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BY-:Anugya Shukla
INTRODUCTION
 As the range of applications for solar energy increases, so
 does the need for improved materials and methods used to
 harness this power source. There are several factors that
 affect the efficiency of the collection process. Major
 influences on overall efficiency include solar cell efficiency,
 intensity of source radiation and storage techniques. The
 materials used in solar cell manufacturing limit the
 efficiency of a solar cell. This makes it particularly difficult
 to make considerable improvements in the performance of
 the cell Therefore, the most attainable method of
 improving the performance of solar power collection is to
 increase the mean intensity of radiation received from the
 source.
There are three major approaches for maximizing power
extraction in medium and large scale systems. They are sun
tracking, maximum power point (MPP) tracking or both.
Components Required
 The major components used in this
 project are
 •Microcontroller
 •Motor driver
 •DC Motor
 •LDR
Basic Block Diagram
                            Solar
                            panel




                           DC
LDR                        MOTOR
         MICROCONTROLLER
OBJECTIVE
 If we could configure a solar cell so that it faces the sun
  continually as it moves across the sky from east to
  west, we could get the most electrical energy possible.
 Going outside to a solar cell every hour to turn it
  toward the sun might be possible, but this would still
  not be an efficient method. A photo sensor is
  employed to control the solar cell tracking system.
TRACKING TECHNIQUES
The two general forms of tracking used are:

 Fixed control algorithms

 Dynamic tracking
FIXED CONTROL ALGORITHM
 In the fixed control algorithm systems, the path of
 the sun is determined by referencing an algorithm
 that calculates the position of the sun for each time
 period. That is, the control system does not actively
 find the sun's position but works it out given the
 current time, day, month, and year.
DYNAMIC TRACKING
  The dynamic tracking system, on the other
  hand, actively searches for the sun's position
  at any time of day (or night).Common to both
  forms of tracking is the control system. This
  system consists of some method of Direction
  control, such as DC motors, stepper motors,
  and servo motors, which are directed by a
  control circuit, either digital or analog.
LIGHT SENSOR AND MOTOR DRIVER
LIGHT SENSOR
 Light sensors are among the most common sensor
 type. The simplest optical sensor is a photoresistor
 which may be a cadmium sulfide (CdS) type or a
 gallium arsenide (GaAs)type .
The sun tracker uses a cadmium
sulfide (CdS) photocell for light
sensing. This is the least expensive
and least complex type of light
sensor . The CdS photocell is a
passive component whose
resistance is inversely proportional
to the amount of light intensity
directed toward it.                    Cds Photocell
                                       Circuit
D.C. MOTORS
 A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.
  the most common DC motor types are the brushed
  and brushless types, which use internal and external
  commutation respectively to reverse the current in the
  windings in synchronism with rotation.
 Here DC motor is used to rotate the solar panel in
  direction of sun where the sun rays fall maximum
• In this project we have used two LDR sensors.
•These sensors give analog output.
•The analog output is given to the micro
controller.
•The micro controller compares the analog
voltage and then decides upon the motion of the
motor.
•If the light on a particular LDR is greater, then
the micro controller gives the command to the
motor driver to rotate the motor in a direction
such that the both LDR receives equal light.
A Solar panel (also solar module,
photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is
a packaged, connected assembly
of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be
used as a component of a larger photovoltaic
system to generate and supply electricity in
commercial and residential applications. Each
panel is rated by its DC output power under
standard test conditions, and typically ranges
from 100 to 450 watts. The efficiency of a
panel determines the area of a panel given the
same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt
panel will have twice the area of a 16%
efficient 230 watt panel.                      SOLAR PANEL
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM
 A capacitor is employed to store the energy generated
  by a solar panel(by converting solar energy into
  electrical energy).
 Now this stored energy is can be utilize any where but
  in our project we have used to light a LED.
The portions consisted of light
detection, motor driving ,software
tracking, and software enhancements.
Building and testing smaller sections
of the system made the project more
manageable and increased efficiency
by decreasing debugging time.
POWER PLANTS
STREET LIGHT
Home application
CONCLUSION
.   A solar tracker is designed employing the new
    principle of using small solar cells to function as
    self-adjusting light sensors, providing a variable
    indication of their relative angle to the sun by
    detecting their voltage output. By using this method,
    the solar tracker was successful in maintaining a
    solar array at a sufficiently perpendicular angle to
    the sun. The power increase gained over a fixed
    horizontal array was in excess of 30%.
Future Scope
 Although there are many reasons to believe that
 the future of solar energy is bright and coming soon, the
 answer really lies in the hands of the world's citizens. In a
 world largely governed by economics and politics, what
 ordinary citizens choose to buy and support will dictate
 the trends of the future. By installing solar panels,
 donating to research organizations involved in alternative
 energies, majoring in science or engineering, and voting
 for measures that give money to alternate energy
 development, anyone can influence
 the future of solar energy.
Any Questions
Anugyashukla

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Anugyashukla

  • 2. INTRODUCTION As the range of applications for solar energy increases, so does the need for improved materials and methods used to harness this power source. There are several factors that affect the efficiency of the collection process. Major influences on overall efficiency include solar cell efficiency, intensity of source radiation and storage techniques. The materials used in solar cell manufacturing limit the efficiency of a solar cell. This makes it particularly difficult to make considerable improvements in the performance of the cell Therefore, the most attainable method of improving the performance of solar power collection is to increase the mean intensity of radiation received from the source.
  • 3. There are three major approaches for maximizing power extraction in medium and large scale systems. They are sun tracking, maximum power point (MPP) tracking or both.
  • 4. Components Required The major components used in this project are •Microcontroller •Motor driver •DC Motor •LDR
  • 5. Basic Block Diagram Solar panel DC LDR MOTOR MICROCONTROLLER
  • 6. OBJECTIVE  If we could configure a solar cell so that it faces the sun continually as it moves across the sky from east to west, we could get the most electrical energy possible.  Going outside to a solar cell every hour to turn it toward the sun might be possible, but this would still not be an efficient method. A photo sensor is employed to control the solar cell tracking system.
  • 7. TRACKING TECHNIQUES The two general forms of tracking used are:  Fixed control algorithms  Dynamic tracking
  • 8. FIXED CONTROL ALGORITHM In the fixed control algorithm systems, the path of the sun is determined by referencing an algorithm that calculates the position of the sun for each time period. That is, the control system does not actively find the sun's position but works it out given the current time, day, month, and year.
  • 9. DYNAMIC TRACKING The dynamic tracking system, on the other hand, actively searches for the sun's position at any time of day (or night).Common to both forms of tracking is the control system. This system consists of some method of Direction control, such as DC motors, stepper motors, and servo motors, which are directed by a control circuit, either digital or analog.
  • 10. LIGHT SENSOR AND MOTOR DRIVER
  • 11. LIGHT SENSOR  Light sensors are among the most common sensor type. The simplest optical sensor is a photoresistor which may be a cadmium sulfide (CdS) type or a gallium arsenide (GaAs)type .
  • 12. The sun tracker uses a cadmium sulfide (CdS) photocell for light sensing. This is the least expensive and least complex type of light sensor . The CdS photocell is a passive component whose resistance is inversely proportional to the amount of light intensity directed toward it. Cds Photocell Circuit
  • 13. D.C. MOTORS  A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to reverse the current in the windings in synchronism with rotation.  Here DC motor is used to rotate the solar panel in direction of sun where the sun rays fall maximum
  • 14.
  • 15. • In this project we have used two LDR sensors. •These sensors give analog output. •The analog output is given to the micro controller. •The micro controller compares the analog voltage and then decides upon the motion of the motor. •If the light on a particular LDR is greater, then the micro controller gives the command to the motor driver to rotate the motor in a direction such that the both LDR receives equal light.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. A Solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 450 watts. The efficiency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt panel. SOLAR PANEL
  • 19. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM  A capacitor is employed to store the energy generated by a solar panel(by converting solar energy into electrical energy).  Now this stored energy is can be utilize any where but in our project we have used to light a LED.
  • 20.
  • 21. The portions consisted of light detection, motor driving ,software tracking, and software enhancements. Building and testing smaller sections of the system made the project more manageable and increased efficiency by decreasing debugging time.
  • 22.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. CONCLUSION . A solar tracker is designed employing the new principle of using small solar cells to function as self-adjusting light sensors, providing a variable indication of their relative angle to the sun by detecting their voltage output. By using this method, the solar tracker was successful in maintaining a solar array at a sufficiently perpendicular angle to the sun. The power increase gained over a fixed horizontal array was in excess of 30%.
  • 29. Future Scope Although there are many reasons to believe that the future of solar energy is bright and coming soon, the answer really lies in the hands of the world's citizens. In a world largely governed by economics and politics, what ordinary citizens choose to buy and support will dictate the trends of the future. By installing solar panels, donating to research organizations involved in alternative energies, majoring in science or engineering, and voting for measures that give money to alternate energy development, anyone can influence the future of solar energy.