secondary data primary data biostatistics polyploidy aneuploidy histones tubules vesicles cisternae pbr 322 somatic embryogenesis biotechnology ammonification agrobacterium mediated gene transfer microprojectiles shot gun method electroporation polyethylene glycol isolation macroalgae transduction demerits of sampling merits of sampling convenience sampling chunk sampling quota sampling judgement sampling cluster sampling systematic sampling stratified sampling table of random numbers lottery method random sampling probability sampling methods of sampling census method sampling techniques collection of data statistical symbols population parameters sample statistics variate continuous variables discrete variables quantitative variables qualitative variables variable sample population frequency of crossing-over multiple crossing-over double crossing-over single crossing-over crossover hotspots obligate crossover mitotic crossing-over significance of crossing-over coincidence crossover interference types of crossing-over significance of linkage coupling and repulsion theory lathyrus odoratus sweet pea linkage and crossing-over 1:6:15:20:15:6:1 1:4:6:4:1 ear size (cob length) in maize kernel colour in wheat contributing alleles pigment contributing alleles cumulative discontinuous variation continuous variations metric traits multiple factors multiple factor hypothesis multiple factor inheritance quantitative traits qualitative traits quantitative inheritance universal recipients universal donors o blood type ab blood type b blood type a blood type adriano sturli alfred von decastello blood transfusions agglutinins plasma rbcs red blood corpuscles agglutinogens antibodies antigens karl landsteiner self sterility in nicotiana abo blood group system in man multiple alleles epistasis walnut single comb pea comb rose comb comb pattern in poultry roan coat colour in shorthorn breed of cattle ab blood group mn blood group antirrhinum majus snapdragon incomplete dominance in four o'clock plant mirabi co-dominance semi-dominance partial dominance incomplete dominance complete dominance non-allelic gene interactions allelic gene interactions gene interactions back cross second law of mendel first law of mendel law of independent assortment law of purity of gametes principle of segregation law of segregation phenotypic ratio round yellow x wrinkled green tall x dwarf dihybrid cross monohybrid cross mendel's method of study advantages of garden pea as the experimental mate father of genetics gregor mendel variation heridity mendelism genetics hawaiian night rat pollination by black and white ruffed lemur pollination by honey possum chiropterophily malacophily aristolochia pit fall mechanism in fig ficus carica ornithophily lever mechanism in salvia yucca flowers and the moth pronuba yucca-sella sphecophily cantharophily phalenophily psychophily myophily melittophily entomophily zoophily pollination agencies of pollination urate oxidase gluconeogenesis glyoxylate cycle glylcolate oxidase malate synthase isocitrate lyase hydrogen peroxide metabolism hydrogen peroxide detoxification catalase beta oxidation photorespiration glyoxisomes peroxisomes microbodies microbody cell sap tonoplast vacuoles suicidal bags functions of lysosomes acid hydrolases lysosomes functions of golgi apparatus dictyosomes golgi bodies golgi complex golgi apparatus cord blood stem cell banking umbilical cord blood blood stem cells dental stem cells mscs mesenchymal stem cells adipose tissue bone marrow adult stem cells amniotic fluid stem cells hescs human embryonic stem cells blastocyst embryonic stem cells unipotent multipotent pluripotent totipotent stem cells gene mutations chromosomal mutations acridine dyes ethyl methane sulphonate hydroxyl amine nitrous acid alkylating agents base analogues nonionising radiation ionising radiations chemical mutagens physical mutagens induced mutations spontaneous mutations germline mutations somatic mutation types of mutations mutations deletion edwards syndrome trisomy 18 patau syndrome trisomy 13 down syndrome trisomy 21 trisomy nullisomy monosomy hypoploidy hyperploidy ophioglossum reticulatum highest chromosome number haploidy euploidy heteroploidy changes in number and structure of chromosomes significance of meiosis significance of mitosis crossing over synaptonemal complex synapsis bivalent diakinesis diplotene pachytene zygotene leptotene meiosis cytokinesis telophase anaphase metaphase prophase mitosis interphase cell cycle bands and interbands chromosome puffs balbiani rings b chromosomes giant chromosomes salivary gland chromosomes polytene chromosomes special types of chromosomes linker dna solenoid nucleosomes histone octamer nucleosome model folded fibre model dupraw omdel chromosome models holocentric chromosomes diffuse centromere nucleoproteins chromatin non-histone proteins c-value paradox c- value chemical organization of nucleosome dna ideogram karyotype sat chromosomes satellites telomere secondary constriction types of chromosomes based on shape acentric and dicentric chromosomes chromosome morphology chromosomes site of protein synthesis eukaryotic ribosomes prokaryotic ribosomes ribosomes -functions ribosome - ultrastructure 80s ribosomes 70 s ribosomes ribosomes chloroplast functions stroma stroma lamellae frets elaioplast proteinoplast amyloplasts quantasomes grana thylakoid ultrastructure of chloroplast leucoplast chromoplast chloroplast plastids mitochondria - functions mitochondria-ultrastructure f0-f1 atpase f1 particles oxysomes cristae mitochondria types of endoplasmic reticulum functions of endoplasmic reticulum granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum rough endoplasmic reticulum ser rer er endoplasmic reticulum functions of cell wall cutin suberin pectin hemicellulose macrofibrils microfibrils micelle celluluse middle lamella secondary wall primary wall cellwall exocytosis endocytosis functions of plasma membrane integral proteins peripheral proteins intrinsic proteins extrinsic proteins singer and nicholson robertson 1960 unit membrane model plasma membrane cell membrane bacterial cell plant cell eukaryotic cell prokaryotic cell cell girdle view valve view jewels of the plant kingdom pinnularia parthenogenesis costae striae centrales pennales auxospores hypotheca epitheca frustule diatoms bacillariophyta bacillariophyceae heteromorphic alternation of generations sargasso sea life cycle of sargassum reproduction in sargassum of generations isomorphic alternation alternation of generations physiological anisogamy oogamy anisogamy isogamy ectocarpus plurilocular sporangia unilocular sporangia laminarin and mannitol fucoxanthin photosynthetic pigments in brown algae thallus organization in brown algae brown algae general characters of phaeophyceae life cycle haplontic gongrosira stage hypnospores akinets aplanospores zoospores asexual reproduction vegetative reproduction vaucheria yellow green algae xanthophyceae plant made pharmaceuticals biopharming molecular farming applications of monoclonal antibodies hybridoma technique production of monoclonal antibodies germ line gene therapy scid somatic cell gene therapy gene therapy production of human growth hormone production of human insulin applications of biotechnology in medicine disputed parentage dna profile limitations of dna fingerprinting applications of dna fingerprinting vntrs variable number tandem repeats dna fingerprinting homopolymer tailing blunt end ligation sticky end ligation ligation techniques specialized transduction generalized transduction microinjection microprojectile bombardment particle gun method poly ethylene glycol mediated gene transfer direct gene transfer technique gene transfer techniques southern blotting blotting applications of pcr pcr polymerase chain reaction kary mullis recombinant selection replica plating biotechnology transformation dna ligases blunt ends sticky ends recognition sequences types of restriction endonucleases restriction endonucleases colour test for selection of transformed cells shuttle vectors tiplasmid puc 119 phagemid vectors puc 118 phagemid vectors cosmid vector pjb 8 cosmid vector c2rb cosmids bacteriophage based vectors plasmids cloning vectors applications of cell immobilization advantages of cell immobilization immobilization of yeast cells cell immobilization dna clones slow growth cultures cryoprotectant freeze preservation cryopreservation in vitro preservation of germplasm haploid plants applications of anther & pollen cultures androgenesis pollen culture anther culture in vitro production of haploid uses of cybrids cytoplasmic hybrids cybrids somatic hybrid fusogens somatic cell hybridization protoplast isolation protoplast in vitro secondary metabolite production in vitro mutagenesis embryo culture synthetic seeds artificial seeds meristem culture applications of plant tissue culture applications of somaclonal variations types of somaclonal variations causes of somaclonal variation somaclonal variation disadvantages of micropropagation advantages of micropropagation hardening direct and indirect organogenesis proliferation of axillary buds micropropagation steps in plant tissue culture technique laminar air flow cabinet autoclave filtration hot air oven aseptic techniques in tissue culture growth regulators m s medium tissue culture medium callus explant totipotency plant tissue culture rice "payasam" preparation of paneer paneer sauce - mayonnaise fruit syrup flavoured syrup simple syrup syrup jam - pineapple lemon pickle pickle - mango agribusiness - value added food products vermiwash disadvantages of vermicomposting advantages of vermicomposting disadvantages of composting advantages of composting earthworms vermicompost compost anaerobic composting aerobic composting cow dung fym farmyard manure poultry wastes bone meal common organic manures organic farming wine types preparation of wine anti-sprouting chemicals modified atmosphere packaging cold sterilization pasteurization canning chemical preservatives food preservation techniques rancidity blanching use of chemical preservatives maintenance of anaerobic conditions drying asepsis principles of food preservation spoilage by food's on chemical properties. spoilage by storage conditions spoilage by insects spoilage by enzymes food spoilage by bacteria food spoilage by yeasts food spoilage by moulds non-perishable food semiperishable food perishable food causes of food spoilage guide for mixing fertilizer mixtures types of mixed fertilizer preparation of fertilizer mixtures potassium deficiency symptoms phosphorous deficiency symptoms nitrogen deficiency symptoms npk content of fertilizers mixed fertilizer compound fertilizers potassic fertilizers phosphatic fertilizers nitrogen fertilizers types of fertilizers fertilizers budding grafting layering cutting horticultural practices hardening of seedlings transplanting of seedlings aftercare of seedlings tetracycline chloramphenicol antibiotic production streptomycin broadspectrum antibiotic narrow spectrum antibiotic penicillium streptomyces alexander fleming antibiotics microbes fungal diseases fungi-mycorrhizha fungi as biocontrol agents fungi in agriculture ergot alkaloids fungi in medicine fungi and pigment production fungi antibiotics fungi in industry fungi as single cell protein edible fungi harmful aspects of fungi beneficial aspects of fungi economic importance of fungi vermicomposting aerobic and anaerobic composting composting sanitary land filling role of microbes in reconversion of wastes production of vinegar curd single cell protein trichoderma biofertilizers denitrification nitrification nitrogen fixation diazotrophs role of microbes in nitrogen cycle applied microbiology lysogenic life cycle lytic life cycle ultrastructure of t4bacteriophage structure of hiv structure of tmv dna virus rna virus structure of virus shapes of virus virus denitrifying bacteria. biowar agents super bug genetically engineered bacteria harmful aspects of bacteria bacterial diseases bt crops probioticts fermented foods bacteria in food production biofertilizer nitrifying bacteria bacteria and soil fertility beneficial aspects of bacteria economic importance of bacteria cell structure of mycoplasma mycoplasma thermoacidophiles halophiles methanogens types of archaebacteria archaebacteria carposporophyte carpospore tetrasporophyte tetrasp cystocarp gonimoblast filaments zygote carpogonial filament supporting cell auxilliary cell carpogonium spermatia spermatangium female gametophyte male gametophyte trichoblast thallus pigments cell structure habitat habit general characters rhodophyceae culture medium harvest culture collection microalgae rose carnation genetically modified chrysanthemum transgenic crops edible vaccines golden rice flavr-savr tomato rdna techniques genetically modified crops herbarium lugol's iodine preservation micro algae scope biogenesis abiogenesis koch postulates robert koch louis pasteur redi leeuwenhoek microbiology transformation endospores conjugation binary fission reproduction plasmid oxygen requirement nutrition ultrastructure shape size bacteria
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