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algae classification
algae classification
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Algae

  1. 1. Algae Procaryotic, eucaryotic, photosynthetic micro and macro organism Unicellular, microscopic and macroscopic
  2. 2. Algae
  3. 3. Sea weeds
  4. 4. Biological and Economic importance of Algae 1. Primary produce- • most are aquatic • Floating phytoplankton- food for aquatic life 2. Commercial products- a. agar- well known solidifying agent used in microbiology laboratory • Obtained from red algae (marine)-Geledium and Gracilaria • Used in food industries for making pudding, processed cheese, mayonnaise, jellies
  5. 5. Biological and Economic importance of Algae • Used as a carrier for drug in pharmaceutical industry • Lotion and creams also contain agar b. Alginic acid and its salt obtained fron brown algae, eg. Macrocystis, Agarum • Alginates- added in ice creams for smooth consistency • Also in cheese and bakery products • Paper manufacturing • Printing of fabrics, paint thickening
  6. 6. Biological and Economic importance of Algae c. Carrageenan- polymer of galactose with sulfate group Extracted from red algae- Chondrus Used as a stabiliser or emulsifier in icecream and other milk products Used as a thickening agent in shaving creams, lotion and in the soap Useful in textile and paper industries d. Diatomaceous earth- composed of millions of diatoms
  7. 7. Biological and Economic importance of Algae • Used in filters, non reactive chemically • Finely divided- one gram is having 120sq mt surface area • Also used for polishing delicate surface area 3. Algae as food- Porphyra used in Japan(called nori served with fish) (red algae)
  8. 8. Chondrus
  9. 9. Palmeta
  10. 10. Gracilaria-red algae (china)
  11. 11. Chlorella
  12. 12. Advantages of algal food • Rich source of proteins with all amino acids essential for growth • Good source of carbohydrate and fats as well • Can be grown on waste materials
  13. 13. Algae and diseases • Prototheca-1.human skin infection • 2. bursitis- joint pain
  14. 14. Cephaleuros- plant pathogen
  15. 15. Characteristics of Algae • Morphology- wide range • Spherical, rod shaped, club shaped, spindle shaped(single celled sp) • Multicellular – complex, group of same cells or different cells (may resemble higher plants) • Cell wall- thin and rigid. • Diatoms have silica and therefore thick and very rigid. • The motile algae have flexible cm called periplast • Some have an outer matrix secreted through cw
  16. 16. Unicellular algae
  17. 17. Algal pigments • Chlorophyll-a,b,c,d,e, • a is present in all
  18. 18. Carotenoid • Carotene- unsaturated hydrocarbon • Xanthophyll- oxygenated derivative
  19. 19. Biloprotein (phycobilin) • Water soluble pigment- phycocyanin and phycoerythrin
  20. 20. Motility • Motile algae- swimming algae • Flagella-in pairs, clusters • Types- whiplash (cylindrical and smooth), tinsel (cylindrical and hair like), ribbon or strap like • Some don’t have means of motility • Carried about by currents, tides, waves • Some spores are motile- zoospore • Other structures- eye spot, knob like structure, gelatinous stalk
  21. 21. classification • Based on- • Nature and properties of pigments • Chemistry of reserve food material • Types or number of flagella, morphology and insertion • Life history, reproductive structures, and methods of reproduction • Eg. Geledium • Very useful commercially
  22. 22. Rhodophycophyta • Chlorophyll a, b and phycoerythrin • Cell wall- cellulose • Reserve food- starch • Red algae • Marine forms • Asexual reproduction- non motile spore • Sexual reproduction- heterogamous • (spermatia and carpogonia)
  23. 23. Xanthophycophyta(yellow-green algae)
  24. 24. • Chlorophyll a, c rarely e • Found in temperate environment(fresh water and marine), also in soil • Occur as single cell, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments • Flagella of unequal length • Zoospores • Asexual reproduction by cell division and fragmentation • Sexual reproduction rare • Cell wall- cellulose, pectin • Reserve food material- chrysolaminarin(branched glucan), oil • Eg Vaucheria
  25. 25. Chrysophycophyta- golden algae • Chlorophyll a and c • Beta carotene and fucoxanthin • Predominantly flagellate • Some have pseudopodia • Some are non-motile • Most forms are unicellular and form colonies • Reserve food material- chrysolaminarin(branched glucan), oil • Eg. Ochromonas
  26. 26. Phaeophycophyta- brown algae • Chlorophyll a and c • Multicellular, brown pigment • Found in marine environment • Quite complex(some have several feet height) • Eg brown sea weed • Have holdfast and air bladder (give buoyancy) • Asexual reproduction- zoospore • Sexual reproduction- isogamous and heterogamous • Commercial uses-food, source of iodine and mineral salt • Eg. Sargasso
  27. 27. Sea of Sargasso
  28. 28. Bacillariophycophyta-the Diatoms • Chlorophyll a and c • Found in fresh water, salt water, soil • Abundant in cold water • Plentiful form of plankton in Arctic • Wide range of shape • Unicellular, colonial and filamentous forms • Produce shell (CW) containing silica • These shells over the period give rise to diatomaceous earth, commercially very important
  29. 29. Euglenophycophyta-euglenoid • Chlorophyll a and b • Unicellular, actively motile • Interesting example is Euglena (animal as well as plant features) • Photosynthetic and contractile vacuole • No cell wall, having periplast • Anterior gullet and red eyespot • Reproduction by binary fission • Dormant cyst like structure is produced • Paramylon, oils as reserve material
  30. 30. Chlorophycophyta- green algae • Chlorophyll a and b • Freshwater • Some in marine and terrestrial environment • One chloroplast per cell, laminate, cup shaped and reticulate • Chloroplast has pyrenoid- a site of starch synthesis • Single celled and colonial forms • Some has holdfast for attachment • Produce zoospore • Binary fission and isogamous, heterogamous reproduction
  31. 31. chlamydomonas
  32. 32. spirogyra
  33. 33. volvox
  34. 34. Cryptophycophyta • Chlorophyll a and c • Biflagellate organisms, two unequal flagella, tinsel type • Cells slipper shaped • Some have only plasmalemma • One or two plastids with or without pyrenoid • Reproduction by binary fission, zoospore and cyst • Sexual reproduction is seen in some
  35. 35. Cryptomonas
  36. 36. Pyrrophycophyta- the Dinoflagellate • Chlorophyll a and c • Plant and animal like features • Flagella are in girdle, one flagellum is encircling and one trailing • Plasmalemma and some have cellulose plates in plasmalemma (thecal plate) • Can produce red pigment, Gonyaulax (red tide) • Simple cell division and occasionally sexual reproduction
  37. 37. group chlorophyll carotenoid biloprotein Storage products Rhodophycophyta Red algae a, rarely d Beta carotene Zea xanthin Alpha carotene Phycoerythrin phycocyanin Starch, oil Xanthophycophyta Yellow- green algae a, c, rarely e Beta carotene Diadinoxanthin Heteroxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Chrysophycophyta Golden algae a, c Beta carotene fucoxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Phaeophycophyta Brown algae a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene fucoxanthin laminarin, oils, carbohydrate Bacillariophycophyta Diatoms a, c Beta carotene Alpha carotene fucoxanthin Chrysolaminarin, oils Euglenophycophyta Euglenoid a, b Beta carotene Alpha carotene Diadinoxanthin Paramylon, oils
  38. 38. group chlorophyll carotenoid biloprotein Storage products chlorophycophyta Green algae a, b Beta carotene Alpha carotene lycopene Starch, oil Cryptophycophyta Cryptomonad a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene alloxanthin Phycoerythrin phycocyanin Starch, oil Pyrrophycophyta dinoflagellate a,c Beta carotene Alpha carotene Peridenin Starch, oil

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