SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
Top management leadership,
employee empowerment, job
satisfaction, and customer
satisfaction in TQM organizations
Top management leadership
Find out the relationship between these variables.
Quantitative study( Questionnaire)
Treatment of top management role and empowerment conceptually as separate
Result reveal positive correlation
Survival of organizations
Searching for techniques
Objective of the study
Provide empirical assessment of relationship
between these variables
Provide empirical assessment for TQM-based
Author Year of
Bowen and Lawler 1992 Define empowerment as sharing
information with front-line employees
about organization’s performance.
Blackburn and Rosen 1993 Primary objective of employee
William and Anderson 1991 A strong relationship between job
satisfaction and performance exists only
when job satisfaction results in employee
Top management leadership and commitment are positively associated with
Employee empowerment is positively associated with job satisfaction.
Employee empowerment is positively associated with
Employee job satisfaction is positively associated with
Obtain data from organization.
Approximately 800 member.
Randomly select data.
Malcolm Baldrige award for quality achievement.
Measures and scales
The questionnaire is based on
• Strongly disagree
• Strongly agree
Measures and scales
The statement dealt with top management leadership, employee
empowerment, employee job satisfaction and customer
The feelings of powerlessness and creation of work environment
that strengthens the employee feeling self-efficacy. (conger,
Three measures of empowerment:
Decision making authority
Participation or involvement of decision making process.
Access to information and other organizational resources.
A favorable attitude or pleasurable emotional state that result from
the person’s job experience. (Wanous, Lawler 1972)
Measure of job
Promotion and career
TQM’s focus on quality product and services that meet the
Measures of customer satisfaction:
Product quality features, reliability, conformance, durability,
Customer satisfaction rating manufacturing and services
Awareness of customer problem
Willingness to employee to provide good services to customer.
Leadership and Commitment
Design questionnaires to determine the extend to which top
management is responsible for creating the climate of organization
that supports the tenets of TQM’s.
The statements referred to maintaining quality goal and culture.
Leadership, commitment, involvement, resource allocation.
800 hundreds questionnaire
300 responses were obtained
250 were usable
50 were not because they don’t answer all the questions and decline to
Business type Total number in survey Percent
Electronics 6 0.75
Transportation 30 3.76
Manufacturing 197 24.66
health 72 9.01
Computers 3 0.38
Total 308 38.56
The table shown that our population was drawn from different
employees of different industries.
The alpha values are not for separate measures but for all item used in
each scale. the alpha values are more than .7 and fall into an
Tables also show that correlations between the items are positive.
Which is what should be found
Respondents are some what satisfy with their jobs
Two areas of concerns in study:
More respondents are dissatisfied with target setting and career
More respondents are dissatisfied with promotion
Delegation of decision
making and authority
Access to job
Leadership role - .6207 .7560 .5499
Commitment - .4749 .6324 .4722
Resource allocation - .4150 .5876 .4418
Composite score .7702 - - -
This table shows the relationship between the measures of top
management leadership and commitment
Also shows the correlation between composite scores of top
management and leadership roles and empowerment.
Table 2 results
J.S summated Career
Work environment The job Participation
delegation of decision
- .4984 .5714 .4495 .4085 .6505
Employee - .4925 .6603 .4779 .4831 .7470
Leadership - .4959 .6873 .4383 .4172 .6649
Commitment - .4216 .5793 .4294 .3824 .5719
Shows top management leadership and commitment
Positive relationship with employee satisfaction
Positive correlation with employee satisfaction in terms of equitable
reward and participation
Table 3 results
Reliability - .4114 .4987 .4396 .4194 .5334 .4884 .4422 .3787
Durability - .3424 .4457 .3998 .4198 .4812 .4145 .4012 .3715
It shows the relationship between
Correlation indicates a stronger relationship between empowerment
and customer satisfaction
Table 4 results: