organizations using agile
have seen promising results:
Agile4
Improve Maintain Worsen
productivity
90%ability to change priorities
85%
84%project visibilty
Sources: 1
Computer Economics, IT spending and staffing benchmarks
2013/2014, chapter 1, http://www.computereconomics.com/page.cfm?
name=it%20spending%20and%20staffing%20study, accessed January 3,
2014. 2
CIO Magazine, 2013 state of the CIO survey, January 2, 2013,
http://www.cio.com/slideshow/detail/79671, accessed January 3, 2014.
3
Deloitte MCS Limited, The Deloitte CIO Survey 2013. Reconnect. Rebuild.
Reimagine. Redeliver., 2013. 4
VersionOne, Seventh annual state of agile
development survey, 2013, http://www.versionone.com/state-of-agile-
survey-results, accessed January 3, 2014.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
8
Hedge. What emerging investments are you
making, whether in broad technologies or with
specific entities? At what stage are you getting
involved? How will you incubate, invest,
divest? If you build dependencies on start-ups
or niche players, you will need to evaluate
not only the technology but the founders and
their business models. Build a concession
architecture that allows you to port assets to
different players or to shutter underperforming
investments or partnerships in order to move
on to the next opportunity.
Promotion. The brand of IT is maligned
in some organizations, with the CIO viewed
as the operator of the company’s technology
assets but not as a strategist or catalyst for
innovation.6
Rethinking the role as a VC gives
the CIO a backdrop for the business to elevate
the understanding—and appreciation—of
his or her function. There’s no overnight fix.
Understand your current brand permission,
then build awareness about IT’s mission,
effectiveness, and vision. Internally, this is
important in order to enhance IT’s charter.
IT should be a board-level topic—recognized
as one of the crown jewels of the company.
Externally, it’s important to attract talent—
and attention. Even some leading VCs have
launched PR and marketing efforts.7
Don’t
assume that once it’s built, they will come.
Talent brokering. The portfolio mindset
extends to talent management as well. Talent
scarcity is a universal concern, but it has a
particular impact on IT. Consider the skills
and capabilities that will be needed to deliver
on strategic initiatives, as well as those required
to maintain existing systems and processes.
Where are the gaps? Which capabilities can
be grown from existing staff? Which should
be acquired? How can top talent be identified,
developed, and hoarded—regardless of title
or tenure? How can external talent be tapped?
Think beyond consultants, agencies, and
contractors. Can you leverage the crowd—
either transactionally8
or by finding a way to
activate customers and hobbyists?9
CIOs need
doers and thinkers just like VCs, but they also
need leaders. Use this age of innovation as a
means to launch initiatives to reward (and
retain) demonstrated talent with the curiosity
and horsepower to help lead growth areas.
Demand for talent is outstripping supply in
many shops—and expected time to value
is shrinking.
Agility. Disruption is a given in technology
today, and is extending into many aspects of
the business. The balancing act is delicate—
driving for more nimble, responsive delivery
while maintaining architectural integrity and
making solutions built to run.
In this new world, the CIO’s role should
expand from enabling operations with
technical services to building a technology
footprint that fuels, and can be responsive to,
the executive team’s growth and investment
strategy. Integration, data, and architecture
capabilities should be developed into
disciplines, serving as the core pillars of
business agility.
CIO as venture capitalist
9
Growth and change
Cisco’s IT organization uses a three-tiered model to drive its mission: Run the business—
focusing on efficiency, quality, and optimization of cost performance; grow the business—helping to
drive investments that impact business performance; and change the business—transforming how
the organization operates and the markets in which it competes. At Cisco, line-of-business CIOs are
encouraged to drive more of their investment portfolio towards growth and change. This doesn’t
mean that total cost of ownership isn’t emphasized, but the “better, faster, cheaper” mindset is not
just applied to the business of IT—it’s just as important to the business of the business. Technology
spend is anchored in running or changing the business—which requires not just bilateral
commitment, but ongoing education and teaming between IT and the business.
Line-of-business CIOs look at initiatives as vehicles for tech-enabled business growth and
see their roles as orchestrators and shapers. At the financial level, this means actively managing
a portfolio of assets with an understanding of cost, return, risk, and strategic importance. More
than just inventorying and reporting, it means helping to set priorities, translating the potential of
disruptive technologies and making them meaningful, and setting up the organization for speed
and agility. Traditional waterfall methodologies have given way to agile—fast, iterative deployments
where the business is fully engaged. At the technology level, orchestration is about creating a
seamless experience across a technology landscape that is growing more diverse and complex,
bringing together a mix of on- and off-premises solutions—and making sure employees, customers,
and business partners aren’t exposed to behind-the-scenes complexity. Integration and architecture
have been established as key disciplines fueling immediate investments in sales effectiveness, digital
marketing across devices/channels, and the technical backbone behind the Internet of Everything.
Cisco has also started to engage more directly with the venture capital and start-up communities.
Corporate CIO Rebecca Jacoby has established a company-wide reference architecture covering
business, operational, systems, and technology aspects. Emerging solutions that comply with the
reference architecture are actively pursued—often in response to specific problems or opportunities
the company is trying to address. Like other IT investments, though, an assessment of the solution
is made not just on its ability to change the business, but on the ongoing impact on running the
business. Like a venture capitalist, the IT organization measures the portfolio in absolute terms—
potential value weighed against total cost of service. Cisco emphasizes measurement of vision,
strategy, and execution according to the needs of the business. Because of these approaches,
Cisco is prepared to deal with whatever the future brings—acquisitions, product innovation, and
investments in adjacent services and solutions.
Lessons from the front lines
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
10
A view from the Valley10
Founded in 1989, Hummer Winblad
Venture Partners (HWVP) was the first
venture capital fund to invest exclusively in
software companies. HWVP has deployed over
$1 billion of cumulative capital in software
investments starting at the first venture round
of over 100 enterprise software companies. As
such, HWVP has a singular perspective into
not just what it takes to effectively manage
an investment portfolio, but also into how
Fortune 100 companies are responding to this
seminal time in the history of technology.
Unlike those who see innovation as a
crescendo steadily building over time, HWVP
sees a different, bumpier reality—defined by
periods of disproportionate change, embodied
by today’s era of technology disruption.
Historically, large enterprises have
encouraged new software vendors to focus on
“embracing and extending” in-place software
infrastructure. This approach can work if
innovation is gradual, but can break down if
innovation impacts overall business strategies.
We are at a major disruption point where
legacy systems likely cannot be extended.
The digitization of the customer experience
across industries—driven by mobile, social,
cloud, and big data—is changing the nature of
data itself, as businesses shift their focus from
products to customers. Siloed systems aren’t
equipped to handle behavioral data, sentiment,
and largely unstructured context. Digital
requires a different horizontal stack.
The need to keep pace with new business
and technological realities could be a great
backdrop for CIOs to shift focus from cost,
compliance, and maintenance to being in the
business of “new.” CIOs should be a strategy
anchor for big companies: a board-level
position that doesn’t just enable but is a catalyst
for growth.
HWVP doesn’t have a “VC handbook” that
guides its investments. And neither will CIOs.
HWVP co-founder Ann Winblad believes we
are entering an era where companies should
take risks: They should swim in the river of
innovation and be prepared to make multiple
bets to discover what innovation really means
for their company. It could lead to near-
term competitive disadvantage—especially
as large organizations react to the exploding
population of small vendors that are defining
tomorrow. Firms that CIOs may not have
heard of with a small operating footprint may
become essential partners.
Large companies should not wait for
new market leaders to emerge. That means
performing your own market analysis and
increasing the value of existing partners and
alliances—asking them to broker introductions
or co-invest in early prototyping. Instead of
asking small players to go through qualifying
paces, create low-cost, low-risk prototypes and
pilots to experiment with their technologies
to solve business problems. Many CIOs of
large companies use start-ups to enable lines
of businesses—and help jointly own the
investment in tomorrow.
HWVP is in the business of identifying—
and sometimes provoking—patterns. It’s the
“venture” part of venture capital. With the
customer as the business’s new cerebral cortex
and growth moving at the speed of digital,
CIOs should act more like VCs. Not every bet
will be a winner, but by keeping a portfolio
of investments, moving ahead of tested
(and sometimes stale) market trends, and
keeping a mindset towards engagement, big
companies can be poised to compete in these
unprecedentedly exciting times.
CIO as venture capitalist
11
There are multiple drivers for why CIOs need
to think like a venture capitalist. The first is the
incredible pace of technological change. CIOs
need to place bets—like VCs do—that a given
product or service is going to hit the market
at the right time and fill a niche that others
don’t. It’s often no longer acceptable to use one
vendor for all your technology needs. Second,
given all the information now accessible to
everyone, it’s hard to gain a competitive
advantage. VCs try to create a
competitive advantage by investing in
companies to make a profit— and
CIOs try to create a competitive
advantage by investing in services
and capabilities to reap the
benefits before competitors
can. And third, to avoid
trailing your competitors, CIOs
need to take risks. VCs take
balanced risks, conducting
market research, and being
thoughtful about selection
and the company’s fit with the
team. Taking risks is the hardest
part for CIOs; we’ve all seen the
damage failed projects can do
to the IT department’s reputation.
But taking risks means accepting not
just the potential, but the inevitability
of failure. In my judgment, if you’re
too afraid of that, your company will likely
always trail your competitors. The key is to
work with the rest of the C-suite to recognize
that some level of risk is part of the ground rules.
And if you’re going to fail, fail fast— cutting
your losses and moving on to the next bet.
In addition to my role as CIO of Bloomin’ Brands,
I also serve on the CIO advisory board for Sierra
Ventures, a venture capital firm. Having that
exposure into a VC firm has influenced my
behavior as a CIO. When I first joined Bloomin’
Brands, one of my priorities was to focus on
where the market was going to be three years
out and find something that would allow us to
get out in front. At that time, we weren’t yet a
cloud organization, but I knew we eventually
would be, and invested in a cloud-based
integration product. Some in my IT organization
were nervous at the time, knowing the
integration would be challenging, but we
knew it would also be challenging for our
competitors—and we were able to be an early
adopter and gain the advantage.
I have also adapted my approach to vendor
and talent management. The current landscape
changes how you deal with vendors. You’re
working with both large, established companies
and the new set of entrants, many of whom
are entrepreneurs who sometimes have never
done an enterprise contract before. On the
talent side, we increasingly hire for agility. We
look for people who can be nimble and move at
the same pace as the business. We recruit those
who learn based on principle rather than by rote
syntax and command so they can more easily
move from one product to another.
As much as there are similarities between VCs
and today’s CIOs, there are also some tenets of
venture capitalism that don’t necessarily make
sense for a CIO to adopt. The first is the size
of your investment portfolio. While the VC can
have 15–25 investments at once, the CIO may
be able to balance only a handful. The second is
the breadth of the portfolio. The VC can afford
to go after multiple spaces, but the CIO’s lens is
rightfully constrained by the company’s industry
and the needs of the business. There may be
some interesting capabilities you need to turn
down because they just aren’t the right fit.
To start on the path of CIO-as-venture-capitalist,
try to open your mind to becoming more of a
risk taker and to look at technology solutions
that are less established. Work through
your own risk profile—with the rest of your
C-suite—and determine how much risk you
are willing to take on. Then, align yourself with
folks who can help you start to venture into
this space and take advantage of some of the
early-stage solutions.
My take
Charles Weston, SVP and chief information officer (retired),
Bloomin’ Brands
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
12
Mastering VC capabilities may
challenge many CIOs whose traditional
role has been to meet business demands for
reliable, cost-efficient technologies. And even
if the capabilities could materialize overnight,
earning the credibility that is required to
become active participants in strategic
leadership conversations will likely be a
gradual process for many CIOs.
To complicate matters, new technology
shifts—especially those powered by analytics,
mobile, social, cloud, and cyber—intensify
talent shortages and process constraints.
These gaps make creating a balanced portfolio
across traditional and emerging IT services
even more difficult. As business users bypass
IT to adopt cloud-based point solutions,
organizational technology footprints are
becoming more and more complex. Visibility
into, and control of, the portfolio becomes
harder to attain. CIOs have an imperative to
get ahead of the curve.
This is especially true in M&A, where
change is constantly disruptive. Many
industries are rife with potential investments
and divestitures. But few organizations can
acquire, sell, or divest with surgical precision
without reinventing the wheel with each
transaction. Seventy percent of mergers and
acquisitions fail to meet their expectations.
The value from mergers, acquisitions, and
divestitures is more directly linked to getting
IT right than anything else.11
Transformation takes time, but small first
steps can make a difference:
•	 Inventory the technology portfolio. What
technologies does your organization deploy
today? Focus on the full range, including
solutions procured outside of IT. What
projects are in play? What vendors do you
depend on? What assets are in use, and
where are they located? How does each
asset contribute to the business mission,
and what is its useful remaining life? It’s not
enough to rationalize your assets. Create a
model to describe the categories of assets
and investments, and use that to guide
priorities. Many organizations use Gartner’s
Pace-Layered Application Strategy, breaking
down their IT landscape into systems of
record, systems of differentiation, and
systems of innovation. Inventorying and
classification is just an enabling step,
though. What matters is how you use
the visibility to direct focus and capital,
balancing across the categories in a way
that enables (and amplifies) your business
strategy. Budgeting cycles typically run like
Shark Tank—with funds allocated by the
business based on its priorities.
•	 Evaluate the portfolio. Define the risk,
value, and strategic importance of each
portfolio item. Identify where costs/
risks outweigh value. Pinpoint potential
trouble spots, such as contracts with
unclear service-level agreements or data
ownership provisions. Understand each
vendor’s viability—not just in terms of
capital and capacity, but also how well
the vendor’s roadmap aligns with your
company’s vision. Look for portfolio
clusters: Is the proportion of investments
in maintenance and upkeep appropriate
when compared with investments in new
strategic opportunities? Are there gaps that
could hold the organization back? Strive
for balance between extending legacy
systems and investments in innovation.
Aim for transparency, letting your business
counterparts appreciate the exhaustive
demand curve as well as the thinking that
defines priorities.
Where do you start?
CIO as venture capitalist
13
•	 Double down on winners. And fold
the losers. VCs expect some assets to
underperform, and they are willing to
cut their losses. CIOs should encourage
intelligent risk-taking within the
organization. Failure due to poor execution
is unacceptable, but setbacks resulting from
exploring innovative ideas are inevitable
for organizations that want to compete
in a high-growth environment. Borrow
from the VC playbook—intentionally
being conservative in initial funding to
inspire creativity and creating more natural
checkpoints. In either case, be prepared to
recommend that the organization pull the
plug when a project isn’t delivering.
•	 Direct line of sight to revenue. Come
up with an approach to vet technologies
and their companies to better identify and
evaluate winners and losers. Share your
accomplishments and goals in terms that
the business understands. Openly discuss
the state of the projects and assets in which
the business has invested. While few CIOs
today have the sole power to initiate or
withdraw substantial investments, many
should develop the ability to evaluate the
portfolio objectively. The first few wins can
become the centerpiece of your campaign
for change.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
14
Authors
Tom Galizia, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP
Tom Galizia is the national leader of Deloitte Consulting LLP’s
Technology Strategy and Architecture practice that focuses on
enabling new IT capabilities to successfully navigate changing
market dynamics, delivering IT-enabled business strategy
and transformation, and driving efficient IT operations.
Chris Garibaldi, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP
Chris Garibaldi is a principal in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s
Technology Strategy and Architecture practice and leads
the Project Portfolio Management practice. With 20 years
of experience in business strategy, Chris possesses a unique
perspective on the evolution of business and IT management.
Bottom line
At first blush, comparisons between CIOs and venture capitalists may seem like a stretch. For
example, CIOs can’t shoot from the hip on risky investments. They provide critical services that the
business simply can’t do without, where the risk of getting it wrong could be catastrophic. At the
same time, there’s a lot to learn from the portfolio mindset that VCs bring to their work: balancing
investments in legacy systems, innovation, and even bleeding-edge technologies; understanding—and
communicating—business value; and aligning talent with the business mission. Venture capitalists
operate in a high-stakes environment where extraordinary value creation and inevitable losses can
coexist inside a portfolio of calculated investments. So do CIOs.
CIO as venture capitalist
15
Endnotes
1.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3.
2.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 2.
3.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 6.
4.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 9.
5.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 10.
6.	 CIO Journal by Wall Street Journal, “The four faces of the CIO,” October 28, 2013, http://
deloitte.wsj.com/cio/2013/10/28/the-four-faces-of-the-cio/, accessed December 19, 2013.
7.	 Nicole Perlroth, “Venture capital firms, once discreet, learn the promotional game,” New York Times,
July 22, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/23/business/venture-capital-firms-once-discreet-
learn-the-promotional-game.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&, accessed December 19, 2013.
8.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3.
9.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 7.
10.	 Ann Winblad (co-founder of Hummer Winblad Venture Partners),
discussion with the author, January 9, 2014.
11.	 Janice M. Roehl-Anderson, M&A Information Technology Best Practices (New Jersey: Wiley, 2013).
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
16
CIO as venture capitalist
17
For decades, companies have dealt
with information in a familiar way—
deliberately exploring known data sets to
gain insights. Whether by queries, reports,
or advanced analytical models, explicit rules
have been applied to universes of data to
answer questions and guide decision making.
The underlying technologies for storage,
visualization, statistical modeling, and business
intelligence have continued to evolve, and
we’re far from reaching the limits of these
traditional techniques.
Today, analytical systems that enable better
data-driven decisions are at a crossroads with
respect to where the work gets done. While
they leverage technology for data-handling and
number-crunching, the hard work of forming
and testing hypotheses, tuning models, and
tweaking data structures is still reliant on
people. Much of the grunt work is carried out
by computers, while much of the thinking
is dependent on specific human beings with
specific skills and experience that are hard to
replace and hard to scale.
A new approach to information
discovery and decision making
For the first time in computing history,
it’s possible for machines to learn from
experience and penetrate the complexity
of data to identify associations. The field
is called cognitive analyticsTM
—inspired by
how the human brain processes information,
draws conclusions, and codifies instincts and
experience into learning. Instead of depending
on predefined rules and structured queries to
uncover answers, cognitive analytics relies on
technology systems to generate hypotheses,
drawing from a wide variety of potentially
relevant information and connections. Possible
answers are expressed as recommendations,
along with the system’s self-assessed ranking
of how confident it is in the accuracy of the
response. Unlike in traditional analysis,
the more data fed to a machine learning
system, the more it can learn, resulting in
higher-quality insights.
Cognitive analytics can push past the
limitations of human cognition, allowing us
to process and understand big data in real
time, undaunted by exploding volumes of
data or wild fluctuations in form, structure,
and quality. Context-based hypotheses can
be formed by exploring massive numbers of
permutations of potential relationships of
influence and causality—leading to conclusions
unconstrained by organizational biases. In
academia, the techniques have been applied to
the study of reading, learning, and language
Cognitive analytics
Wow me with blinding insights, HAL
Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing
have moved from experimental concepts to potential business disruptors—
harnessing Internet speed, cloud scale, and adaptive mastery of business
processes to drive insights that aid real-time decision making. For
organizations that want to improve their ability to sense and respond,
cognitive analytics can be a powerful way to bridge the gap between
the intent of big data and the reality of practical decision making.
Cognitive analytics
19
development. The Boltzmann machine1
and the Never-Ending Language Learning
(NELL)2
projects are popular examples. In the
consumer world, pieces of cognitive analytics
form the core of artificial personal assistants
such as Apple’s Siri® voice recognition software3
and the Google Now service, as well as the
backbone for the Xbox® video game system’s
verbal command interface in Kinect®.
Even more interesting use cases exist in
the commercial realm. Early instances of
cognitive analytics can be found in health
care, where systems are being used to
improve the quality of patient outcomes.
A wide range of structured inputs, such as
claims records, patient files, and outbreak
statistics, are coupled with unstructured
inputs such as medical journals and textbooks,
clinician notes, and social media feeds.
Patient diagnoses can incorporate new
medical evidence and individual patient
histories, removing economic and geographic
constraints that can prevent access to leading
medical knowledge.
1950
Alan Turing publishes
Computing Machinery
and Intelligence, in which
he proposes what is now
referred to as the Turing
Test: an experiment that
tests a machine’s ability
to exhibit intelligent
human behavior.1
1968
The first commercial
database management
system, or Information
Management System
(IMS), tracks huge
amounts of structured
data such as bills of
materials for NASA’s
Apollo Moon mission.2
1972
Work begins on MYCIN,
an early expert system
that identifies infectious
blood diseases using an
inference engine and
suggests diagnoses and
treatments. Despite high
performance, it is not
used in practice.3
1980s
Steady increases in
computing power fuel
a revolution in natural
language processing as
early algorithms such as
decision trees and neural
network models are
introduced.4
Highlights in the history of cognitive analytics
1950 1960 1970 1980
1e+4
1e+12
1e+8
computations per kilowatt-hour9
Sources: 1
A. M. Turing, "Computing machinery and intelligence," 1950, Mind 49: 433-460, http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf,
accessed December 27, 2013. 2
IBM, "Icons of progress: Information management system," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/
icons/ibmims, accessed December 27, 2013. 3
Edward H. Shortliffe, A rule-based approach to the generation of advice and explanations in clinical
medicine, Stanford University Knowledge Systems Laboratory, 1977. 4
Joab Jackson, "Biologically inspired: How neural networks are finally maturing,"
ComputerWorld, December 17, 2013, http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=213D1459-C657-E067-397E42988ACBFC00, accessed December 27,
2013. 5
IBM, "Icons of progress: TAKMI - Bringing order to unstructured data," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/takmi,
accessed December 27, 2013.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
20
In financial services, cognitive analytics
is being used to advise and execute trading,
as well as for advanced fraud detection and
risk underwriting. In retail, cognitive systems
operate as customer service agents, in-store
kiosks, and digital store clerks—providing
answers to customers’ questions about
products, trends, recommendations, and
support. Another promising area for cognitive
analytics involves the concept of “tuning”
complex global systems such as supply chains
and cloud networks.
Getting practical
In practical terms, cognitive analytics is an
extension of cognitive computing, which is
made up of three main components: machine
learning, natural language processing, and
advancements in the enabling infrastructure.
Machine learning, or deep learning,4
is an
artificial intelligence5
technique modeled after
characteristics of the human brain. A machine
learning system explores many divergent
concepts for possible connections, expresses
potential new ideas with relative confidence
1997
TAKMI, or Text Analysis
and Knowledge Mining,
is developed in Tokyo by
IBM to capture and utilize
knowledge embedded in
text files through mining
data and metadata in
books, journals, emails,
audio and video files, etc.5
2004
The High Performance
Computing Revitalization
Act sets requirements for
the Secretary of Energy
for the development of,
capabilities for, and access
to high-end computing
systems for scientific and
engineering applications.6
2009-2010
Content analytics improve
capabilities in unstructured
data processing; streaming
analytics process patient
data to identify disease
patterns in real time;
and predictive analytics
forecast the attitudes and
behavior of customers.7
Today
IBM, WellPoint, and
Memorial Sloan Kettering
use Watson to give
doctors treatment options
in seconds. Streaming
analytics process 5 million
messages of market data
per second to speed up
trading decisions.8
1990 2000 2010
Natural language processingMachine learningComputing
6
National Science Foundation, "Department of Energy: High-end Computing Revitalization Act of 2004," http://www.nsf.gov/mps/ast/aaac/
p_l_108-423_doe_high-end_computing_revitalization_act_of_2004.pdf, November 30, 2004, accessed January 6, 2014. 7
IBM, "Icons of progress:
TAKMI - Bringing order to unstructured data," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/takmi, accessed December 27, 2013;
IBM, "Icons of progress: The invention of stream computing," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/streamcomputing,
accessed December 27, 2013. 8
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, "IBM Watson hard at work: New breakthroughs transform quality care for
patients," http://www.mskcc.org/pressroom/press/ibm-watson-hard-work-new-breakthroughs-transform-quality-care-patients, accessed December 27,
2013. 9
Economist, "A deeper law than Moore's?," October 10, 2011, http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/10/computing-power,
accessed December 27, 2013.
Cognitive analytics
21
or certainty in their “correctness,” and adjusts
the strength of heuristics, intuition, or decision
frameworks based on direct feedback to
those ideas. Many of today’s implementations
represent supervised learning, where the
machine needs to be trained or taught by
humans. User feedback is given on the
quality of the conclusions, which the system
uses to tune its “thought process” and refine
future hypotheses.
Another important component of cognitive
computing is natural language processing
(NLP), or the ability to parse and understand
unstructured data and conversational requests.
NLP allows more data from more sources to
be included in an analysis—allowing raw text,
handwritten content, email, blog posts, mobile
and sensor data, voice transcriptions, and more
to be included as part of the learning. This
is essential, especially because the volume of
unstructured data is growing by 62 percent
each year6
and is expected to reach nine
times the volume of structured data by 2020.7
Instead of demanding that all information
be scrubbed, interpreted, and translated
into a common format, the hypothesis and
confidence engines actively learn associations
and the relative merits of various sources.
NLP can also simplify a person’s ability
to interact with cognitive systems. Instead
of forcing end users to learn querying or
programming languages, cognitive computing
allows spoken, natural exploration. Users
can ask, “What are the sales projections for
this quarter?” instead of writing complicated
lookups and joins against databases
and schemas.
Finally, cognitive computing depends
on increased processing power and storage
networks delivered at low costs. That’s because
it requires massively parallel processing,
which allows exploration of different sets of
data from different sources at the same time.
It also requires places where the massive
amounts of data can be continuously collected
and analyzed. Options include the cloud,
large appliances and high-end servers, and
distributed architectures that allow work to be
reduced and mapped to a large collection of
lower-end hardware.
All together now
Cognitive analytics is the application
of these technologies to enhance human
decisions. It takes advantage of cognitive
computing’s vast data-processing power and
adds channels for data collection (such as
sensing applications) and environmental
context to provide practical business insights.
If cognitive computing has changed the way
in which information is processed, cognitive
analytics is changing the way information
is applied.
The breakthrough could not have come
at a better time. As more human activity is
being expressed digitally, data forms continue
to evolve. Highly structured financial and
transactional data remain at the forefront of
many business applications, but the rise of
unstructured information in voice, images,
social channels, and video has created new
opportunities for businesses to understand the
world around them. For companies that want
to use this information for real-time decision
making, cognitive analytics is moving to center
stage. It is both a complement to inventorying,
cleansing, and curating ever-growing decision
sources and a means for machine learning at
Internet speed and cloud scale to automatically
discover new correlations and patterns.
Cognitive analytics is still in its early
stages, and it is by no means a replacement
for traditional information and analytics
programs. However, industries wrestling with
massive amounts of unstructured data or
struggling to meet growing demand for real-
time visibility should consider taking a look.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
22
Coloring outside the lines
A multinational consumer goods company
wanted to evaluate new designs for its popular
men’s personal care product. The company had
sizeable market share, but its competitors were
consistently developing and marketing new
design features. To remain competitive, the
company wanted to understand which features
consumers valued.
Thousands of testers filled out surveys
regarding the company’s new product variant.
Although some of the survey’s results were
quantitative (“Rate this feature on a scale from
1–5”), many were qualitative free-form text
(“Other comments”). This produced more
text than could be processed, efficiently and
accurately, by humans.
The company used Luminoso’s text
analytics software to analyze the responses
by building a conceptual matrix of the
respondents’ text—mapping the raw content
onto subject and topic matters, statistical
relationships, and contexts that were relevant
to the business. Luminoso’s Insight Engine
identified notable elements and patterns
within the text, and measured the emotional
and perceived effects of the product’s design
and functionality.
The discoveries were impressive, and
surprising. The company rapidly identified
design features important to consumers, which
mapped closely to the numerical ratings testers
had assigned. Unexpectedly, the product’s color
strongly affected how emotionally attached
a tester was to his product. When writing
freely, testers frequently mentioned color’s
significance to the product experience—but
when faced with specific questions, testers
only spoke to the topic at hand. The company
also uncovered that the color findings
were mirrored in those testers who did not
specifically mention color.
The company, able to finally quantify
a color preference, conducted a study to
select the preferred one. The product is now
on the shelves of major supermarkets and
convenience stores—in a new color, selling
more units.
Intelligent personal assistants
Some of the building blocks of cognitive
analytics have found homes in our pockets
and purses. Intelligent personal assistants such
as Apple’s Siri, Google Now, and Microsoft
Cortana use natural language processing,
predictive analytics, machine learning, and
big data to provide personalized, seemingly
prescient service. These are examples of
complex technologies working together behind
a deceptively simple interface—allowing users
to quickly and easily find the information they
need through conversational commands and
contextual prompts based on location, activity,
and a user’s history.
Such programs are first steps toward
harnessing cognitive analytics for personal
enhanced decision making. For example,
Google Now can check your calendar to
determine that you have a dentist appointment,
or search your communication history to know
that you are seeing a movie—contextually
determining your destination.8
It can then
use GPS to determine your current location,
use Google Maps to check traffic conditions
and determine the best driving route, and
set a notification to let you know what time
you should leave. And these systems are only
getting better, because the programs can
also learn your behaviors and preferences
over time, leading to more accurate and
targeted information.
Lessons from the front lines
Cognitive analytics
23
Changing the world of health care
In 2011, WellPoint, one of the nation’s largest health benefits companies, set out to design a
world-class, integrated health care ecosystem that would link data on physical, financial, worksite,
behavioral, and community health. By establishing a singular platform, WellPoint could enhance
its ability to collaborate, share information, automate processes, and manage analytics. To do this,
WellPoint needed an advanced solution, and therefore teamed with IBM to use the capabilities of
Watson—IBM’s cognitive computing system.
“We decided to integrate our health care ecosystem to help our care management associates
administer member benefits, while providing a seamless member experience and working to
reduce costs,” said Gail Borgatti Croall, SVP of Care Management at WellPoint. “Cognitive analytics
was important in creating a system that could drive effectiveness and efficiencies throughout our
business.”
Today, WellPoint uses cognitive analytics as a tool for utilization management:9
specifically,
in reviewing pre-authorization treatment requests—decisions that require knowledge of medical
science, patient history, and the prescribing doctor’s rationale, among other factors. With its ability
to read free-form textual information, Watson can synthesize huge amounts of data and create
hypotheses on how to respond to case requests. In fact, WellPoint already has “taught” its cognitive
engine to recognize medical policies and guidelines representing 54 percent of outpatient requests.
“It took us about a year to train our solution on our business, and the more we taught the faster
the Watson cognitive platform learned,” said Croall. “Now it’s familiar with a huge volume of clinical
information and professional literature. This reduces a significant amount of time needed for nurses
to track down and assess the variables when making a well-informed decision on an authorization
request.”
For each case reviewed, the system provides nurses with a recommendation and an overall
confidence and accuracy rating for that recommendation. In some outpatient cases, the system
already can auto-approve requests, reducing the timeframe for patient treatment recommendations
from 72 hours to near-real time. As the cognitive system develops its knowledge database, the
accuracy and confidence ratings will continue to rise, and the ability to approve greater numbers
and types of cases in real time becomes a reality.
Furthermore, nurses have experienced a 20 percent improvement in efficiency in specific work
flows due to the one-stop-shop nature of the integrated platform. The integrated platform will create
not only efficiency savings but also enable improvement in speed of response to provider requests.
WellPoint’s use of cognitive analytics for utilization management represents the tip of the
iceberg. Its integrated health care ecosystem is a multiyear journey that the company approaches
with iterative, small releases, keeping the effort on time and on budget. In the future, WellPoint may
look into how the system can support identification and stratification for clinical programs or many
other applications.
“We’d like to see how our system can support a more holistic, longitudinal patient record—for
example, integrating electronic medical record (EMR) data with claims, lab, and pharmacy data,”
said Croall. “We also see opportunities on the consumer side. Imagine using cognitive insights to
create an online, interactive model that helps you, as a patient, understand treatment options and
costs. We’ve barely scratched the surface with our cognitive analytics capabilities. It truly will change
the way we perform utilization management and case management services.”
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
24
Safeguarding the future—
Energy well spent
Each year, thousands of safety-related
events occur around the world at nuclear
power plants.10
The most severe events make
headlines because of disastrous consequences
including loss of life, environmental damage,
and economic cost. Curtiss-Wright, a product
manufacturer and service provider to the
aerospace, defense, oil and gas, and nuclear
energy industries, examines nuclear safety
event data to determine patterns. These
patterns can be used by energy clients to
determine what occurred during a power plant
event, understand the plant’s current status,
and anticipate future events.11
Curtiss-Wright is taking its analysis a step
further by developing an advanced analytics
solution. The foundation of this solution is
Saffron Technology’s cognitive computing
platform, a predictive intelligence system that
can recognize connections within disparate
data sets.12
By feeding this platform with
structured operational metrics and decades
of semi-structured nuclear event reporting,
the ability to foresee future issues and provide
response recommendations for evolving
situations is made possible.13
Ultimately,
Curtiss-Wright hopes to improve nuclear
safety by means of a solution that not only
enables energy companies to learn from the
past but also gives them the opportunity to
prepare for the future.
Cognitive analytics
25
In 2011, I was given the opportunity to lead
IBM’s Watson project and build a business
around it. I am passionate about the process
of “presentations to products to profits,” so this
endeavor really excited me. The first decision I
had to make was which markets and industries
we should enter. We wanted to focus on
information-intensive industries where multi-
structured data are important to driving better
decisions. Obvious choices such as insurance,
health care, telecom, and banking were
discussed. We chose to first focus
on health care: a multitrillion-dollar
industry in which our technology
could help improve the quality
of care delivered, drive toward
significant cost reduction, and
have a positive impact on
society. In 2012, we reduced
the footprint of our Watson
system—then the size of a
master bedroom—to a single
server and took our first
customer into production.
To be successful with cognitive
computing, companies should
be able to articulate how they
will make better decisions and drive
better outcomes. Companies will
struggle if they approach it from the
“technology in” angle instead of “business
out.” The technology is no doubt fundamental
but should be coupled with business domain
knowledge—understanding the industry,
learning the theoretical and practical experience
of the field, and learning the nuances around a
given problem set.
For example, in the health care industry, there
are three primary aspects that make Watson’s
solution scalable and repeatable. First, Watson
is being trained by medical professionals to
understand the context of the relevant health
area and can present information in a way that
is useful to clinicians. Second, when building the
tools and platform, we created a model that can
be reconfigured to apply to multiple functions
within the industry so that learnings from one
area can help accelerate mastery in related fields.
Third, the delivery structure is scalable—able to
tackle problems big or small. The more it learns
about the industry, the better its confidence in
responding to user questions or system queries
and the quicker it can be deployed against new
problems. With Watson for contact center, we
are targeting training the system for a new task
in six weeks with a goal of achieving business
“break even” in six months.
However, cognitive computing may not always
be the right solution. Sometimes businesses
should start with improving and enhancing
their existing analytics solutions. Companies
considering cognitive computing should select
appropriate use cases that will generate value
and have enough of a compelling roadmap and
potential to “starburst” into enough additional
scenarios to truly move the needle.
In terms of the talent needed to support
cognitive solutions, I liken this to the
early stages of the Internet and web page
development when people worried about the
lack of HTML developers. Ultimately, systems
arose to streamline the process and reduce
the skill set required. With Watson, we have
reduced the complexity required to do this
type of work by 10–15 times where we were
when we first started, and recent startups will
continue to drive the curve down. So less highly
specialized people will be able to complete more
complex tasks—PhDs and data scientists won’t
be the only ones capable of implementing
cognitive computing.
There are three things I consider important
for an effective cognitive computing solution:
C-suite buy-in to the vision of transforming
the business over a 3–5 year journey; relevant
use cases and roadmap that are likely to lead
to a compelling business outcome; and the
content and talent to drive the use case and
vision. If you approach a project purely from a
technology standpoint, the project will become
a science project, and you can’t expect it to
drive value.
My take
Manoj Saxena, general manager, Watson Solutions,
IBM
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
26
Rather than having a team of data
scientists creating algorithms to
understand a particular business issue,
cognitive analytics seeks to extract content,
embed it into semantic models, discover
hypotheses and interpret evidence, provide
potential insights—and then continuously
improve them. The data scientist’s job is
to empower the cognitive tool, providing
guidance, coaching, feedback, and new inputs
along the way. As a tool moves closer to being
able to replicate the human thought process,
answers come more promptly and with greater
consistency. Here are a few ways to get started:
•	 Start small. It’s possible to pilot and
prototype a cognitive analytics platform
at low cost and low risk of abandonment
using the cloud and open-source tools. A
few early successes and valuable insights
can make the learning phase also a
launch phase.
•	 Plant seeds. Analytics talent shortages
are exacerbated in the cognitive world.
The good news? Because the techniques
are so new, your competitors are likely
facing similar hurdles. Now is a good
time to invest in your next-generation
data scientists, anchored in refining and
harnessing cognitive techniques. And
remember, business domain experience
is as critical as data science. Cast a wide
net, and invest in developing the players
from each of the disciplines. Consider
crowdsourcing talent options for
initial forays.14
•	 Tools second. The tools are improving and
evolving at a rapid pace, so don’t agonize
over choices, and don’t overcommit to a
single vendor. Start with what you have,
supplement with open-source tools during
the early days, and continue to explore
the state of the possible as tools evolve
and consolidate.
•	 Context is king. Quick answers and
consistency depend on more than
processing power. They also depend on
context. By starting with deep information
for a particular sector, a cognitive
analytics platform can short-circuit the
learning curve and get to high-confidence
hypotheses quickly. That’s why the
machinery of cognitive computing—such
as Watson from IBM—is rolling out
sector by sector. Early applications involve
health care management and customer
service in banking and insurance. Decide
which domains to target and begin
working through a concept map—part
entity and explicit relationship exercise,
part understanding of influence and
subtle interactions.
•	 Don’t scuttle your analytics ship. Far from
making traditional approaches obsolete,
cognitive analytics simply provides another
layer—a potentially more powerful layer—
for understanding complexity and driving
real-time decisions. By tapping into broader
sets of unstructured data such as social
monitoring, deep demographics, and
economic indicators, cognitive analytics can
supplement traditional analytics with ever-
increasing accuracy and speed.
•	 Divide and conquer. Cognitive analytics
initiatives can be broken into smaller,
more accessible projects. Natural language
processing can be an extension of
visualization and other human-computer
interaction efforts. Unstructured data can
be tapped as a new signal in traditional
analytics efforts. Distributed computing and
cloud options for parallel processing of big
data don’t require machine learning to yield
new insights.
Where do you start?
Cognitive analytics
27
•	 Know which questions you’re asking. Even
modest initiatives need to be grounded in
a business “so what.” An analytics journey
should begin with questions, and the
application of cognitive analytics is no
exception. The difference, however, lies in
the kinds of answers you’re looking for.
When you need forward-looking insights
that enable confident responses, cognitive
analytics may be your best bet.
•	 Explore ideas from others. Look outside
your company and industry at what
others are doing to explore the state of the
possible. Interpret it in your own business
context to identify the state of the practical
and valuable.
Bottom line
As the demand for real-time support in business decision making intensifies, cognitive analytics
will likely move to the forefront in high-stakes sectors and functions: health care, financial services,
supply chain, customer relationship management, telecommunications, and cyber security. In some of
these areas, lagging response times can be a matter of life and death. In others, they simply represent
missed opportunities.
Cognitive analytics can help address some key challenges. It can improve prediction accuracy,
provide augmentation and scale to human cognition, and allow tasks to be performed more efficiently
(and automatically) via context-based suggestions. For organizations that want to improve their ability
to sense and respond, cognitive analytics offers a powerful way to bridge the gap between the promise
of big data and the reality of practical decision making.
Authors
Rajeev Ronanki, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP
Rajeev Ronanki is a leader in the areas of IT strategy, enterprise
architecture, cognitive architectures, cloud, mobile, and
analytics. He has a deep knowledge of US health insurance
business processes, operations, and technology, and has worked
extensively with transactional and analytic systems.
David Steier, director, Deloitte Consulting LLP
David Steier is a director in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s US Human
Capital Practice in Actuarial, Risk and Advanced Analytics. He leads
the Deloitte Analytics Solutions group, whose goal is to build tools that
accelerate the sale and delivery of business analytics engagements.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
28
Endnotes
1.	 Sam Roweis, “Boltzmann machines,” lecture notes, 1995, http://www.cs.nyu.
edu/~roweis/notes/boltz.pdf, accessed December 19, 2013.
2.	 Andrew Carlson, Justin Betteridge, Bryan Kisiel, Burr Settles, Estevam R. Hruschka Jr.,
and Tom M. Mitchell, “Toward an architecture for never-ending language learning,” http://
www.cs.cmu.edu/~acarlson/papers/carlson-aaai10.pdf, accessed December 19, 2013.
3.	 Tech Trends 2014 is an independent publication and has not been
authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by Apple Inc.
4.	 Robert D. Hof, “Deep learning,” MIT Technology Review, April 23, 2013, http://www.
technologyreview.com/featuredstory/513696/deep-learning/, accessed December 19, 2013.
5.	 For more information on AI, see Deloitte Consulting LLP,
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, “Exponentials.”
6.	 HP Autonomy, Transitioning to a new era of human information, 2013, http://www.autonomy.
com/html/power/sem/index-human_information.html, accessed December 19, 2013.
7.	 Steven Hagan, “Big data, cloud computing, spatial databases,” Geospatial
World Forum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 25, 2012.
8.	 Google, “How Google Now works (iOS app),” https://support.google.com/
websearch/answer/2841497?hl=en, accessed January 7, 2014.
9.	 Utilization management is the case-by-case assessment of the appropriateness
of medical services against evidence-based quality guidelines.
10.	 Paul Hoffman, “Cognitive computing,” April 2013, slide 31, http://www.slideshare.net/paulhofmann/
automation-of-cognitive-thinking-associative-memories-saffron-technologies, accessed January 7, 2014.
11.	 Saffron Technology, “Big data exchange conference,” http://saffrontech.
com/event/big-data-exchange-2013/, accessed January 7, 2014.
12.	 Saffron Technology, “All source intelligence for anticipatory sensemaking,” http://saffrontech.com/
wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2013/01/Saffron-Executive-Summary-2013.pdf, accessed January 7, 2014.
13.	 Saffron Technology, “Big data requires cognitive computing for model-free machine
learning,” September 18, 2013, http://saffrontech.com/2013/09/18/big-data-requires-
cognitive-computing-for-model-free-machine-learning/, accessed January 7, 2014.
14.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3.
Cognitive analytics
29
Enterprise adoption of crowdsourcing can
allow specialized skills to be dynamically
sourced—from anyone, anywhere, as needed—
for everything from data entry and coding to
advanced analytics and product development.
The potential for disruptive impact on cost
alone could make early experimentation
worthwhile, but there are broader implications
for innovation in the enterprise.
Sun Microsystems co-founder Bill Joy said
it well in 1990: “No matter who you are, most
of the smartest people work for someone else.”1
His intent was not defeatism; it was a rallying
cry to tap into the collective experience
and enthusiasm outside of organizational
boundaries. Today, enterprises are doing
just that: harnessing the crowd to help with
a wide mix of challenges, from menial tasks
and complex needs requiring specialized skill
sets to creative endeavors and even strategic
planning. The idea of open source talent2
via
crowdsourcing is becoming industrialized—
growing in scale, sophistication, and
importance as an alternative staffing model.
The goal is not just cost savings but also quick
access to specialized resources, the ability
to dynamically scale up (and down) around
workloads, and geographic coverage in quickly
changing markets.
Businesses have a rich history of trying
to tap into crowds, using consumer surveys,
focus groups, and experiential marketing to
provoke customer engagement. Product R&D,
in particular, has seen significant activity, with
open innovation campaigns launched by many
large companies, including 3M, BMW, General
Mills, and Stanley Black & Decker.3
More
recently, companies have moved to flatten
and rewire their structures, making it easier
for people within the organization to connect
with information and specialists to grow ideas
and solve pressing problems across a wide
spectrum of domains.
There’s a crowd for that
The business applications of crowdsourcing
run the gamut from simple tasks to complex
solutions. Below is a sampling of the categories
and emerging platforms for harnessing
the crowd.
•	 Simple, task-oriented crowdsourcing.
Companies need arms and legs to execute
simple, short, transactional units of work.
Language translation services, data entry,
photograph tagging, and transcription are
popular items that allow large workloads to
be split across remote workforces. Routine
tasks that require physical presence such
Industrialized crowdsourcing
Sometimes more is better
Enterprise adoption of the power of the crowd allows specialized skills to be
dynamically sourced from anyone, anywhere, and only as needed. Companies
can use the collective knowledge of the masses to help with tasks from data
entry and coding to advanced analytics and product development.
The potential for disruptive impact on cost alone likely makes early
experimentation worthwhile, but there are also broader implications for
innovation in the enterprise.
Industrialized crowdsourcing
31
as performing store pricing checks, pulling
products during recalls, restocking retail
shelves, or serving as data collectors, also fit
into this category. Crowdsourcing platforms
such as Amazon’s Mechnical Turk, Gigwalk,
TaskRabbit, Elance, Field Agent, and Quri
fill this niche with an on-demand labor
force, often global, numbering in the
hundreds of thousands and performing
millions of jobs.4
The goal is not just low
costs but also speed and scale.
•	 Complex, experience-based
crowdsourcing. Complex tasks require
abstract thinking, specialized skill sets,
and sophisticated problem solving. The
crowd is typically made up of diverse,
qualified individuals, including software
engineers, data scientists, artists, designers,
management consultants, and hobbyists
with advanced academic degrees or
industry experience. Tasks typically
require not just scale but also creative
problem solving, with the goal of achieving
breakthroughs to old problems through
innovative thinking. Platforms for this
type of crowdsourcing include 10EQS,
crowdSPRING, Kaggle, oDesk, and Tongal.
•	 Open-ended, idea-generating
crowdsourcing. These applications involve
challenges oriented around invention,
idea generation, and product and brand
innovation. Breakthroughs may come
from specialists or, increasingly, from the
general public. The challenge becomes one
of provoking and harvesting that potential.
Corporations are increasingly entering
into partnerships with crowdsourcing
platforms in this space to focus their
efforts. Examples include General Electric’s
opening of its patent library to Quirky5
and Qualcomm’s Tricorder challenge with
the XPRIZE Foundation.6
IdeaConnection
and InnoCentive are other platforms in
this space.
•	 Funding, consumption, and contribution
crowdsourcing. Large enterprises
should be aware of three other models
of crowdsourcing that are gaining
momentum. The first is crowdfunding, in
which entrepreneurs solicit sponsorship
from the masses, looking for support or
capital to develop ideas, products, and
businesses. Indiegogo and Kickstarter
are two of many platforms in this space.
Collaborative consumption models have
also emerged, in which certain assets
are available “as a service” to the crowd.
Automobiles through Uber and lodging
through Airbnb are two examples. Finally,
we’re seeing platforms where the crowd
contributes ideas and information, sharing
knowledge that could be useful to others.
The open source software movement and
Wikipedia are based on this model. Other
more recent platforms include Crowdtap
and Sourcemap.
Battalion at the ready
How is this different from outsourcing or
temporary agencies that have been around
for decades? Industrialized crowdsourcing
providers leverage platforms that can match
buyers to a much broader base of sellers while
reducing many of the administrative hassles,
combining cloud, mobile, social, and web
technologies to create new marketplaces.
For location-based assignments, individuals
carry GPS-enabled devices that provide
on-the-spot data entry and performance
verification. Others may provide bidding
systems, processes for billing and payment
collection, performance monitoring, and
performance ratings. Platforms can provide
easy access to specialists from many walks
of life—professionals, freelancers, and
hobbyists—who have the motivation,
qualifications, and flexibility to create
innovative ideas and execute assignments
promptly. For temp agencies or outsourcers,
the talent pool is constrained by their rosters.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
32
A sampling of crowdsourcing platforms
users Number of contributors in the community
350,000
134,200
30,000
5,419,582
jobs Number of completed projects
4,000,000
299
150
53,728
Sources: 1
Gigwalk, "Press information," http://gigwalk.com/press,
accessed December 18, 2013. 2
Odesk, "Odesk at a glance,"
https://www.odesk.com/info/about, accessed December 18, 2013; Odesk,
"Find work," https://www.odesk.com/o/jobs/browse, accessed December
18, 2013. 3
Kaggle, "Solutions," http://www.kaggle.com/solutions/connect,
accessed December 18, 2013; Kaggle, "Active competitions,"
http://www.kaggle.com/competitions, accessed December 18, 2013.
4
Peter Diamandis, "Genius TV commercials at 1/100th the price,"
Huffington Post Blog, February 28, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/
peter-diamandis/a-tongal-produced-ad-scor_b_2806396.html, accessed
December 18, 2013. 5
Quirky, "About Quirky," http://www.quirky.com/about,
accessed December 18, 2013. 6
Kickstarter, "Kickstarter stats,"
http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats, accessed December 18, 2013.
Tongal4
Collaborative
contests for
video production
founded 2008
Kaggle3
Competitions for
predictive modeling
and analytics
founded 2010
Gigwalk1
A mobile, flexible
workforce for
jobs in the field
founded 2011
oDesk2
A tool for hiring
and managing
remote freelancers
founded 2005
Quirky5
A product design
incubator and
marketplace
founded 2009
Kickstarter6
A global funding
platform for
creative projects
founded 2009
4,500,000
659,000
897,946
411
In crowdsourcing, the needle in the haystack
comes to you, with skills and interests aligned
with your ask.
Buyers can access large pools of people
in short order, typically at low transaction
costs—a few dollars per store visit or
pennies per photo tag, For free agents, these
assignments allow them to earn extra money
with fewer commitments and more flexibility
than traditional employment offers. And
individuals qualified for these projects are
often attracted by intrinsic rewards beyond just
money—prestige, competition, learning, or job
opportunities. Many crowdsourcing platforms
provide rewards or leaderboards, letting talent
be recognized as leaders in their fields.
Some of the more compelling results
come from harnessing the crowd via contests.
These can be offered for entertainment or
prestige by applying gamification7
techniques.
Alternatively, top talent can be invited to
compete on an assignment by offering financial
incentives for the more effective responses.
Sponsoring companies pay only for “winning”
solutions while gaining access to a wide range
of ideas. Talent has the freedom to select
projects that match its interests and ambitions
and is given a platform to showcase its work.
Colgate Speed Stick used this model to spark
a Super Bowl ad for the bargain-basement
price of $17,000, compared with nine-figure
investments associated with traditional
agencies.8
Allstate sponsored a competition in
which the crowd created a liability prediction
model that was 271 percent more accurate than
the original.9
Leading companies are blasting through
corporate walls with industrialized solutions
to reach broader crowds capable of generating
answers and executing tasks faster and more
cost effectively than employees. Companies
are also gaining access to niche, unproven
experience that might be hard to find and
retain in-house. And with the crowd, you pay
only for the task being completed.
The crowd is waiting and willing. How will
you put it to work?
Industrialized crowdsourcing
33
Crowd wars: The
“fan”tom menace
In 2013, Kellogg’s Pringles teamed with
Lucasfilm’s Star Wars to launch “The Force
for Fun Project,” a Tongal-enabled contest
challenging consumers and fans to design
the next Pringles television commercial.10
By
engaging a crowdsourcing platform, Pringles
hoped to open its doors to access new ideas
and inspire fresh, fan-driven digital content
while generating millions of impressions.
The Force for Fun Project was staged
in three rounds, with a bonus “wild card”
round to identify additional finalists. First,
fans were invited to submit a 140-character
vision in the “ideas round.” The top five
ideas advanced to the “pitch round,” where
filmmakers could present a vision for a video
production based on one of the five ideas. The
winning pitches, as identified by Pringles and
Star Wars executives, advanced to the final
“video round,” receiving a production budget
to bring the pitch to life. In the final round,
seven finalists were selected for a chance to win
The Force for Fun Project grand prize, which
included a $25,000 cash prize and a national
television spot.
To drive additional buzz for the video
finalists, Pringles and Star Wars solicited
10 die-hard fans and bloggers to feature the
videos (with additional, behind-the-scenes
content) on their own social platforms.11
The six-month initiative generated over
1,000 idea submissions, 154 video pitches, over
1.5 million YouTube views, 6 million social
impressions, and over 111 million overall
impressions. Furthermore, the contest and
winning videos received media coverage across
mainstream media and digital outlets. On
September 24, 2013, the winning commercial
was broadcast to over 12 million viewers
during ABC’s series premiere of Marvel’s
Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.
Civic crowdsourcing
As the budgets for civic organizations
continue to shrink, municipalities, nonprofits,
and other public organizations are reaching out
to the public through crowdsourcing, which
allows civic organizations to tap into their
constituents for tools and services at a fraction
of the cost of traditional sourcing approaches.
One example is the City of Chicago. After
Mayor Rahm Emanuel signed an executive
order making all non-private data available,
the city sought ideas for providing the data to
the public in a usable way.12
Targeting local
software engineers, hobbyists, and “hackers,”13
the city initiated a crowdsourcing effort that
yielded a number of app proposals, ranging
from a 311 service tracker to a tool displaying
real-time subway delays.
Another example is the Khan Academy,
a nonprofit organization that provides free
educational content online. It uses volunteers
to translate the website into different
languages—crowd-provided localization
services. A Spanish site was released in
September 2013, and videos have been
translated into more than a dozen languages.14
The City of Boston introduced the Citizens
Connect mobile app in 2008, encouraging
Bostonians to report problems ranging
from broken streetlights to missed trash
pickups. The reports are connected to the city
maintenance tracking system, allowing work
crews to be rapidly deployed to fix problems
as reports come in and alerting citizens
Lessons from the front lines
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
34
when work orders are resolved. Since the app
debuted, the number of reports has risen from
8,000 in 2009 to more than 150,000 in 2012.15
Have patents, will innovate
Product development and innovation can
take years for large companies to develop
from initial idea to an item available on
retail shelves. Start-up company Quirky is
challenging current wisdom by crowdsourcing
the product development process, shortening
the invention timeline of new products from
years to weeks.
In 2012, Quirky caught the attention of
GE when it launched 121 new products and
sold 2.3 million units.16
The compressed
development schedule impressed GE
leadership so much that the company
opened its patent library to the Quirky
community to enable development of new
consumer products.
Products developed by Quirky begin as
one of approximately 3,000 ideas submitted
weekly by the Quirky community. As ideas
are submitted, community members vote
for the ideas they like. Those with the most
votes are reviewed by industry specialists and
community members who select products
for production. During development, the
community influences the product roadmap
by voting on issues ranging from color and
price to engineering. With four products
completed,17
the Quirky and GE team plan
to release dozens more over the next five
years, with GE already providing $30 million
in funding.18
Industrialized crowdsourcing
35
Crowding store shelves
Innovation is likely at an all-time high in the consumer products industry. Traditionally, new
initiatives and technologies took months, or even years, to implement. Today, the timeline can be
weeks. Consumer product companies and retailers are finding benefits in rapid experimentation to
keep up with the pace of change and stay on the leading edge of innovation.
A leading retailer chose to experiment with crowdsourcing to improve its data collection. It engaged
with Gigwalk—a company that taps into the general population to perform micro-tasks for enterprises.
Millions of “gigwalkers” use a mobile app that matches them with available jobs, or “gigs,” based on
their geographical area and skillset. Participants are then promptly paid for executing those tasks.
The company participated in a pilot program to investigate a hunch that stores were missing out on
sales because of out-of-stock products. The company set up a series of gigs to monitor and collect data
on the stocking of its stores’ displays. It was hoping that by collecting and analyzing this data it could
identify an opportunity to decrease lost sales.
The company wanted to use new technologies and techniques to tackle age-old industry challenges
around out-of-stocks. It started by defining customer scenarios and identifying the specific data
to be collected. The crowdsourced team would walk into more than a dozen stores twice a day and
identify the missing products. A team member could scroll through a list of the company’s products
on the mobile app, click the ones that were missing, and use the drag-and-drop menu to enter
product information.
The pilot went live a month after conception, but the first week yielded subpar results, with only a
21 percent task adoption rate among the available resources. So the company changed the way the gig
was constructed and how the crowd would be incentivized. For example, it realized the term “SKU” was
not well understood by many consumers; to aid comprehension, the company more clearly showcased
the data that was to be collected. In addition, the company adjusted the pricing structure to reward
“gigwalkers” for completing additional store audits. The new model also disclosed the goals and value
of the company’s crowdsourced data collection initiative. The changes proved to be powerful. In the
second week the adoption rate was 84 percent, and in the third and fourth weeks, the rate rose to
99 percent.
The crowdsourcing experiment enabled the retailer to create datasets around its products. By
creating a visual heat map, the company was able to view, store by store, which products were out of
stock throughout a day across its stores in the pilot group. It was also able to improve the internal
processes that corresponded to those products and reduce the number of out-of-stock items. The
company estimated it could save millions of dollars if the piloted process enhancements were
implemented in stores across the country. The retailer also created a geospatial map to identify routing
issues that might be contributing to out-of-stock items, and was able to make changes to its distribution
methodologies accordingly.
At a reasonable cost, and in a relatively short period, the company was able to use crowdsourcing
to collect data; glean insights about its products, brands, and distribution; and improve processes to
reduce its risk of lost sales.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
36
CIOs have one of the hardest roles in business
today: They need to manage reliability,
performance, and security while simultaneously
guiding innovation and absorbing new
technologies. Talent is a massively limiting
factor—especially with regard to disruptive
technologies like data science. Along with other
techniques, crowdsourcing can offer a way to
address these challenges.
I see two primary areas where companies can
leverage the power of crowdsourcing. The first
is in the micro-task world, where a company
can create small pieces of work to outsource.
The second is in the engagement world,
where a company can use a crowdsourcing
platform for a defined role such as software
development. It’s easier to do the latter, but as
we atomize processes to smaller and smaller
tasks, there is no reason those cannot also be
outsourced. The dilemma emerges when you
get to mission-critical processes. Outsourcing
those can carry enormous risks, but it can also
provide incredible scalability. I predict that in
the next several years it will become more
common, with startups leading the charge and
larger organizations following suit to remain
competitive. In information-based industries,
this is likely to be crucial. Quirky, a consumer
packaged goods (CPG) startup, manages a
community of 500,000 inventors to submit
ideas. Airbnb leverages the crowd to supply
rooms for people to stay in.
Regardless of which approach you take, I believe
that crowdsourcing is here to stay. The number
of people online is projected to increase from
2.4 billion today19
to 5 billion by 2020.20
These
minds, armed with their ever-more-affordable
tablets of choice, will dramatically increase the
general availability of intellectual capital. And
the technologies and resources now exist for
virtually anyone to become skilled in anything
very quickly. So the question becomes, “How
will you adapt?”
The first step for the C-suite is to gain
awareness: Many executives I talk to are
unfamiliar with crowdsourcing. To CIOs who
think, “That’s interesting, but not for me,” I
would say that if you’re only looking for
innovation internally, you’ll likely find yourself in
trouble. There is too much happening outside
your company walls for you to risk ignoring
it, let alone not leveraging it. Consider the
newspaper business, which was disrupted
by Craigslist, or the music business,
which was disrupted by the iTunes®
application.21
Your business
counterparts should expect that
they will be disrupted even if
they don’t yet know in what
way. For this reason, I urge
traditional businesses to
figure out how to cannibalize
themselves, or someone
else likely will. Yes, there is
discomfort and risk involved,
but that can be mitigated, and
it is ultimately less dangerous
than your business failing.
When you tap into the crowd,
you sacrifice certainty for breadth
of creative input, but as long as the
crowd is large, you have the potential
for incredible results at fractional costs.
We’re entering a world where businesses
are either the disruptor or the disrupted, and
there is no middle ground. I believe that taking
advantage of trends like crowdsourcing can help
companies keep the upper hand.
My take
Salim Ismail, founding executive director and global ambassador,
Singularity University
Industrialized crowdsourcing
37
Understanding how to use
crowdsourcing to help reach
organizational goals may not be intuitive, and
the range of potential projects and platforms
can add to the confusion, especially as you’re
educating your business counterparts. Data
security, privacy, and compliance risks may
be raised as roadblocks. That said, every
industry can find acceptable areas in which
to experiment, perhaps in unlikely places.
Goldcorp is a mining company that shared
its top-secret geological data with the crowd,
offering $500,000 for finding six million
ounces in untapped gold. This $500,000
investment yielded $3 billion in new gold in
one year.22
Tapping crowd power through an online
platform is a low-risk investment with
potentially high returns, but only if you choose
appropriate projects.
•	 Scope. Focus on a clear and specific
problem to solve—one that can be boiled
down to a question, task, or request with
measurable definitions of success. One of
the benefits of crowdsourcing comes from
garnering ideas that aren’t limited by your
organization’s preconceptions of how your
business or market works. The scope of a
task can require deep domain experience
but should not be dependent on your own
organization’s context.
•	 Focus on gaps in your organization’s
own abilities. Begin your search in areas
where your own talent gaps have held
back progress. What could you learn or
accomplish if you had affordable manpower
readily available? What complex problems
have confounded your people? What
solutions seem out of reach, no matter what
you try? These may be problems worth
pitching to a crowd that isn’t contaminated
by “what’s not possible.” Crowds are likely
to consider data or information that
insiders assume is irrelevant.
•	 Keep an open mind. Crowdsourcing is
rarely initially championed by a C-level
executive, but the CIO may be in a
position to help educate business leaders
on its potential. A broad perspective
across the enterprise, combined with an
open mind, may help CIOs recognize
unexpected applications that could
benefit the organization. Leaders should
foster a culture where appropriate
crowd experiments are encouraged
while minimizing security, privacy, and
compliance risks. Employees may feel
threatened by crowdsourcing, perceiving it
either as a “big brother” tactic or a means
to replace the existing workforce. Consider
making crowdsourcing a tool for your
employees. For example, the sales team
for a consumer goods company can use a
crowdsourcing app to harness cheap labor
to perform the mundane parts of their job.
By letting your employees orchestrate the
crowd, concerns can be alleviated.
•	 Get ready for what’s next. Crowdsourcing
is in the early stages, but it’s not too early
to consider long-term opportunities for
new ways to get work done. Could a native
mobile app that feeds directly into your
systems streamline field data collection
and reporting in the future? Could the
time come when it would make sense to
provide access to corporate assets to free
Where do you start?
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
38
agents? A crowdsourced labor pool will
become a legitimate component of many
organizations’ distributed workforce
strategy. Start thinking now about what
policies and processes need to be in
place. Incentive structures, performance
management, operating models, and
delivery models may, in some cases, need
to be redrawn. Use crowdsourcing as a
tangible example of the shift to social
business23
—allowing early experimentation
to make the case for more profound
investments and impacts.
Bottom line
Crowdsourcing is still in its early stages, but today’s online platforms are sophisticated enough to
provide substantial benefits in solving many kinds of problems. The potential for disruptive impact on
cost alone makes early experimentation worthwhile. More important are the broader implications for
innovation in the extended enterprise. Today you can expand your reach to engage talent to help with
a wide range of needs. It’s important that your organization has the ability to embrace new ideas that
may be generated by your crowdsourcing initiatives. That means industrializing not just for scale and
reach but also for outcome.
Industrialized crowdsourcing
39
Endnotes
1.	 Rich Karlgaard, “How fast can you learn?” Forbes, November 9, 2007, http://www.
forbes.com/forbes/2007/1126/031.html, accessed December 19, 2013.
2.	 CIO Journal by Wall Street Journal, “The new meaning of ‘open source talent’,” September 24, 2013, http://
deloitte.wsj.com/cio/2013/09/24/the-new-meaning-of-open-source-talent/, accessed December 19, 2013.
3.	 IdeaConnection, “Corporate crowdsourcing,” http://www.ideaconnection.
com/crowdsourcing/, accessed December 19, 2013.
4.	 Caroline Winter, “Gigwalk does temp-worker hiring without job interviews,” Bloomberg
Business Week, June 24, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-06-24/gigwalk-
does-temp-worker-hiring-without-job-interviews, accessed December 19, 2013.
5.	 Kelsey Campbell-Dollaghan, The first five smart home appliances from Quirky and
GE’s Future-Store, November 4, 2013. http://gizmodo.com/the-first-five-smart-home-
appliances-from-quirky-and-ge-1451720808, accessed December 19, 2013.
6.	 Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE, “Introducing the Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE,”
http://www.qualcommtricorderxprize.org/, accessed December 19, 2013.
7.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 7.
8.	 Peter Diamandis, “A Tongal-produced ad scores a Super Bowl touchdown,”
Huffington Post, March 4, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-diamandis/a-
tongal-produced-ad-scor_b_2806396.html, accessed December 19, 2013.
Authors
Marcus Shingles, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP
Marcus Shingles is a leader in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s
Innovation group. He works with corporate executive
teams to better understand and plan for the opportunities
and threats associated with radical innovation driven by the
exponential pace of discovery, invention, and technology.
Jonathan Trichel, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP
Jonathan Trichel is chief innovation officer in the Strategy and Operations
practice, responsible for developing new products, services, processes,
and business models to drive commercial growth. He is also a trusted
advisor to executive teams on growing profitable customer relationships.
Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption
40
9.	 Kaggle, “Predicting liability for injury from car accidents,” http://www.kaggle.
com/solutions/casestudies/allstate, accessed December 19, 2013.
10.	 Tongal, “Project gallery,” http://tongal.com/sponsor/PringlesandStarWars, accessed January 7, 2014.
11.	 Kellogg’s, Pringles® and Star Wars™ reveal top seven fan-generated videos from
“The Force for Fun” promotion, May 7, 2013, http://newsroom.kelloggcompany.
com/2013-05-07-Pringles-And-Star-Wars-Reveal-Top-Seven-Fan-Generated-
Videos-From-The-Force-For-Fun-Promotion, accessed January 7, 2014.
12.	 City of Chicago, Mayor Emanuel expands open data on city portal with executive order, December 10, 2012,
http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/mayor/press_room/press_releases/2012/december_2012/
mayor_emanuel_expandsopendataoncityportalwithexecutiveorder.html, accessed January 7, 2014.
13.	 Ben Kesling, “Hackers called into civic duty,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2013, http://online.wsj.
com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324263404578613850076916028, accessed January 7, 2014.
14.	 Khan Academy, “FAQ: Is Khan Academy available in other languages?” http://
khanacademy.desk.com/customer/portal/articles/329337-is-khan-academy-
available-in-other-languages-, accessed January 7, 2014.
15.	 Peter Schworm and Matt Carroll, “Boston’s line for problems draws big following,” Boston Globe,
http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/09/02/city-handling-surging-number-complaints-
whether-phone-web-app/8dwlf4OPZM0ndxYbpeYAOM/story.html, accessed January 16, 2014.
16.	 J.J. Colao, “Can a crowdsourcing invention company become ‘the best retailer in the world?’”
Forbes, May 27, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2013/05/09/can-a-crowdsourcing-
invention-company-become-the-best-retailer-in-the-world/, accessed January 7, 2014.
17.	 Quirky, “Quirky + GE,” http://www.quirky.com/shop/quirky-ge, accessed January 7, 2014.
18.	 Liz Stinson, “Quirky and GE partner to conquer the Internet of Things,” Wired,
November 19, 2013, http://www.wired.com/design/2013/11/how-ge-and-
quirky-want-to-smarten-up-your-home/, accessed January 7, 2014.
19.	 Internet World Stats, “Internet users in the world: Distribution by world regions—2012
Q2,” http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm, accessed January 20, 2014.
20.	 Doug Gross, “Google boss: Entire world will be online by 2020,” CNN, April 15, 2013, http://
www.cnn.com/2013/04/15/tech/web/eric-schmidt-internet/, accessed January 20, 2014.
21.	 Tech Trends 2014 is an independent publication and has not been authorized,
sponsored, or otherwise approved by Apple, Inc.
22.	 Peter Diamandis, How a $500K investment netted $3 billion in one year, February
13, 2013, http://www.xprize.org/blog/ceo-corner/2013/02/13/how-a-500k-
investment-netted-3-billion-in-one-year, accessed January 7, 2014.
23.	 Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 3.
Industrialized crowdsourcing
41
Digital is at the heart of business—
reshaping customer interaction, rewiring
how work gets done, and potentially rewriting
the nature of competition in some markets.
Today’s digital technologies include mobile,
social, and the web, but wearables1
and
the Internet of Things could dramatically
expand the definition in the years ahead. The
underlying intent is simple: using technology
to design more compelling, personally
relevant, engrossing experiences that lead to
lasting, productive relationships, higher levels
of satisfaction, and new sources of revenue.
Driving digital engagement.
First stop: Sales and marketing
Tapping digital channels to advertise,
market, sell, and provide customer care is
far from new terrain for many companies.
Early efforts have focused on coverage and
consistency: Do I have a digital presence
where my customers are spending time?2
Do the various channels provide consistent
information, services, and brand experience?
Even as some companies struggle with these
foundational elements, customers expect new
levels of digital engagement.
Today’s markets demand intimacy and
synchronization across channels—providing
seamless, personalized experiences to
customers who are time-, place-, and context-
aware. Customers want to be able to connect
via mobile, web, call centers, kiosks, and
emerging technologies–and they expect the
experience to pick up where the last interaction
left off. Second-screening (providing
synchronized, complementary content
simultaneously across two channels) has
gained popularity in media and entertainment,
with other industries following suit. And it
doesn’t stop with digital. Sometimes dubbed
omnichannel, digital engagement also looks to
connect the digital experience with physical
interactions—in-store, on-site, and via
customer and field service personnel.
Digital engagement requires a commitment
to content as a discipline, backed by a
technical and operational backbone. This
backbone enables the rapid creation, delivery,
and curation of assets, personalized to the
individual according to location, activity,
historical behavior, and device or service.
This enables personally relevant and timely
interactions that are “just right” in their level of
detail, utility, and privacy.
For CIOs, many of the foundational moves
in digital engagement may be happening
outside of their direct control. Chief marketing
officers and newly minted chief digital officers
Digital engagement
Context + content for marketing . . . and beyond
Content and assets are increasingly digital—with audio, video, and interactive
elements—and consumed across multiple channels, including not only mobile,
social, and the web, but also in store, on location, or in the field. Whether
for customers, employees, or business partners, digital engagement is about
creating a consistent, compelling, and contextual way of personalizing,
delivering, and sometimes even monetizing the user’s overall experience—
especially as core products become augmented or replaced with digital
intellectual property.
Digital engagement
43
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11
Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business Success
Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business SuccessLearning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business Success
Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business SuccessCognizant
 
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday Life
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday LifeIoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday Life
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday LifeCognizant
 
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud Study
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud StudyTCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud Study
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud StudyTata Consultancy Services
 
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth Management
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth ManagementDigital Disruption in Asset and Wealth Management
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth ManagementCapgemini
 
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital Transformation
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital TransformationTechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital Transformation
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital TransformationCapgemini
 
Boyden - Chief Digital Officer
Boyden - Chief Digital OfficerBoyden - Chief Digital Officer
Boyden - Chief Digital OfficerSotiris Syrmakezis
 
IT From boring to sexy
IT From boring to sexyIT From boring to sexy
IT From boring to sexyGunnar Menzel
 
Enfathom Service Overview
Enfathom Service OverviewEnfathom Service Overview
Enfathom Service Overviewbgoverstreet
 
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future Systems
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future SystemsScale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future Systems
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future SystemsAccenture Insurance
 
Technology Led Transformation in Banking
Technology Led Transformation in BankingTechnology Led Transformation in Banking
Technology Led Transformation in BankingGunnar Menzel
 
Learning from COVID-19 pandemic
Learning from COVID-19 pandemicLearning from COVID-19 pandemic
Learning from COVID-19 pandemicaakash malhotra
 
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by Acxiom
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by AcxiomA Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by Acxiom
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by AcxiomVivastream
 
201308 Deloitte Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf
201308 Deloitte   Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf 201308 Deloitte   Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf
201308 Deloitte Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf Francisco Calzado
 
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial services
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial servicesTime to join the revolution: Agile change in financial services
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial servicesAccenture Insurance
 
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...Tata Consultancy Services
 
Being digital engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...
Being digital   engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...Being digital   engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...
Being digital engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...Rick Bouter
 
Digital transformation a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...
Digital transformation   a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...Digital transformation   a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...
Digital transformation a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...Rick Bouter
 

Was ist angesagt? (19)

Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business Success
Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business SuccessLearning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business Success
Learning & Development: A Prescriptive Vision for Accelerating Business Success
 
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday Life
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday LifeIoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday Life
IoT: Powering the Future of Business and Improving Everyday Life
 
Decoding Transformation
Decoding TransformationDecoding Transformation
Decoding Transformation
 
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud Study
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud StudyTCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud Study
TCS Innovation Forum 2012 - Day1: TCS Cloud Study
 
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth Management
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth ManagementDigital Disruption in Asset and Wealth Management
Digital Disruption in Asset and Wealth Management
 
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital Transformation
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital TransformationTechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital Transformation
TechnoVision 2014: Technology Building Blocks for Digital Transformation
 
Boyden - Chief Digital Officer
Boyden - Chief Digital OfficerBoyden - Chief Digital Officer
Boyden - Chief Digital Officer
 
IT From boring to sexy
IT From boring to sexyIT From boring to sexy
IT From boring to sexy
 
Enfathom Service Overview
Enfathom Service OverviewEnfathom Service Overview
Enfathom Service Overview
 
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future Systems
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future SystemsScale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future Systems
Scale Innovation and Achieve Value with Future Systems
 
Technology Led Transformation in Banking
Technology Led Transformation in BankingTechnology Led Transformation in Banking
Technology Led Transformation in Banking
 
Learning from COVID-19 pandemic
Learning from COVID-19 pandemicLearning from COVID-19 pandemic
Learning from COVID-19 pandemic
 
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by Acxiom
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by AcxiomA Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by Acxiom
A Customer Centricity Paradox; Whitepaper by Acxiom
 
201308 Deloitte Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf
201308 Deloitte   Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf 201308 Deloitte   Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf
201308 Deloitte Tech Trends 2013 - Elements of Post Digital.pdf
 
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial services
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial servicesTime to join the revolution: Agile change in financial services
Time to join the revolution: Agile change in financial services
 
The ceo-view-2013
The ceo-view-2013The ceo-view-2013
The ceo-view-2013
 
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...
TCS 2021 Global Financial Leadership Study - The Next Era in Financial Planni...
 
Being digital engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...
Being digital   engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...Being digital   engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...
Being digital engaging the organization to accelerate digital transformatio...
 
Digital transformation a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...
Digital transformation   a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...Digital transformation   a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...
Digital transformation a road-map for billion-dollar organizations - capgem...
 

Andere mochten auch

TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key Takeaways
TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key TakeawaysTBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key Takeaways
TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key TakeawaysApptio
 
Marketing automation
Marketing automationMarketing automation
Marketing automationGaurav Bisht
 
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research ResultsColin Snow
 
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud Dazin
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud DazinAI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud Dazin
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud DazinJessica Tams
 
The Evolution of VR Content
The Evolution of VR ContentThe Evolution of VR Content
The Evolution of VR ContentStephanie Llamas
 
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And AR
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And ARUncovering The Market Potential For VR And AR
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And ARStephanie Llamas
 
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and IT
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and ITTech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and IT
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and ITDeloitte United States
 
Drones and their Increasing Number of Applications
Drones and their Increasing Number of ApplicationsDrones and their Increasing Number of Applications
Drones and their Increasing Number of ApplicationsJeffrey Funk
 
UAV Presentation
UAV PresentationUAV Presentation
UAV PresentationRuyyan
 
The Key of Future Research on Drone Technologies
The Key of Future Research on Drone TechnologiesThe Key of Future Research on Drone Technologies
The Key of Future Research on Drone TechnologiesIndustrial Robotic Drones
 
CCTV Camera Presentation
CCTV Camera PresentationCCTV Camera Presentation
CCTV Camera PresentationBasith JM
 
underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)
 underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2) underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)
underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)Manjushree Mashal
 
Drone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Drone-Unmanned Aerial VehicleDrone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Drone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicleshivu1234
 

Andere mochten auch (20)

Drone and history.
Drone and history.Drone and history.
Drone and history.
 
TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key Takeaways
TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key TakeawaysTBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key Takeaways
TBM Conference 2014 Executive Summary and Key Takeaways
 
Ampio Drone study at school
Ampio Drone study at schoolAmpio Drone study at school
Ampio Drone study at school
 
Marketing automation
Marketing automationMarketing automation
Marketing automation
 
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results
2016 Drones in the Channel and Drone Buyer Research Results
 
VR in a Box
VR in a BoxVR in a Box
VR in a Box
 
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud Dazin
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud DazinAI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud Dazin
AI, VR, & AR: Powering Our Future | Arnaud Dazin
 
The Evolution of VR Content
The Evolution of VR ContentThe Evolution of VR Content
The Evolution of VR Content
 
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And AR
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And ARUncovering The Market Potential For VR And AR
Uncovering The Market Potential For VR And AR
 
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and IT
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and ITTech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and IT
Tech Trends 2015: The fusion of business and IT
 
Drones and their Increasing Number of Applications
Drones and their Increasing Number of ApplicationsDrones and their Increasing Number of Applications
Drones and their Increasing Number of Applications
 
UAV Presentation
UAV PresentationUAV Presentation
UAV Presentation
 
Drone technology
Drone technologyDrone technology
Drone technology
 
The Key of Future Research on Drone Technologies
The Key of Future Research on Drone TechnologiesThe Key of Future Research on Drone Technologies
The Key of Future Research on Drone Technologies
 
CCTV Camera Presentation
CCTV Camera PresentationCCTV Camera Presentation
CCTV Camera Presentation
 
Cctv presentation
Cctv presentationCctv presentation
Cctv presentation
 
Drones: Present & Future
Drones: Present & FutureDrones: Present & Future
Drones: Present & Future
 
underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)
 underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2) underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)
underwater communication skills for the new way of devine(2)
 
Drone Technology
Drone TechnologyDrone Technology
Drone Technology
 
Drone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Drone-Unmanned Aerial VehicleDrone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Drone-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
 

Ähnlich wie Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11

Delloite tech trends 2016
Delloite  tech trends 2016Delloite  tech trends 2016
Delloite tech trends 2016Brian Crotty
 
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013Us en wp_techtrends_26062013
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013Jiongzhe Fu
 
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital Success
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital SuccessOrganizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital Success
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital SuccessCognizant
 
How To Lead Digital Transformations
How To Lead Digital Transformations How To Lead Digital Transformations
How To Lead Digital Transformations Faisal Hoque
 
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital Innovation
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital InnovationPeople — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital Innovation
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital InnovationCognizant
 
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte Consulting
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte ConsultingIW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte Consulting
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte ConsultingSoftware AG
 
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)Victor Gridnev
 
Tech Trends 2018 - Deloitte
Tech Trends 2018 - DeloitteTech Trends 2018 - Deloitte
Tech Trends 2018 - DeloitteTaylor Murphy
 
Industry 4.0 paradox report
Industry 4.0 paradox reportIndustry 4.0 paradox report
Industry 4.0 paradox report42medien
 
Delivering on the Promise of Digital Transformation
Delivering on the Promise of Digital TransformationDelivering on the Promise of Digital Transformation
Delivering on the Promise of Digital TransformationBMC Software
 
Embracing Digital Transformation
Embracing Digital Transformation Embracing Digital Transformation
Embracing Digital Transformation Ninad Kawthankar
 
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officer
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officerMcK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officer
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officerSotiris Syrmakezis
 
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officer
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officerTransformer in chief The new chief digital officer
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officerCliff Busse
 
Afinal o que é Big data?
Afinal o que é Big data?Afinal o que é Big data?
Afinal o que é Big data?Cezar Taurion
 
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue Solutions
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue SolutionsDigital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue Solutions
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue SolutionsRapidValue
 
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência Digital
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência DigitalDos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência Digital
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência DigitalLilian Strassacappa
 

Ähnlich wie Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11 (20)

Delloite tech trends 2016
Delloite  tech trends 2016Delloite  tech trends 2016
Delloite tech trends 2016
 
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013Us en wp_techtrends_26062013
Us en wp_techtrends_26062013
 
Digital transformation guide and checklist 2020
Digital transformation guide and checklist 2020 Digital transformation guide and checklist 2020
Digital transformation guide and checklist 2020
 
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital Success
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital SuccessOrganizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital Success
Organizational Change Management: A Make or Break Capability for Digital Success
 
How To Lead Digital Transformations
How To Lead Digital Transformations How To Lead Digital Transformations
How To Lead Digital Transformations
 
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital Innovation
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital InnovationPeople — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital Innovation
People — Not Just Machines — Will Power Digital Innovation
 
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte Consulting
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte ConsultingIW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte Consulting
IW14 Keynote, Michelle Shuttleworth, Deloitte Consulting
 
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)
Технологические тренды (deloitte 2017)
 
Tech Trends 2018 - Deloitte
Tech Trends 2018 - DeloitteTech Trends 2018 - Deloitte
Tech Trends 2018 - Deloitte
 
state-of-it-report-salesforce
state-of-it-report-salesforcestate-of-it-report-salesforce
state-of-it-report-salesforce
 
Deloitte Tech Trends 2013
Deloitte Tech Trends 2013Deloitte Tech Trends 2013
Deloitte Tech Trends 2013
 
Digital decodedv1.1
Digital decodedv1.1Digital decodedv1.1
Digital decodedv1.1
 
Industry 4.0 paradox report
Industry 4.0 paradox reportIndustry 4.0 paradox report
Industry 4.0 paradox report
 
Delivering on the Promise of Digital Transformation
Delivering on the Promise of Digital TransformationDelivering on the Promise of Digital Transformation
Delivering on the Promise of Digital Transformation
 
Embracing Digital Transformation
Embracing Digital Transformation Embracing Digital Transformation
Embracing Digital Transformation
 
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officer
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officerMcK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officer
McK - 'Transformer in chief'- The new chief digital officer
 
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officer
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officerTransformer in chief The new chief digital officer
Transformer in chief The new chief digital officer
 
Afinal o que é Big data?
Afinal o que é Big data?Afinal o que é Big data?
Afinal o que é Big data?
 
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue Solutions
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue SolutionsDigital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue Solutions
Digital Transformation in Manufacturing - A Whitepaper by RapidValue Solutions
 
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência Digital
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência DigitalDos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência Digital
Dos dados à disruptura: Inovação através da Inteligência Digital
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteDianaGray10
 
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxDigital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsPixlogix Infotech
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningLars Bell
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality AssuranceInflectra
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfMounikaPolabathina
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersRaghuram Pandurangan
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024BookNet Canada
 
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...AliaaTarek5
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Hiroshi SHIBATA
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterMydbops
 
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenHervé Boutemy
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Manik S Magar
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentPim van der Noll
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxLoriGlavin3
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsNathaniel Shimoni
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
Transcript: New from BookNet Canada for 2024: BNC CataList - Tech Forum 2024
 
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test SuiteTake control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
Take control of your SAP testing with UiPath Test Suite
 
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxDigital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Digital Identity is Under Attack: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and ConsThe Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
The Ultimate Guide to Choosing WordPress Pros and Cons
 
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptxThe State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
The State of Passkeys with FIDO Alliance.pptx
 
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxUse of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
Use of FIDO in the Payments and Identity Landscape: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine TuningDSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
DSPy a system for AI to Write Prompts and Do Fine Tuning
 
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
[Webinar] SpiraTest - Setting New Standards in Quality Assurance
 
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdfWhat is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
What is DBT - The Ultimate Data Build Tool.pdf
 
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information DevelopersGenerative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
Generative AI for Technical Writer or Information Developers
 
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
New from BookNet Canada for 2024: Loan Stars - Tech Forum 2024
 
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...
(How to Program) Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel-Java How to Program, Early Object...
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
Long journey of Ruby standard library at RubyConf AU 2024
 
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL RouterScale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
Scale your database traffic with Read & Write split using MySQL Router
 
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache MavenDevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
DevoxxFR 2024 Reproducible Builds with Apache Maven
 
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
Anypoint Exchange: It’s Not Just a Repo!
 
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native developmentEmixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
Emixa Mendix Meetup 11 April 2024 about Mendix Native development
 
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptxThe Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
The Role of FIDO in a Cyber Secure Netherlands: FIDO Paris Seminar.pptx
 
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directionsTime Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
Time Series Foundation Models - current state and future directions
 

Tech trends-2014 final-electronic-single.2.11

  • 2. Contents Introduction | 2 Disruptors CIO as venture capitalist | 6 Cognitive analytics | 18 Industrialized crowdsourcing | 30 Digital engagement | 42 Wearables | 54 Enablers Technical debt reversal | 66 Social activation | 78 Cloud orchestration | 88 In-memory revolution | 100 Real-time DevOps | 112 Exponentials | 124 Appendix | 136
  • 3. Welcome to Deloitte’s fifth annual Technology Trends report. Each year, we study the ever- evolving technology landscape, focusing on disruptive trends that are transforming business, government, and society. Once again, we’ve selected 10 topics that have the opportunity to impact organizations across industries, geographies, and sizes over the next 18 to 24 months. The theme of this year’s report is Inspiring Disruption. In it, we discuss 10 trends that exemplify the unprecedented potential for emerging technologies to reshape how work gets done, how businesses grow, and how markets and industries evolve. These disruptive technologies challenge CIOs to anticipate their potential organizational impacts. And while today’s demands are by no means trivial, the trends we describe offer CIOs the opportunity to shape tomorrow—to inspire others, to create value, and to transform “business as usual.” The list of trends is developed using an ongoing process of primary and secondary research that involves: • Feedback from client executives on current and future priorities • Perspectives from industry and academic luminaries • Research by alliance partners, industry analysts, and competitor positioning • Crowdsourced ideas and examples from our global network of practitioners As in prior years, we’ve organized the trends into two categories. Disruptors are areas that can create sustainable positive disruption in IT capabilities, business operations, and sometimes even business models. Enablers are technologies in which many CIOs have already invested time and effort, but that warrant another look because of new developments, new capabilities, or new potential use cases. Each trend is presented with multiple examples of adoption to show the trend at work. This year, we’ve added a longer-form Lesson from the front lines to each chapter to offer a more detailed look at an early use case. Also, each chapter includes a personal point of view in the My take section. Information technology continues to be dominated by five forces: analytics, mobile, social, cloud, and cyber. Their continuing impact is highlighted in chapters dedicated to wearables, cloud orchestration, social activation, and cognitive analytics. Cyber is a recurring thread throughout the report: more important than ever, but embedded into thinking about how to be secure, vigilant, and resilient in approaching disruptive technologies. Introduction Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 2
  • 4. For the first time, we’ve added a section dedicated to what our contributing authors at Singularity University refer to as “exponential” technologies. We highlight five innovative technologies that may take longer than our standard 24-month time horizon for businesses to harness them—but whose eventual impact may be profound. Examples include artificial intelligence, robotics, and additive manufacturing (3-D printing). The research, experimentation, and invention behind these “exponentials” are the building blocks for many of our technology trends. Our goal is to provide a high-level introduction to each exponential—a snapshot of what it is, where it comes from, and where it’s going. Each of the 2014 trends is relevant today. Each has significant momentum and potential to make a business impact. And each warrants timely consideration—even if the strategy is to wait and see. But whatever you do, don’t be caught unaware—or unprepared. Use these forces to inspire, to transform. And to disrupt. We welcome your comments, questions, and feedback. And a sincere “thank you” to the many executives and organizations that have helped provide input for Tech Trends 2014; your time and insights were invaluable. We look forward to your continued innovation, impact, and inspiration. Bill Briggs Chief Technology Officer Deloitte Consulting LLP wbriggs@deloitte.com Twitter: @wdbthree Introduction 3
  • 5. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 4
  • 7.
  • 8. CIOs have historically focused on core delivery and operations with a budget and operating model built around low risk—buying enterprise-class software, building a talent base that could support a well-defined future state, driving for efficiencies in light of constant cost pressures. More and more CIOs, faced with disruptive forces such as crowdsourcing,1 mobile only,2 big data,3 and cybersecurity,4 are shifting from a world of known problems into one filled with unknowns. To make matters worse, organizational governance has become more complex as barriers for other parts of the business to enter the technical arena have fallen. CIOs are seeing this divergent behavior— and realizing that their current tools for managing risk and leveraging assets may not work in this new world. Instead, many are beginning to manage their technology portfolios in ways that drive enterprise value, actively monitor the performance of the portfolios, and communicate the portfolios’ positions in language the business can grasp. To do this, CIOs are borrowing from the playbook of today’s leading venture capitalists (VCs). As a result, they are reshaping how they run the business of IT.5 Thinking like a VC Effective VCs are often shrewd businesspeople who operate across a range of intertwined capabilities. They manage portfolios of investments, continually evaluating individual and aggregate performance in terms of value, risk, and reward. They deliberately attract entrepreneurial talent with technical skills and business savvy—as well as vision, passion, and the intangible spark of leadership. And they cultivate agile organizations to anticipate and respond to changing market conditions— open to decisions to exit, take public, reinvest, or divest. These capabilities are closely related to the CIO’s leadership role in today’s growth-oriented organization. Portfolio investment strategy. CIOs today juggle an ever-growing portfolio of projects, ranging from long-term strategic initiatives to keeping the lights on. CIOs need clear lines of sight across their portfolio of programs and projects—the objectives, dependencies, status, finances, associated resources, and risk profiles. But in-flight initiatives are only one piece of their balance sheet. CIOs should also understand their assets—hardware, software, facilities, delivery model (the way work gets CIO as venture capitalist Trading on IT’s assets, talent, risk, and results CIOs who want to help drive business growth and innovation will likely need to develop a new mindset and new capabilities. Like venture capitalists, CIOs should actively manage their IT portfolio in a way that drives enterprise value and evaluate portfolio performance in terms that business leaders understand— value, risk, and time horizon to reward. CIOs who can combine this with agility and align the desired talent can reshape how they run the business of IT. CIO as venture capitalist 7
  • 9. done), contracts, vendors, and people. The portfolio of IT is a complex one. But that complexity is no excuse for flying blind. Valuation. An effective portfolio view enables the CIO to continually evaluate the strategic performance of each asset, project, and vendor in terms that business leaders understand. A CIO with a VC mindset doesn’t just report on the organization’s to-do list or inventory of assets; the CIO communicates the quantitative and qualitative value the IT organization contributes to the business. This means delineating the strategic importance of programs, projects, and assets. What initiatives are mission-critical for the business? What is the confidence level around on-time, on-budget delivery? How deliberately are business case results tracked? Which hardware and software assets are identified for growth? For sunsetting? For active retirement? How “heavy” a balance sheet do you want to carry? Handicap. In many emerging areas, there are no clearly identifiable winners. How much do you know about the product roadmap of your existing providers? Are you actively scanning small and emergent players? No part of your portfolio should be off-limits— software, hardware, services, talent, data, methods, and tools. Do you have the skills and the discipline to evaluate and predict how the landscape will evolve—not only in the market but, more importantly, for your company, for your customers, and for your business partners? Make sure you are getting what you need in order to provide what the business wants from IT. And be ready to reevaluate in light of market shifts, M&A events, or leadership transitions. Portfolio management1 As IT budgets continue to increase, it is more important to manage them closely. In 2013, 38% of organizations created a portfolio approach to IT.2 IT needs the right skillset to maintain systems and innovate. Capabilities map for CIOs 61%operational spending Increase Maintain Business skill gaps within IT Technical skill gaps Decrease Talent alignment3 2012 2013 83% of businesses have future plans to implement agile, an increase from 59% last year. 57%capital spending 42%business analysis 30%technology strategy 29%analytics & big data 52%thinking like the business 46%thinking strategically 42%communicating effectively 42%business analysis 30%technology strategy 29%analytics & big data CIOs are adopting agile methods to expedite delivery times and improve business alignment. Organizations using agile have seen promising results: Agile4 Improve Maintain Worsen productivity 90%ability to change priorities 85% 84%project visibilty Sources: 1 Computer Economics, IT spending and staffing benchmarks 2013/2014, chapter 1, http://www.computereconomics.com/page.cfm? name=it%20spending%20and%20staffing%20study, accessed January 3, 2014. 2 CIO Magazine, 2013 state of the CIO survey, January 2, 2013, http://www.cio.com/slideshow/detail/79671, accessed January 3, 2014. 3 Deloitte MCS Limited, The Deloitte CIO Survey 2013. Reconnect. Rebuild. Reimagine. Redeliver., 2013. 4 VersionOne, Seventh annual state of agile development survey, 2013, http://www.versionone.com/state-of-agile- survey-results, accessed January 3, 2014. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 8
  • 10. Hedge. What emerging investments are you making, whether in broad technologies or with specific entities? At what stage are you getting involved? How will you incubate, invest, divest? If you build dependencies on start-ups or niche players, you will need to evaluate not only the technology but the founders and their business models. Build a concession architecture that allows you to port assets to different players or to shutter underperforming investments or partnerships in order to move on to the next opportunity. Promotion. The brand of IT is maligned in some organizations, with the CIO viewed as the operator of the company’s technology assets but not as a strategist or catalyst for innovation.6 Rethinking the role as a VC gives the CIO a backdrop for the business to elevate the understanding—and appreciation—of his or her function. There’s no overnight fix. Understand your current brand permission, then build awareness about IT’s mission, effectiveness, and vision. Internally, this is important in order to enhance IT’s charter. IT should be a board-level topic—recognized as one of the crown jewels of the company. Externally, it’s important to attract talent— and attention. Even some leading VCs have launched PR and marketing efforts.7 Don’t assume that once it’s built, they will come. Talent brokering. The portfolio mindset extends to talent management as well. Talent scarcity is a universal concern, but it has a particular impact on IT. Consider the skills and capabilities that will be needed to deliver on strategic initiatives, as well as those required to maintain existing systems and processes. Where are the gaps? Which capabilities can be grown from existing staff? Which should be acquired? How can top talent be identified, developed, and hoarded—regardless of title or tenure? How can external talent be tapped? Think beyond consultants, agencies, and contractors. Can you leverage the crowd— either transactionally8 or by finding a way to activate customers and hobbyists?9 CIOs need doers and thinkers just like VCs, but they also need leaders. Use this age of innovation as a means to launch initiatives to reward (and retain) demonstrated talent with the curiosity and horsepower to help lead growth areas. Demand for talent is outstripping supply in many shops—and expected time to value is shrinking. Agility. Disruption is a given in technology today, and is extending into many aspects of the business. The balancing act is delicate— driving for more nimble, responsive delivery while maintaining architectural integrity and making solutions built to run. In this new world, the CIO’s role should expand from enabling operations with technical services to building a technology footprint that fuels, and can be responsive to, the executive team’s growth and investment strategy. Integration, data, and architecture capabilities should be developed into disciplines, serving as the core pillars of business agility. CIO as venture capitalist 9
  • 11. Growth and change Cisco’s IT organization uses a three-tiered model to drive its mission: Run the business— focusing on efficiency, quality, and optimization of cost performance; grow the business—helping to drive investments that impact business performance; and change the business—transforming how the organization operates and the markets in which it competes. At Cisco, line-of-business CIOs are encouraged to drive more of their investment portfolio towards growth and change. This doesn’t mean that total cost of ownership isn’t emphasized, but the “better, faster, cheaper” mindset is not just applied to the business of IT—it’s just as important to the business of the business. Technology spend is anchored in running or changing the business—which requires not just bilateral commitment, but ongoing education and teaming between IT and the business. Line-of-business CIOs look at initiatives as vehicles for tech-enabled business growth and see their roles as orchestrators and shapers. At the financial level, this means actively managing a portfolio of assets with an understanding of cost, return, risk, and strategic importance. More than just inventorying and reporting, it means helping to set priorities, translating the potential of disruptive technologies and making them meaningful, and setting up the organization for speed and agility. Traditional waterfall methodologies have given way to agile—fast, iterative deployments where the business is fully engaged. At the technology level, orchestration is about creating a seamless experience across a technology landscape that is growing more diverse and complex, bringing together a mix of on- and off-premises solutions—and making sure employees, customers, and business partners aren’t exposed to behind-the-scenes complexity. Integration and architecture have been established as key disciplines fueling immediate investments in sales effectiveness, digital marketing across devices/channels, and the technical backbone behind the Internet of Everything. Cisco has also started to engage more directly with the venture capital and start-up communities. Corporate CIO Rebecca Jacoby has established a company-wide reference architecture covering business, operational, systems, and technology aspects. Emerging solutions that comply with the reference architecture are actively pursued—often in response to specific problems or opportunities the company is trying to address. Like other IT investments, though, an assessment of the solution is made not just on its ability to change the business, but on the ongoing impact on running the business. Like a venture capitalist, the IT organization measures the portfolio in absolute terms— potential value weighed against total cost of service. Cisco emphasizes measurement of vision, strategy, and execution according to the needs of the business. Because of these approaches, Cisco is prepared to deal with whatever the future brings—acquisitions, product innovation, and investments in adjacent services and solutions. Lessons from the front lines Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 10
  • 12. A view from the Valley10 Founded in 1989, Hummer Winblad Venture Partners (HWVP) was the first venture capital fund to invest exclusively in software companies. HWVP has deployed over $1 billion of cumulative capital in software investments starting at the first venture round of over 100 enterprise software companies. As such, HWVP has a singular perspective into not just what it takes to effectively manage an investment portfolio, but also into how Fortune 100 companies are responding to this seminal time in the history of technology. Unlike those who see innovation as a crescendo steadily building over time, HWVP sees a different, bumpier reality—defined by periods of disproportionate change, embodied by today’s era of technology disruption. Historically, large enterprises have encouraged new software vendors to focus on “embracing and extending” in-place software infrastructure. This approach can work if innovation is gradual, but can break down if innovation impacts overall business strategies. We are at a major disruption point where legacy systems likely cannot be extended. The digitization of the customer experience across industries—driven by mobile, social, cloud, and big data—is changing the nature of data itself, as businesses shift their focus from products to customers. Siloed systems aren’t equipped to handle behavioral data, sentiment, and largely unstructured context. Digital requires a different horizontal stack. The need to keep pace with new business and technological realities could be a great backdrop for CIOs to shift focus from cost, compliance, and maintenance to being in the business of “new.” CIOs should be a strategy anchor for big companies: a board-level position that doesn’t just enable but is a catalyst for growth. HWVP doesn’t have a “VC handbook” that guides its investments. And neither will CIOs. HWVP co-founder Ann Winblad believes we are entering an era where companies should take risks: They should swim in the river of innovation and be prepared to make multiple bets to discover what innovation really means for their company. It could lead to near- term competitive disadvantage—especially as large organizations react to the exploding population of small vendors that are defining tomorrow. Firms that CIOs may not have heard of with a small operating footprint may become essential partners. Large companies should not wait for new market leaders to emerge. That means performing your own market analysis and increasing the value of existing partners and alliances—asking them to broker introductions or co-invest in early prototyping. Instead of asking small players to go through qualifying paces, create low-cost, low-risk prototypes and pilots to experiment with their technologies to solve business problems. Many CIOs of large companies use start-ups to enable lines of businesses—and help jointly own the investment in tomorrow. HWVP is in the business of identifying— and sometimes provoking—patterns. It’s the “venture” part of venture capital. With the customer as the business’s new cerebral cortex and growth moving at the speed of digital, CIOs should act more like VCs. Not every bet will be a winner, but by keeping a portfolio of investments, moving ahead of tested (and sometimes stale) market trends, and keeping a mindset towards engagement, big companies can be poised to compete in these unprecedentedly exciting times. CIO as venture capitalist 11
  • 13. There are multiple drivers for why CIOs need to think like a venture capitalist. The first is the incredible pace of technological change. CIOs need to place bets—like VCs do—that a given product or service is going to hit the market at the right time and fill a niche that others don’t. It’s often no longer acceptable to use one vendor for all your technology needs. Second, given all the information now accessible to everyone, it’s hard to gain a competitive advantage. VCs try to create a competitive advantage by investing in companies to make a profit— and CIOs try to create a competitive advantage by investing in services and capabilities to reap the benefits before competitors can. And third, to avoid trailing your competitors, CIOs need to take risks. VCs take balanced risks, conducting market research, and being thoughtful about selection and the company’s fit with the team. Taking risks is the hardest part for CIOs; we’ve all seen the damage failed projects can do to the IT department’s reputation. But taking risks means accepting not just the potential, but the inevitability of failure. In my judgment, if you’re too afraid of that, your company will likely always trail your competitors. The key is to work with the rest of the C-suite to recognize that some level of risk is part of the ground rules. And if you’re going to fail, fail fast— cutting your losses and moving on to the next bet. In addition to my role as CIO of Bloomin’ Brands, I also serve on the CIO advisory board for Sierra Ventures, a venture capital firm. Having that exposure into a VC firm has influenced my behavior as a CIO. When I first joined Bloomin’ Brands, one of my priorities was to focus on where the market was going to be three years out and find something that would allow us to get out in front. At that time, we weren’t yet a cloud organization, but I knew we eventually would be, and invested in a cloud-based integration product. Some in my IT organization were nervous at the time, knowing the integration would be challenging, but we knew it would also be challenging for our competitors—and we were able to be an early adopter and gain the advantage. I have also adapted my approach to vendor and talent management. The current landscape changes how you deal with vendors. You’re working with both large, established companies and the new set of entrants, many of whom are entrepreneurs who sometimes have never done an enterprise contract before. On the talent side, we increasingly hire for agility. We look for people who can be nimble and move at the same pace as the business. We recruit those who learn based on principle rather than by rote syntax and command so they can more easily move from one product to another. As much as there are similarities between VCs and today’s CIOs, there are also some tenets of venture capitalism that don’t necessarily make sense for a CIO to adopt. The first is the size of your investment portfolio. While the VC can have 15–25 investments at once, the CIO may be able to balance only a handful. The second is the breadth of the portfolio. The VC can afford to go after multiple spaces, but the CIO’s lens is rightfully constrained by the company’s industry and the needs of the business. There may be some interesting capabilities you need to turn down because they just aren’t the right fit. To start on the path of CIO-as-venture-capitalist, try to open your mind to becoming more of a risk taker and to look at technology solutions that are less established. Work through your own risk profile—with the rest of your C-suite—and determine how much risk you are willing to take on. Then, align yourself with folks who can help you start to venture into this space and take advantage of some of the early-stage solutions. My take Charles Weston, SVP and chief information officer (retired), Bloomin’ Brands Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 12
  • 14. Mastering VC capabilities may challenge many CIOs whose traditional role has been to meet business demands for reliable, cost-efficient technologies. And even if the capabilities could materialize overnight, earning the credibility that is required to become active participants in strategic leadership conversations will likely be a gradual process for many CIOs. To complicate matters, new technology shifts—especially those powered by analytics, mobile, social, cloud, and cyber—intensify talent shortages and process constraints. These gaps make creating a balanced portfolio across traditional and emerging IT services even more difficult. As business users bypass IT to adopt cloud-based point solutions, organizational technology footprints are becoming more and more complex. Visibility into, and control of, the portfolio becomes harder to attain. CIOs have an imperative to get ahead of the curve. This is especially true in M&A, where change is constantly disruptive. Many industries are rife with potential investments and divestitures. But few organizations can acquire, sell, or divest with surgical precision without reinventing the wheel with each transaction. Seventy percent of mergers and acquisitions fail to meet their expectations. The value from mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures is more directly linked to getting IT right than anything else.11 Transformation takes time, but small first steps can make a difference: • Inventory the technology portfolio. What technologies does your organization deploy today? Focus on the full range, including solutions procured outside of IT. What projects are in play? What vendors do you depend on? What assets are in use, and where are they located? How does each asset contribute to the business mission, and what is its useful remaining life? It’s not enough to rationalize your assets. Create a model to describe the categories of assets and investments, and use that to guide priorities. Many organizations use Gartner’s Pace-Layered Application Strategy, breaking down their IT landscape into systems of record, systems of differentiation, and systems of innovation. Inventorying and classification is just an enabling step, though. What matters is how you use the visibility to direct focus and capital, balancing across the categories in a way that enables (and amplifies) your business strategy. Budgeting cycles typically run like Shark Tank—with funds allocated by the business based on its priorities. • Evaluate the portfolio. Define the risk, value, and strategic importance of each portfolio item. Identify where costs/ risks outweigh value. Pinpoint potential trouble spots, such as contracts with unclear service-level agreements or data ownership provisions. Understand each vendor’s viability—not just in terms of capital and capacity, but also how well the vendor’s roadmap aligns with your company’s vision. Look for portfolio clusters: Is the proportion of investments in maintenance and upkeep appropriate when compared with investments in new strategic opportunities? Are there gaps that could hold the organization back? Strive for balance between extending legacy systems and investments in innovation. Aim for transparency, letting your business counterparts appreciate the exhaustive demand curve as well as the thinking that defines priorities. Where do you start? CIO as venture capitalist 13
  • 15. • Double down on winners. And fold the losers. VCs expect some assets to underperform, and they are willing to cut their losses. CIOs should encourage intelligent risk-taking within the organization. Failure due to poor execution is unacceptable, but setbacks resulting from exploring innovative ideas are inevitable for organizations that want to compete in a high-growth environment. Borrow from the VC playbook—intentionally being conservative in initial funding to inspire creativity and creating more natural checkpoints. In either case, be prepared to recommend that the organization pull the plug when a project isn’t delivering. • Direct line of sight to revenue. Come up with an approach to vet technologies and their companies to better identify and evaluate winners and losers. Share your accomplishments and goals in terms that the business understands. Openly discuss the state of the projects and assets in which the business has invested. While few CIOs today have the sole power to initiate or withdraw substantial investments, many should develop the ability to evaluate the portfolio objectively. The first few wins can become the centerpiece of your campaign for change. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 14
  • 16. Authors Tom Galizia, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP Tom Galizia is the national leader of Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Technology Strategy and Architecture practice that focuses on enabling new IT capabilities to successfully navigate changing market dynamics, delivering IT-enabled business strategy and transformation, and driving efficient IT operations. Chris Garibaldi, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP Chris Garibaldi is a principal in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Technology Strategy and Architecture practice and leads the Project Portfolio Management practice. With 20 years of experience in business strategy, Chris possesses a unique perspective on the evolution of business and IT management. Bottom line At first blush, comparisons between CIOs and venture capitalists may seem like a stretch. For example, CIOs can’t shoot from the hip on risky investments. They provide critical services that the business simply can’t do without, where the risk of getting it wrong could be catastrophic. At the same time, there’s a lot to learn from the portfolio mindset that VCs bring to their work: balancing investments in legacy systems, innovation, and even bleeding-edge technologies; understanding—and communicating—business value; and aligning talent with the business mission. Venture capitalists operate in a high-stakes environment where extraordinary value creation and inevitable losses can coexist inside a portfolio of calculated investments. So do CIOs. CIO as venture capitalist 15
  • 17. Endnotes 1. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3. 2. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 2. 3. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 6. 4. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 9. 5. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 10. 6. CIO Journal by Wall Street Journal, “The four faces of the CIO,” October 28, 2013, http:// deloitte.wsj.com/cio/2013/10/28/the-four-faces-of-the-cio/, accessed December 19, 2013. 7. Nicole Perlroth, “Venture capital firms, once discreet, learn the promotional game,” New York Times, July 22, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/23/business/venture-capital-firms-once-discreet- learn-the-promotional-game.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&, accessed December 19, 2013. 8. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3. 9. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 7. 10. Ann Winblad (co-founder of Hummer Winblad Venture Partners), discussion with the author, January 9, 2014. 11. Janice M. Roehl-Anderson, M&A Information Technology Best Practices (New Jersey: Wiley, 2013). Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 16
  • 18. CIO as venture capitalist 17
  • 19.
  • 20. For decades, companies have dealt with information in a familiar way— deliberately exploring known data sets to gain insights. Whether by queries, reports, or advanced analytical models, explicit rules have been applied to universes of data to answer questions and guide decision making. The underlying technologies for storage, visualization, statistical modeling, and business intelligence have continued to evolve, and we’re far from reaching the limits of these traditional techniques. Today, analytical systems that enable better data-driven decisions are at a crossroads with respect to where the work gets done. While they leverage technology for data-handling and number-crunching, the hard work of forming and testing hypotheses, tuning models, and tweaking data structures is still reliant on people. Much of the grunt work is carried out by computers, while much of the thinking is dependent on specific human beings with specific skills and experience that are hard to replace and hard to scale. A new approach to information discovery and decision making For the first time in computing history, it’s possible for machines to learn from experience and penetrate the complexity of data to identify associations. The field is called cognitive analyticsTM —inspired by how the human brain processes information, draws conclusions, and codifies instincts and experience into learning. Instead of depending on predefined rules and structured queries to uncover answers, cognitive analytics relies on technology systems to generate hypotheses, drawing from a wide variety of potentially relevant information and connections. Possible answers are expressed as recommendations, along with the system’s self-assessed ranking of how confident it is in the accuracy of the response. Unlike in traditional analysis, the more data fed to a machine learning system, the more it can learn, resulting in higher-quality insights. Cognitive analytics can push past the limitations of human cognition, allowing us to process and understand big data in real time, undaunted by exploding volumes of data or wild fluctuations in form, structure, and quality. Context-based hypotheses can be formed by exploring massive numbers of permutations of potential relationships of influence and causality—leading to conclusions unconstrained by organizational biases. In academia, the techniques have been applied to the study of reading, learning, and language Cognitive analytics Wow me with blinding insights, HAL Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing have moved from experimental concepts to potential business disruptors— harnessing Internet speed, cloud scale, and adaptive mastery of business processes to drive insights that aid real-time decision making. For organizations that want to improve their ability to sense and respond, cognitive analytics can be a powerful way to bridge the gap between the intent of big data and the reality of practical decision making. Cognitive analytics 19
  • 21. development. The Boltzmann machine1 and the Never-Ending Language Learning (NELL)2 projects are popular examples. In the consumer world, pieces of cognitive analytics form the core of artificial personal assistants such as Apple’s Siri® voice recognition software3 and the Google Now service, as well as the backbone for the Xbox® video game system’s verbal command interface in Kinect®. Even more interesting use cases exist in the commercial realm. Early instances of cognitive analytics can be found in health care, where systems are being used to improve the quality of patient outcomes. A wide range of structured inputs, such as claims records, patient files, and outbreak statistics, are coupled with unstructured inputs such as medical journals and textbooks, clinician notes, and social media feeds. Patient diagnoses can incorporate new medical evidence and individual patient histories, removing economic and geographic constraints that can prevent access to leading medical knowledge. 1950 Alan Turing publishes Computing Machinery and Intelligence, in which he proposes what is now referred to as the Turing Test: an experiment that tests a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent human behavior.1 1968 The first commercial database management system, or Information Management System (IMS), tracks huge amounts of structured data such as bills of materials for NASA’s Apollo Moon mission.2 1972 Work begins on MYCIN, an early expert system that identifies infectious blood diseases using an inference engine and suggests diagnoses and treatments. Despite high performance, it is not used in practice.3 1980s Steady increases in computing power fuel a revolution in natural language processing as early algorithms such as decision trees and neural network models are introduced.4 Highlights in the history of cognitive analytics 1950 1960 1970 1980 1e+4 1e+12 1e+8 computations per kilowatt-hour9 Sources: 1 A. M. Turing, "Computing machinery and intelligence," 1950, Mind 49: 433-460, http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/471/papers/turing.pdf, accessed December 27, 2013. 2 IBM, "Icons of progress: Information management system," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/ icons/ibmims, accessed December 27, 2013. 3 Edward H. Shortliffe, A rule-based approach to the generation of advice and explanations in clinical medicine, Stanford University Knowledge Systems Laboratory, 1977. 4 Joab Jackson, "Biologically inspired: How neural networks are finally maturing," ComputerWorld, December 17, 2013, http://news.idg.no/cw/art.cfm?id=213D1459-C657-E067-397E42988ACBFC00, accessed December 27, 2013. 5 IBM, "Icons of progress: TAKMI - Bringing order to unstructured data," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/takmi, accessed December 27, 2013. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 20
  • 22. In financial services, cognitive analytics is being used to advise and execute trading, as well as for advanced fraud detection and risk underwriting. In retail, cognitive systems operate as customer service agents, in-store kiosks, and digital store clerks—providing answers to customers’ questions about products, trends, recommendations, and support. Another promising area for cognitive analytics involves the concept of “tuning” complex global systems such as supply chains and cloud networks. Getting practical In practical terms, cognitive analytics is an extension of cognitive computing, which is made up of three main components: machine learning, natural language processing, and advancements in the enabling infrastructure. Machine learning, or deep learning,4 is an artificial intelligence5 technique modeled after characteristics of the human brain. A machine learning system explores many divergent concepts for possible connections, expresses potential new ideas with relative confidence 1997 TAKMI, or Text Analysis and Knowledge Mining, is developed in Tokyo by IBM to capture and utilize knowledge embedded in text files through mining data and metadata in books, journals, emails, audio and video files, etc.5 2004 The High Performance Computing Revitalization Act sets requirements for the Secretary of Energy for the development of, capabilities for, and access to high-end computing systems for scientific and engineering applications.6 2009-2010 Content analytics improve capabilities in unstructured data processing; streaming analytics process patient data to identify disease patterns in real time; and predictive analytics forecast the attitudes and behavior of customers.7 Today IBM, WellPoint, and Memorial Sloan Kettering use Watson to give doctors treatment options in seconds. Streaming analytics process 5 million messages of market data per second to speed up trading decisions.8 1990 2000 2010 Natural language processingMachine learningComputing 6 National Science Foundation, "Department of Energy: High-end Computing Revitalization Act of 2004," http://www.nsf.gov/mps/ast/aaac/ p_l_108-423_doe_high-end_computing_revitalization_act_of_2004.pdf, November 30, 2004, accessed January 6, 2014. 7 IBM, "Icons of progress: TAKMI - Bringing order to unstructured data," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/takmi, accessed December 27, 2013; IBM, "Icons of progress: The invention of stream computing," http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/streamcomputing, accessed December 27, 2013. 8 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, "IBM Watson hard at work: New breakthroughs transform quality care for patients," http://www.mskcc.org/pressroom/press/ibm-watson-hard-work-new-breakthroughs-transform-quality-care-patients, accessed December 27, 2013. 9 Economist, "A deeper law than Moore's?," October 10, 2011, http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/10/computing-power, accessed December 27, 2013. Cognitive analytics 21
  • 23. or certainty in their “correctness,” and adjusts the strength of heuristics, intuition, or decision frameworks based on direct feedback to those ideas. Many of today’s implementations represent supervised learning, where the machine needs to be trained or taught by humans. User feedback is given on the quality of the conclusions, which the system uses to tune its “thought process” and refine future hypotheses. Another important component of cognitive computing is natural language processing (NLP), or the ability to parse and understand unstructured data and conversational requests. NLP allows more data from more sources to be included in an analysis—allowing raw text, handwritten content, email, blog posts, mobile and sensor data, voice transcriptions, and more to be included as part of the learning. This is essential, especially because the volume of unstructured data is growing by 62 percent each year6 and is expected to reach nine times the volume of structured data by 2020.7 Instead of demanding that all information be scrubbed, interpreted, and translated into a common format, the hypothesis and confidence engines actively learn associations and the relative merits of various sources. NLP can also simplify a person’s ability to interact with cognitive systems. Instead of forcing end users to learn querying or programming languages, cognitive computing allows spoken, natural exploration. Users can ask, “What are the sales projections for this quarter?” instead of writing complicated lookups and joins against databases and schemas. Finally, cognitive computing depends on increased processing power and storage networks delivered at low costs. That’s because it requires massively parallel processing, which allows exploration of different sets of data from different sources at the same time. It also requires places where the massive amounts of data can be continuously collected and analyzed. Options include the cloud, large appliances and high-end servers, and distributed architectures that allow work to be reduced and mapped to a large collection of lower-end hardware. All together now Cognitive analytics is the application of these technologies to enhance human decisions. It takes advantage of cognitive computing’s vast data-processing power and adds channels for data collection (such as sensing applications) and environmental context to provide practical business insights. If cognitive computing has changed the way in which information is processed, cognitive analytics is changing the way information is applied. The breakthrough could not have come at a better time. As more human activity is being expressed digitally, data forms continue to evolve. Highly structured financial and transactional data remain at the forefront of many business applications, but the rise of unstructured information in voice, images, social channels, and video has created new opportunities for businesses to understand the world around them. For companies that want to use this information for real-time decision making, cognitive analytics is moving to center stage. It is both a complement to inventorying, cleansing, and curating ever-growing decision sources and a means for machine learning at Internet speed and cloud scale to automatically discover new correlations and patterns. Cognitive analytics is still in its early stages, and it is by no means a replacement for traditional information and analytics programs. However, industries wrestling with massive amounts of unstructured data or struggling to meet growing demand for real- time visibility should consider taking a look. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 22
  • 24. Coloring outside the lines A multinational consumer goods company wanted to evaluate new designs for its popular men’s personal care product. The company had sizeable market share, but its competitors were consistently developing and marketing new design features. To remain competitive, the company wanted to understand which features consumers valued. Thousands of testers filled out surveys regarding the company’s new product variant. Although some of the survey’s results were quantitative (“Rate this feature on a scale from 1–5”), many were qualitative free-form text (“Other comments”). This produced more text than could be processed, efficiently and accurately, by humans. The company used Luminoso’s text analytics software to analyze the responses by building a conceptual matrix of the respondents’ text—mapping the raw content onto subject and topic matters, statistical relationships, and contexts that were relevant to the business. Luminoso’s Insight Engine identified notable elements and patterns within the text, and measured the emotional and perceived effects of the product’s design and functionality. The discoveries were impressive, and surprising. The company rapidly identified design features important to consumers, which mapped closely to the numerical ratings testers had assigned. Unexpectedly, the product’s color strongly affected how emotionally attached a tester was to his product. When writing freely, testers frequently mentioned color’s significance to the product experience—but when faced with specific questions, testers only spoke to the topic at hand. The company also uncovered that the color findings were mirrored in those testers who did not specifically mention color. The company, able to finally quantify a color preference, conducted a study to select the preferred one. The product is now on the shelves of major supermarkets and convenience stores—in a new color, selling more units. Intelligent personal assistants Some of the building blocks of cognitive analytics have found homes in our pockets and purses. Intelligent personal assistants such as Apple’s Siri, Google Now, and Microsoft Cortana use natural language processing, predictive analytics, machine learning, and big data to provide personalized, seemingly prescient service. These are examples of complex technologies working together behind a deceptively simple interface—allowing users to quickly and easily find the information they need through conversational commands and contextual prompts based on location, activity, and a user’s history. Such programs are first steps toward harnessing cognitive analytics for personal enhanced decision making. For example, Google Now can check your calendar to determine that you have a dentist appointment, or search your communication history to know that you are seeing a movie—contextually determining your destination.8 It can then use GPS to determine your current location, use Google Maps to check traffic conditions and determine the best driving route, and set a notification to let you know what time you should leave. And these systems are only getting better, because the programs can also learn your behaviors and preferences over time, leading to more accurate and targeted information. Lessons from the front lines Cognitive analytics 23
  • 25. Changing the world of health care In 2011, WellPoint, one of the nation’s largest health benefits companies, set out to design a world-class, integrated health care ecosystem that would link data on physical, financial, worksite, behavioral, and community health. By establishing a singular platform, WellPoint could enhance its ability to collaborate, share information, automate processes, and manage analytics. To do this, WellPoint needed an advanced solution, and therefore teamed with IBM to use the capabilities of Watson—IBM’s cognitive computing system. “We decided to integrate our health care ecosystem to help our care management associates administer member benefits, while providing a seamless member experience and working to reduce costs,” said Gail Borgatti Croall, SVP of Care Management at WellPoint. “Cognitive analytics was important in creating a system that could drive effectiveness and efficiencies throughout our business.” Today, WellPoint uses cognitive analytics as a tool for utilization management:9 specifically, in reviewing pre-authorization treatment requests—decisions that require knowledge of medical science, patient history, and the prescribing doctor’s rationale, among other factors. With its ability to read free-form textual information, Watson can synthesize huge amounts of data and create hypotheses on how to respond to case requests. In fact, WellPoint already has “taught” its cognitive engine to recognize medical policies and guidelines representing 54 percent of outpatient requests. “It took us about a year to train our solution on our business, and the more we taught the faster the Watson cognitive platform learned,” said Croall. “Now it’s familiar with a huge volume of clinical information and professional literature. This reduces a significant amount of time needed for nurses to track down and assess the variables when making a well-informed decision on an authorization request.” For each case reviewed, the system provides nurses with a recommendation and an overall confidence and accuracy rating for that recommendation. In some outpatient cases, the system already can auto-approve requests, reducing the timeframe for patient treatment recommendations from 72 hours to near-real time. As the cognitive system develops its knowledge database, the accuracy and confidence ratings will continue to rise, and the ability to approve greater numbers and types of cases in real time becomes a reality. Furthermore, nurses have experienced a 20 percent improvement in efficiency in specific work flows due to the one-stop-shop nature of the integrated platform. The integrated platform will create not only efficiency savings but also enable improvement in speed of response to provider requests. WellPoint’s use of cognitive analytics for utilization management represents the tip of the iceberg. Its integrated health care ecosystem is a multiyear journey that the company approaches with iterative, small releases, keeping the effort on time and on budget. In the future, WellPoint may look into how the system can support identification and stratification for clinical programs or many other applications. “We’d like to see how our system can support a more holistic, longitudinal patient record—for example, integrating electronic medical record (EMR) data with claims, lab, and pharmacy data,” said Croall. “We also see opportunities on the consumer side. Imagine using cognitive insights to create an online, interactive model that helps you, as a patient, understand treatment options and costs. We’ve barely scratched the surface with our cognitive analytics capabilities. It truly will change the way we perform utilization management and case management services.” Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 24
  • 26. Safeguarding the future— Energy well spent Each year, thousands of safety-related events occur around the world at nuclear power plants.10 The most severe events make headlines because of disastrous consequences including loss of life, environmental damage, and economic cost. Curtiss-Wright, a product manufacturer and service provider to the aerospace, defense, oil and gas, and nuclear energy industries, examines nuclear safety event data to determine patterns. These patterns can be used by energy clients to determine what occurred during a power plant event, understand the plant’s current status, and anticipate future events.11 Curtiss-Wright is taking its analysis a step further by developing an advanced analytics solution. The foundation of this solution is Saffron Technology’s cognitive computing platform, a predictive intelligence system that can recognize connections within disparate data sets.12 By feeding this platform with structured operational metrics and decades of semi-structured nuclear event reporting, the ability to foresee future issues and provide response recommendations for evolving situations is made possible.13 Ultimately, Curtiss-Wright hopes to improve nuclear safety by means of a solution that not only enables energy companies to learn from the past but also gives them the opportunity to prepare for the future. Cognitive analytics 25
  • 27. In 2011, I was given the opportunity to lead IBM’s Watson project and build a business around it. I am passionate about the process of “presentations to products to profits,” so this endeavor really excited me. The first decision I had to make was which markets and industries we should enter. We wanted to focus on information-intensive industries where multi- structured data are important to driving better decisions. Obvious choices such as insurance, health care, telecom, and banking were discussed. We chose to first focus on health care: a multitrillion-dollar industry in which our technology could help improve the quality of care delivered, drive toward significant cost reduction, and have a positive impact on society. In 2012, we reduced the footprint of our Watson system—then the size of a master bedroom—to a single server and took our first customer into production. To be successful with cognitive computing, companies should be able to articulate how they will make better decisions and drive better outcomes. Companies will struggle if they approach it from the “technology in” angle instead of “business out.” The technology is no doubt fundamental but should be coupled with business domain knowledge—understanding the industry, learning the theoretical and practical experience of the field, and learning the nuances around a given problem set. For example, in the health care industry, there are three primary aspects that make Watson’s solution scalable and repeatable. First, Watson is being trained by medical professionals to understand the context of the relevant health area and can present information in a way that is useful to clinicians. Second, when building the tools and platform, we created a model that can be reconfigured to apply to multiple functions within the industry so that learnings from one area can help accelerate mastery in related fields. Third, the delivery structure is scalable—able to tackle problems big or small. The more it learns about the industry, the better its confidence in responding to user questions or system queries and the quicker it can be deployed against new problems. With Watson for contact center, we are targeting training the system for a new task in six weeks with a goal of achieving business “break even” in six months. However, cognitive computing may not always be the right solution. Sometimes businesses should start with improving and enhancing their existing analytics solutions. Companies considering cognitive computing should select appropriate use cases that will generate value and have enough of a compelling roadmap and potential to “starburst” into enough additional scenarios to truly move the needle. In terms of the talent needed to support cognitive solutions, I liken this to the early stages of the Internet and web page development when people worried about the lack of HTML developers. Ultimately, systems arose to streamline the process and reduce the skill set required. With Watson, we have reduced the complexity required to do this type of work by 10–15 times where we were when we first started, and recent startups will continue to drive the curve down. So less highly specialized people will be able to complete more complex tasks—PhDs and data scientists won’t be the only ones capable of implementing cognitive computing. There are three things I consider important for an effective cognitive computing solution: C-suite buy-in to the vision of transforming the business over a 3–5 year journey; relevant use cases and roadmap that are likely to lead to a compelling business outcome; and the content and talent to drive the use case and vision. If you approach a project purely from a technology standpoint, the project will become a science project, and you can’t expect it to drive value. My take Manoj Saxena, general manager, Watson Solutions, IBM Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 26
  • 28. Rather than having a team of data scientists creating algorithms to understand a particular business issue, cognitive analytics seeks to extract content, embed it into semantic models, discover hypotheses and interpret evidence, provide potential insights—and then continuously improve them. The data scientist’s job is to empower the cognitive tool, providing guidance, coaching, feedback, and new inputs along the way. As a tool moves closer to being able to replicate the human thought process, answers come more promptly and with greater consistency. Here are a few ways to get started: • Start small. It’s possible to pilot and prototype a cognitive analytics platform at low cost and low risk of abandonment using the cloud and open-source tools. A few early successes and valuable insights can make the learning phase also a launch phase. • Plant seeds. Analytics talent shortages are exacerbated in the cognitive world. The good news? Because the techniques are so new, your competitors are likely facing similar hurdles. Now is a good time to invest in your next-generation data scientists, anchored in refining and harnessing cognitive techniques. And remember, business domain experience is as critical as data science. Cast a wide net, and invest in developing the players from each of the disciplines. Consider crowdsourcing talent options for initial forays.14 • Tools second. The tools are improving and evolving at a rapid pace, so don’t agonize over choices, and don’t overcommit to a single vendor. Start with what you have, supplement with open-source tools during the early days, and continue to explore the state of the possible as tools evolve and consolidate. • Context is king. Quick answers and consistency depend on more than processing power. They also depend on context. By starting with deep information for a particular sector, a cognitive analytics platform can short-circuit the learning curve and get to high-confidence hypotheses quickly. That’s why the machinery of cognitive computing—such as Watson from IBM—is rolling out sector by sector. Early applications involve health care management and customer service in banking and insurance. Decide which domains to target and begin working through a concept map—part entity and explicit relationship exercise, part understanding of influence and subtle interactions. • Don’t scuttle your analytics ship. Far from making traditional approaches obsolete, cognitive analytics simply provides another layer—a potentially more powerful layer— for understanding complexity and driving real-time decisions. By tapping into broader sets of unstructured data such as social monitoring, deep demographics, and economic indicators, cognitive analytics can supplement traditional analytics with ever- increasing accuracy and speed. • Divide and conquer. Cognitive analytics initiatives can be broken into smaller, more accessible projects. Natural language processing can be an extension of visualization and other human-computer interaction efforts. Unstructured data can be tapped as a new signal in traditional analytics efforts. Distributed computing and cloud options for parallel processing of big data don’t require machine learning to yield new insights. Where do you start? Cognitive analytics 27
  • 29. • Know which questions you’re asking. Even modest initiatives need to be grounded in a business “so what.” An analytics journey should begin with questions, and the application of cognitive analytics is no exception. The difference, however, lies in the kinds of answers you’re looking for. When you need forward-looking insights that enable confident responses, cognitive analytics may be your best bet. • Explore ideas from others. Look outside your company and industry at what others are doing to explore the state of the possible. Interpret it in your own business context to identify the state of the practical and valuable. Bottom line As the demand for real-time support in business decision making intensifies, cognitive analytics will likely move to the forefront in high-stakes sectors and functions: health care, financial services, supply chain, customer relationship management, telecommunications, and cyber security. In some of these areas, lagging response times can be a matter of life and death. In others, they simply represent missed opportunities. Cognitive analytics can help address some key challenges. It can improve prediction accuracy, provide augmentation and scale to human cognition, and allow tasks to be performed more efficiently (and automatically) via context-based suggestions. For organizations that want to improve their ability to sense and respond, cognitive analytics offers a powerful way to bridge the gap between the promise of big data and the reality of practical decision making. Authors Rajeev Ronanki, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP Rajeev Ronanki is a leader in the areas of IT strategy, enterprise architecture, cognitive architectures, cloud, mobile, and analytics. He has a deep knowledge of US health insurance business processes, operations, and technology, and has worked extensively with transactional and analytic systems. David Steier, director, Deloitte Consulting LLP David Steier is a director in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s US Human Capital Practice in Actuarial, Risk and Advanced Analytics. He leads the Deloitte Analytics Solutions group, whose goal is to build tools that accelerate the sale and delivery of business analytics engagements. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 28
  • 30. Endnotes 1. Sam Roweis, “Boltzmann machines,” lecture notes, 1995, http://www.cs.nyu. edu/~roweis/notes/boltz.pdf, accessed December 19, 2013. 2. Andrew Carlson, Justin Betteridge, Bryan Kisiel, Burr Settles, Estevam R. Hruschka Jr., and Tom M. Mitchell, “Toward an architecture for never-ending language learning,” http:// www.cs.cmu.edu/~acarlson/papers/carlson-aaai10.pdf, accessed December 19, 2013. 3. Tech Trends 2014 is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by Apple Inc. 4. Robert D. Hof, “Deep learning,” MIT Technology Review, April 23, 2013, http://www. technologyreview.com/featuredstory/513696/deep-learning/, accessed December 19, 2013. 5. For more information on AI, see Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, “Exponentials.” 6. HP Autonomy, Transitioning to a new era of human information, 2013, http://www.autonomy. com/html/power/sem/index-human_information.html, accessed December 19, 2013. 7. Steven Hagan, “Big data, cloud computing, spatial databases,” Geospatial World Forum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 25, 2012. 8. Google, “How Google Now works (iOS app),” https://support.google.com/ websearch/answer/2841497?hl=en, accessed January 7, 2014. 9. Utilization management is the case-by-case assessment of the appropriateness of medical services against evidence-based quality guidelines. 10. Paul Hoffman, “Cognitive computing,” April 2013, slide 31, http://www.slideshare.net/paulhofmann/ automation-of-cognitive-thinking-associative-memories-saffron-technologies, accessed January 7, 2014. 11. Saffron Technology, “Big data exchange conference,” http://saffrontech. com/event/big-data-exchange-2013/, accessed January 7, 2014. 12. Saffron Technology, “All source intelligence for anticipatory sensemaking,” http://saffrontech.com/ wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2013/01/Saffron-Executive-Summary-2013.pdf, accessed January 7, 2014. 13. Saffron Technology, “Big data requires cognitive computing for model-free machine learning,” September 18, 2013, http://saffrontech.com/2013/09/18/big-data-requires- cognitive-computing-for-model-free-machine-learning/, accessed January 7, 2014. 14. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring disruption, 2014, chapter 3. Cognitive analytics 29
  • 31.
  • 32. Enterprise adoption of crowdsourcing can allow specialized skills to be dynamically sourced—from anyone, anywhere, as needed— for everything from data entry and coding to advanced analytics and product development. The potential for disruptive impact on cost alone could make early experimentation worthwhile, but there are broader implications for innovation in the enterprise. Sun Microsystems co-founder Bill Joy said it well in 1990: “No matter who you are, most of the smartest people work for someone else.”1 His intent was not defeatism; it was a rallying cry to tap into the collective experience and enthusiasm outside of organizational boundaries. Today, enterprises are doing just that: harnessing the crowd to help with a wide mix of challenges, from menial tasks and complex needs requiring specialized skill sets to creative endeavors and even strategic planning. The idea of open source talent2 via crowdsourcing is becoming industrialized— growing in scale, sophistication, and importance as an alternative staffing model. The goal is not just cost savings but also quick access to specialized resources, the ability to dynamically scale up (and down) around workloads, and geographic coverage in quickly changing markets. Businesses have a rich history of trying to tap into crowds, using consumer surveys, focus groups, and experiential marketing to provoke customer engagement. Product R&D, in particular, has seen significant activity, with open innovation campaigns launched by many large companies, including 3M, BMW, General Mills, and Stanley Black & Decker.3 More recently, companies have moved to flatten and rewire their structures, making it easier for people within the organization to connect with information and specialists to grow ideas and solve pressing problems across a wide spectrum of domains. There’s a crowd for that The business applications of crowdsourcing run the gamut from simple tasks to complex solutions. Below is a sampling of the categories and emerging platforms for harnessing the crowd. • Simple, task-oriented crowdsourcing. Companies need arms and legs to execute simple, short, transactional units of work. Language translation services, data entry, photograph tagging, and transcription are popular items that allow large workloads to be split across remote workforces. Routine tasks that require physical presence such Industrialized crowdsourcing Sometimes more is better Enterprise adoption of the power of the crowd allows specialized skills to be dynamically sourced from anyone, anywhere, and only as needed. Companies can use the collective knowledge of the masses to help with tasks from data entry and coding to advanced analytics and product development. The potential for disruptive impact on cost alone likely makes early experimentation worthwhile, but there are also broader implications for innovation in the enterprise. Industrialized crowdsourcing 31
  • 33. as performing store pricing checks, pulling products during recalls, restocking retail shelves, or serving as data collectors, also fit into this category. Crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon’s Mechnical Turk, Gigwalk, TaskRabbit, Elance, Field Agent, and Quri fill this niche with an on-demand labor force, often global, numbering in the hundreds of thousands and performing millions of jobs.4 The goal is not just low costs but also speed and scale. • Complex, experience-based crowdsourcing. Complex tasks require abstract thinking, specialized skill sets, and sophisticated problem solving. The crowd is typically made up of diverse, qualified individuals, including software engineers, data scientists, artists, designers, management consultants, and hobbyists with advanced academic degrees or industry experience. Tasks typically require not just scale but also creative problem solving, with the goal of achieving breakthroughs to old problems through innovative thinking. Platforms for this type of crowdsourcing include 10EQS, crowdSPRING, Kaggle, oDesk, and Tongal. • Open-ended, idea-generating crowdsourcing. These applications involve challenges oriented around invention, idea generation, and product and brand innovation. Breakthroughs may come from specialists or, increasingly, from the general public. The challenge becomes one of provoking and harvesting that potential. Corporations are increasingly entering into partnerships with crowdsourcing platforms in this space to focus their efforts. Examples include General Electric’s opening of its patent library to Quirky5 and Qualcomm’s Tricorder challenge with the XPRIZE Foundation.6 IdeaConnection and InnoCentive are other platforms in this space. • Funding, consumption, and contribution crowdsourcing. Large enterprises should be aware of three other models of crowdsourcing that are gaining momentum. The first is crowdfunding, in which entrepreneurs solicit sponsorship from the masses, looking for support or capital to develop ideas, products, and businesses. Indiegogo and Kickstarter are two of many platforms in this space. Collaborative consumption models have also emerged, in which certain assets are available “as a service” to the crowd. Automobiles through Uber and lodging through Airbnb are two examples. Finally, we’re seeing platforms where the crowd contributes ideas and information, sharing knowledge that could be useful to others. The open source software movement and Wikipedia are based on this model. Other more recent platforms include Crowdtap and Sourcemap. Battalion at the ready How is this different from outsourcing or temporary agencies that have been around for decades? Industrialized crowdsourcing providers leverage platforms that can match buyers to a much broader base of sellers while reducing many of the administrative hassles, combining cloud, mobile, social, and web technologies to create new marketplaces. For location-based assignments, individuals carry GPS-enabled devices that provide on-the-spot data entry and performance verification. Others may provide bidding systems, processes for billing and payment collection, performance monitoring, and performance ratings. Platforms can provide easy access to specialists from many walks of life—professionals, freelancers, and hobbyists—who have the motivation, qualifications, and flexibility to create innovative ideas and execute assignments promptly. For temp agencies or outsourcers, the talent pool is constrained by their rosters. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 32
  • 34. A sampling of crowdsourcing platforms users Number of contributors in the community 350,000 134,200 30,000 5,419,582 jobs Number of completed projects 4,000,000 299 150 53,728 Sources: 1 Gigwalk, "Press information," http://gigwalk.com/press, accessed December 18, 2013. 2 Odesk, "Odesk at a glance," https://www.odesk.com/info/about, accessed December 18, 2013; Odesk, "Find work," https://www.odesk.com/o/jobs/browse, accessed December 18, 2013. 3 Kaggle, "Solutions," http://www.kaggle.com/solutions/connect, accessed December 18, 2013; Kaggle, "Active competitions," http://www.kaggle.com/competitions, accessed December 18, 2013. 4 Peter Diamandis, "Genius TV commercials at 1/100th the price," Huffington Post Blog, February 28, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ peter-diamandis/a-tongal-produced-ad-scor_b_2806396.html, accessed December 18, 2013. 5 Quirky, "About Quirky," http://www.quirky.com/about, accessed December 18, 2013. 6 Kickstarter, "Kickstarter stats," http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats, accessed December 18, 2013. Tongal4 Collaborative contests for video production founded 2008 Kaggle3 Competitions for predictive modeling and analytics founded 2010 Gigwalk1 A mobile, flexible workforce for jobs in the field founded 2011 oDesk2 A tool for hiring and managing remote freelancers founded 2005 Quirky5 A product design incubator and marketplace founded 2009 Kickstarter6 A global funding platform for creative projects founded 2009 4,500,000 659,000 897,946 411 In crowdsourcing, the needle in the haystack comes to you, with skills and interests aligned with your ask. Buyers can access large pools of people in short order, typically at low transaction costs—a few dollars per store visit or pennies per photo tag, For free agents, these assignments allow them to earn extra money with fewer commitments and more flexibility than traditional employment offers. And individuals qualified for these projects are often attracted by intrinsic rewards beyond just money—prestige, competition, learning, or job opportunities. Many crowdsourcing platforms provide rewards or leaderboards, letting talent be recognized as leaders in their fields. Some of the more compelling results come from harnessing the crowd via contests. These can be offered for entertainment or prestige by applying gamification7 techniques. Alternatively, top talent can be invited to compete on an assignment by offering financial incentives for the more effective responses. Sponsoring companies pay only for “winning” solutions while gaining access to a wide range of ideas. Talent has the freedom to select projects that match its interests and ambitions and is given a platform to showcase its work. Colgate Speed Stick used this model to spark a Super Bowl ad for the bargain-basement price of $17,000, compared with nine-figure investments associated with traditional agencies.8 Allstate sponsored a competition in which the crowd created a liability prediction model that was 271 percent more accurate than the original.9 Leading companies are blasting through corporate walls with industrialized solutions to reach broader crowds capable of generating answers and executing tasks faster and more cost effectively than employees. Companies are also gaining access to niche, unproven experience that might be hard to find and retain in-house. And with the crowd, you pay only for the task being completed. The crowd is waiting and willing. How will you put it to work? Industrialized crowdsourcing 33
  • 35. Crowd wars: The “fan”tom menace In 2013, Kellogg’s Pringles teamed with Lucasfilm’s Star Wars to launch “The Force for Fun Project,” a Tongal-enabled contest challenging consumers and fans to design the next Pringles television commercial.10 By engaging a crowdsourcing platform, Pringles hoped to open its doors to access new ideas and inspire fresh, fan-driven digital content while generating millions of impressions. The Force for Fun Project was staged in three rounds, with a bonus “wild card” round to identify additional finalists. First, fans were invited to submit a 140-character vision in the “ideas round.” The top five ideas advanced to the “pitch round,” where filmmakers could present a vision for a video production based on one of the five ideas. The winning pitches, as identified by Pringles and Star Wars executives, advanced to the final “video round,” receiving a production budget to bring the pitch to life. In the final round, seven finalists were selected for a chance to win The Force for Fun Project grand prize, which included a $25,000 cash prize and a national television spot. To drive additional buzz for the video finalists, Pringles and Star Wars solicited 10 die-hard fans and bloggers to feature the videos (with additional, behind-the-scenes content) on their own social platforms.11 The six-month initiative generated over 1,000 idea submissions, 154 video pitches, over 1.5 million YouTube views, 6 million social impressions, and over 111 million overall impressions. Furthermore, the contest and winning videos received media coverage across mainstream media and digital outlets. On September 24, 2013, the winning commercial was broadcast to over 12 million viewers during ABC’s series premiere of Marvel’s Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. Civic crowdsourcing As the budgets for civic organizations continue to shrink, municipalities, nonprofits, and other public organizations are reaching out to the public through crowdsourcing, which allows civic organizations to tap into their constituents for tools and services at a fraction of the cost of traditional sourcing approaches. One example is the City of Chicago. After Mayor Rahm Emanuel signed an executive order making all non-private data available, the city sought ideas for providing the data to the public in a usable way.12 Targeting local software engineers, hobbyists, and “hackers,”13 the city initiated a crowdsourcing effort that yielded a number of app proposals, ranging from a 311 service tracker to a tool displaying real-time subway delays. Another example is the Khan Academy, a nonprofit organization that provides free educational content online. It uses volunteers to translate the website into different languages—crowd-provided localization services. A Spanish site was released in September 2013, and videos have been translated into more than a dozen languages.14 The City of Boston introduced the Citizens Connect mobile app in 2008, encouraging Bostonians to report problems ranging from broken streetlights to missed trash pickups. The reports are connected to the city maintenance tracking system, allowing work crews to be rapidly deployed to fix problems as reports come in and alerting citizens Lessons from the front lines Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 34
  • 36. when work orders are resolved. Since the app debuted, the number of reports has risen from 8,000 in 2009 to more than 150,000 in 2012.15 Have patents, will innovate Product development and innovation can take years for large companies to develop from initial idea to an item available on retail shelves. Start-up company Quirky is challenging current wisdom by crowdsourcing the product development process, shortening the invention timeline of new products from years to weeks. In 2012, Quirky caught the attention of GE when it launched 121 new products and sold 2.3 million units.16 The compressed development schedule impressed GE leadership so much that the company opened its patent library to the Quirky community to enable development of new consumer products. Products developed by Quirky begin as one of approximately 3,000 ideas submitted weekly by the Quirky community. As ideas are submitted, community members vote for the ideas they like. Those with the most votes are reviewed by industry specialists and community members who select products for production. During development, the community influences the product roadmap by voting on issues ranging from color and price to engineering. With four products completed,17 the Quirky and GE team plan to release dozens more over the next five years, with GE already providing $30 million in funding.18 Industrialized crowdsourcing 35
  • 37. Crowding store shelves Innovation is likely at an all-time high in the consumer products industry. Traditionally, new initiatives and technologies took months, or even years, to implement. Today, the timeline can be weeks. Consumer product companies and retailers are finding benefits in rapid experimentation to keep up with the pace of change and stay on the leading edge of innovation. A leading retailer chose to experiment with crowdsourcing to improve its data collection. It engaged with Gigwalk—a company that taps into the general population to perform micro-tasks for enterprises. Millions of “gigwalkers” use a mobile app that matches them with available jobs, or “gigs,” based on their geographical area and skillset. Participants are then promptly paid for executing those tasks. The company participated in a pilot program to investigate a hunch that stores were missing out on sales because of out-of-stock products. The company set up a series of gigs to monitor and collect data on the stocking of its stores’ displays. It was hoping that by collecting and analyzing this data it could identify an opportunity to decrease lost sales. The company wanted to use new technologies and techniques to tackle age-old industry challenges around out-of-stocks. It started by defining customer scenarios and identifying the specific data to be collected. The crowdsourced team would walk into more than a dozen stores twice a day and identify the missing products. A team member could scroll through a list of the company’s products on the mobile app, click the ones that were missing, and use the drag-and-drop menu to enter product information. The pilot went live a month after conception, but the first week yielded subpar results, with only a 21 percent task adoption rate among the available resources. So the company changed the way the gig was constructed and how the crowd would be incentivized. For example, it realized the term “SKU” was not well understood by many consumers; to aid comprehension, the company more clearly showcased the data that was to be collected. In addition, the company adjusted the pricing structure to reward “gigwalkers” for completing additional store audits. The new model also disclosed the goals and value of the company’s crowdsourced data collection initiative. The changes proved to be powerful. In the second week the adoption rate was 84 percent, and in the third and fourth weeks, the rate rose to 99 percent. The crowdsourcing experiment enabled the retailer to create datasets around its products. By creating a visual heat map, the company was able to view, store by store, which products were out of stock throughout a day across its stores in the pilot group. It was also able to improve the internal processes that corresponded to those products and reduce the number of out-of-stock items. The company estimated it could save millions of dollars if the piloted process enhancements were implemented in stores across the country. The retailer also created a geospatial map to identify routing issues that might be contributing to out-of-stock items, and was able to make changes to its distribution methodologies accordingly. At a reasonable cost, and in a relatively short period, the company was able to use crowdsourcing to collect data; glean insights about its products, brands, and distribution; and improve processes to reduce its risk of lost sales. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 36
  • 38. CIOs have one of the hardest roles in business today: They need to manage reliability, performance, and security while simultaneously guiding innovation and absorbing new technologies. Talent is a massively limiting factor—especially with regard to disruptive technologies like data science. Along with other techniques, crowdsourcing can offer a way to address these challenges. I see two primary areas where companies can leverage the power of crowdsourcing. The first is in the micro-task world, where a company can create small pieces of work to outsource. The second is in the engagement world, where a company can use a crowdsourcing platform for a defined role such as software development. It’s easier to do the latter, but as we atomize processes to smaller and smaller tasks, there is no reason those cannot also be outsourced. The dilemma emerges when you get to mission-critical processes. Outsourcing those can carry enormous risks, but it can also provide incredible scalability. I predict that in the next several years it will become more common, with startups leading the charge and larger organizations following suit to remain competitive. In information-based industries, this is likely to be crucial. Quirky, a consumer packaged goods (CPG) startup, manages a community of 500,000 inventors to submit ideas. Airbnb leverages the crowd to supply rooms for people to stay in. Regardless of which approach you take, I believe that crowdsourcing is here to stay. The number of people online is projected to increase from 2.4 billion today19 to 5 billion by 2020.20 These minds, armed with their ever-more-affordable tablets of choice, will dramatically increase the general availability of intellectual capital. And the technologies and resources now exist for virtually anyone to become skilled in anything very quickly. So the question becomes, “How will you adapt?” The first step for the C-suite is to gain awareness: Many executives I talk to are unfamiliar with crowdsourcing. To CIOs who think, “That’s interesting, but not for me,” I would say that if you’re only looking for innovation internally, you’ll likely find yourself in trouble. There is too much happening outside your company walls for you to risk ignoring it, let alone not leveraging it. Consider the newspaper business, which was disrupted by Craigslist, or the music business, which was disrupted by the iTunes® application.21 Your business counterparts should expect that they will be disrupted even if they don’t yet know in what way. For this reason, I urge traditional businesses to figure out how to cannibalize themselves, or someone else likely will. Yes, there is discomfort and risk involved, but that can be mitigated, and it is ultimately less dangerous than your business failing. When you tap into the crowd, you sacrifice certainty for breadth of creative input, but as long as the crowd is large, you have the potential for incredible results at fractional costs. We’re entering a world where businesses are either the disruptor or the disrupted, and there is no middle ground. I believe that taking advantage of trends like crowdsourcing can help companies keep the upper hand. My take Salim Ismail, founding executive director and global ambassador, Singularity University Industrialized crowdsourcing 37
  • 39. Understanding how to use crowdsourcing to help reach organizational goals may not be intuitive, and the range of potential projects and platforms can add to the confusion, especially as you’re educating your business counterparts. Data security, privacy, and compliance risks may be raised as roadblocks. That said, every industry can find acceptable areas in which to experiment, perhaps in unlikely places. Goldcorp is a mining company that shared its top-secret geological data with the crowd, offering $500,000 for finding six million ounces in untapped gold. This $500,000 investment yielded $3 billion in new gold in one year.22 Tapping crowd power through an online platform is a low-risk investment with potentially high returns, but only if you choose appropriate projects. • Scope. Focus on a clear and specific problem to solve—one that can be boiled down to a question, task, or request with measurable definitions of success. One of the benefits of crowdsourcing comes from garnering ideas that aren’t limited by your organization’s preconceptions of how your business or market works. The scope of a task can require deep domain experience but should not be dependent on your own organization’s context. • Focus on gaps in your organization’s own abilities. Begin your search in areas where your own talent gaps have held back progress. What could you learn or accomplish if you had affordable manpower readily available? What complex problems have confounded your people? What solutions seem out of reach, no matter what you try? These may be problems worth pitching to a crowd that isn’t contaminated by “what’s not possible.” Crowds are likely to consider data or information that insiders assume is irrelevant. • Keep an open mind. Crowdsourcing is rarely initially championed by a C-level executive, but the CIO may be in a position to help educate business leaders on its potential. A broad perspective across the enterprise, combined with an open mind, may help CIOs recognize unexpected applications that could benefit the organization. Leaders should foster a culture where appropriate crowd experiments are encouraged while minimizing security, privacy, and compliance risks. Employees may feel threatened by crowdsourcing, perceiving it either as a “big brother” tactic or a means to replace the existing workforce. Consider making crowdsourcing a tool for your employees. For example, the sales team for a consumer goods company can use a crowdsourcing app to harness cheap labor to perform the mundane parts of their job. By letting your employees orchestrate the crowd, concerns can be alleviated. • Get ready for what’s next. Crowdsourcing is in the early stages, but it’s not too early to consider long-term opportunities for new ways to get work done. Could a native mobile app that feeds directly into your systems streamline field data collection and reporting in the future? Could the time come when it would make sense to provide access to corporate assets to free Where do you start? Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 38
  • 40. agents? A crowdsourced labor pool will become a legitimate component of many organizations’ distributed workforce strategy. Start thinking now about what policies and processes need to be in place. Incentive structures, performance management, operating models, and delivery models may, in some cases, need to be redrawn. Use crowdsourcing as a tangible example of the shift to social business23 —allowing early experimentation to make the case for more profound investments and impacts. Bottom line Crowdsourcing is still in its early stages, but today’s online platforms are sophisticated enough to provide substantial benefits in solving many kinds of problems. The potential for disruptive impact on cost alone makes early experimentation worthwhile. More important are the broader implications for innovation in the extended enterprise. Today you can expand your reach to engage talent to help with a wide range of needs. It’s important that your organization has the ability to embrace new ideas that may be generated by your crowdsourcing initiatives. That means industrializing not just for scale and reach but also for outcome. Industrialized crowdsourcing 39
  • 41. Endnotes 1. Rich Karlgaard, “How fast can you learn?” Forbes, November 9, 2007, http://www. forbes.com/forbes/2007/1126/031.html, accessed December 19, 2013. 2. CIO Journal by Wall Street Journal, “The new meaning of ‘open source talent’,” September 24, 2013, http:// deloitte.wsj.com/cio/2013/09/24/the-new-meaning-of-open-source-talent/, accessed December 19, 2013. 3. IdeaConnection, “Corporate crowdsourcing,” http://www.ideaconnection. com/crowdsourcing/, accessed December 19, 2013. 4. Caroline Winter, “Gigwalk does temp-worker hiring without job interviews,” Bloomberg Business Week, June 24, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-06-24/gigwalk- does-temp-worker-hiring-without-job-interviews, accessed December 19, 2013. 5. Kelsey Campbell-Dollaghan, The first five smart home appliances from Quirky and GE’s Future-Store, November 4, 2013. http://gizmodo.com/the-first-five-smart-home- appliances-from-quirky-and-ge-1451720808, accessed December 19, 2013. 6. Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE, “Introducing the Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE,” http://www.qualcommtricorderxprize.org/, accessed December 19, 2013. 7. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 7. 8. Peter Diamandis, “A Tongal-produced ad scores a Super Bowl touchdown,” Huffington Post, March 4, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-diamandis/a- tongal-produced-ad-scor_b_2806396.html, accessed December 19, 2013. Authors Marcus Shingles, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP Marcus Shingles is a leader in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Innovation group. He works with corporate executive teams to better understand and plan for the opportunities and threats associated with radical innovation driven by the exponential pace of discovery, invention, and technology. Jonathan Trichel, principal, Deloitte Consulting LLP Jonathan Trichel is chief innovation officer in the Strategy and Operations practice, responsible for developing new products, services, processes, and business models to drive commercial growth. He is also a trusted advisor to executive teams on growing profitable customer relationships. Tech Trends 2014: Inspiring Disruption 40
  • 42. 9. Kaggle, “Predicting liability for injury from car accidents,” http://www.kaggle. com/solutions/casestudies/allstate, accessed December 19, 2013. 10. Tongal, “Project gallery,” http://tongal.com/sponsor/PringlesandStarWars, accessed January 7, 2014. 11. Kellogg’s, Pringles® and Star Wars™ reveal top seven fan-generated videos from “The Force for Fun” promotion, May 7, 2013, http://newsroom.kelloggcompany. com/2013-05-07-Pringles-And-Star-Wars-Reveal-Top-Seven-Fan-Generated- Videos-From-The-Force-For-Fun-Promotion, accessed January 7, 2014. 12. City of Chicago, Mayor Emanuel expands open data on city portal with executive order, December 10, 2012, http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/mayor/press_room/press_releases/2012/december_2012/ mayor_emanuel_expandsopendataoncityportalwithexecutiveorder.html, accessed January 7, 2014. 13. Ben Kesling, “Hackers called into civic duty,” Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2013, http://online.wsj. com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324263404578613850076916028, accessed January 7, 2014. 14. Khan Academy, “FAQ: Is Khan Academy available in other languages?” http:// khanacademy.desk.com/customer/portal/articles/329337-is-khan-academy- available-in-other-languages-, accessed January 7, 2014. 15. Peter Schworm and Matt Carroll, “Boston’s line for problems draws big following,” Boston Globe, http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/09/02/city-handling-surging-number-complaints- whether-phone-web-app/8dwlf4OPZM0ndxYbpeYAOM/story.html, accessed January 16, 2014. 16. J.J. Colao, “Can a crowdsourcing invention company become ‘the best retailer in the world?’” Forbes, May 27, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2013/05/09/can-a-crowdsourcing- invention-company-become-the-best-retailer-in-the-world/, accessed January 7, 2014. 17. Quirky, “Quirky + GE,” http://www.quirky.com/shop/quirky-ge, accessed January 7, 2014. 18. Liz Stinson, “Quirky and GE partner to conquer the Internet of Things,” Wired, November 19, 2013, http://www.wired.com/design/2013/11/how-ge-and- quirky-want-to-smarten-up-your-home/, accessed January 7, 2014. 19. Internet World Stats, “Internet users in the world: Distribution by world regions—2012 Q2,” http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm, accessed January 20, 2014. 20. Doug Gross, “Google boss: Entire world will be online by 2020,” CNN, April 15, 2013, http:// www.cnn.com/2013/04/15/tech/web/eric-schmidt-internet/, accessed January 20, 2014. 21. Tech Trends 2014 is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by Apple, Inc. 22. Peter Diamandis, How a $500K investment netted $3 billion in one year, February 13, 2013, http://www.xprize.org/blog/ceo-corner/2013/02/13/how-a-500k- investment-netted-3-billion-in-one-year, accessed January 7, 2014. 23. Deloitte Consulting LLP, Tech Trends 2013: Elements of postdigital, 2013, chapter 3. Industrialized crowdsourcing 41
  • 43.
  • 44. Digital is at the heart of business— reshaping customer interaction, rewiring how work gets done, and potentially rewriting the nature of competition in some markets. Today’s digital technologies include mobile, social, and the web, but wearables1 and the Internet of Things could dramatically expand the definition in the years ahead. The underlying intent is simple: using technology to design more compelling, personally relevant, engrossing experiences that lead to lasting, productive relationships, higher levels of satisfaction, and new sources of revenue. Driving digital engagement. First stop: Sales and marketing Tapping digital channels to advertise, market, sell, and provide customer care is far from new terrain for many companies. Early efforts have focused on coverage and consistency: Do I have a digital presence where my customers are spending time?2 Do the various channels provide consistent information, services, and brand experience? Even as some companies struggle with these foundational elements, customers expect new levels of digital engagement. Today’s markets demand intimacy and synchronization across channels—providing seamless, personalized experiences to customers who are time-, place-, and context- aware. Customers want to be able to connect via mobile, web, call centers, kiosks, and emerging technologies–and they expect the experience to pick up where the last interaction left off. Second-screening (providing synchronized, complementary content simultaneously across two channels) has gained popularity in media and entertainment, with other industries following suit. And it doesn’t stop with digital. Sometimes dubbed omnichannel, digital engagement also looks to connect the digital experience with physical interactions—in-store, on-site, and via customer and field service personnel. Digital engagement requires a commitment to content as a discipline, backed by a technical and operational backbone. This backbone enables the rapid creation, delivery, and curation of assets, personalized to the individual according to location, activity, historical behavior, and device or service. This enables personally relevant and timely interactions that are “just right” in their level of detail, utility, and privacy. For CIOs, many of the foundational moves in digital engagement may be happening outside of their direct control. Chief marketing officers and newly minted chief digital officers Digital engagement Context + content for marketing . . . and beyond Content and assets are increasingly digital—with audio, video, and interactive elements—and consumed across multiple channels, including not only mobile, social, and the web, but also in store, on location, or in the field. Whether for customers, employees, or business partners, digital engagement is about creating a consistent, compelling, and contextual way of personalizing, delivering, and sometimes even monetizing the user’s overall experience— especially as core products become augmented or replaced with digital intellectual property. Digital engagement 43