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OECD EUIPO Trade in Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Products

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Presentation of key findings from the OECD EUIPO report "Trade in Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Products". For further details see https://oe.cd/pharmatrade

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OECD EUIPO Trade in Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Products

  1. 1. Trade in counterfeit pharmaceutical products OECD / EUIPO
  2. 2. OECD – EUIPO evidence Factual, neutral, objective Deep dives into mechanics of trade in fakes
  3. 3. Findings so far: • Scale of illicit trade in fakes is massive. • Fake goods originate from virtually all economies on all continents. • Modern logistical solutions are misused: Free Trade Zones, small parcels, etc. • Virtually every trademark-protected good can be faked. • Effects are damaging: lost jobs, lost profits, foregone taxes
  4. 4. Question? How about fake pharmaceuticals? • What types of medicines are targeted? • What is the scale? Trade routes? • What are the modes of operation by criminals? Mapping of key trade routes. • How about health risks?
  5. 5. Data Main dataset: Customs Data Detailed descriptions of seizures of fake medicines (globally). From: Customs administrations (WCO, DG Taxud of the EC, US DHS CBP). Additional dataset: Other enforcement data Cases of fraudulent manufacture, mislabeling of drugs and fraudulent packaging. From: Enforcement actions carried out by all kinds of enforcement agencies, such as police, health inspection service, customs, etc.
  6. 6. Findings Markets for fake pharmaceuticals are very attractive for criminals: • high profit margins • low risks of detection and prosecution, • weak penalties, • ease of consumer deception.
  7. 7. Magnitude • Between 2014 and 2016 pharmaceuticals were the 10th most counterfeited type of product in international trade. • In 2016, international trade in counterfeit pharmaceuticals reached USD 4.4 billion this does not include fake medicines manufactured and consumed domestically.
  8. 8. Fake medicines… Over the period 2014-2016, seized counterfeits included medicaments for various kinds of diseases, including: malaria, HIV/AIDS and cancer. A review of the customs data shows that antibiotics, lifestyle drugs and painkillers were the most targeted by counterfeiters in international trade.
  9. 9. Global scale • The scale of trade in fake medicines is global. Trade routes are complex, and region / product specific. • India and China are the primary producers of fake medicines. The United Arab Emirates, Singapore and Hong Kong (China) are the key transit economies. • Main targets: African countries, Europe and the United States.
  10. 10. Misuse of modern solutions Some Free Trade Zones – as points of transit, distribution and repackaging. Container maritime transport (African countries)
  11. 11. Misuse of modern solutions Growing role of the internet: easy point of entry into even the best regulated markets. Great extent of misuse of small parcels (postal and express), especially to Europe and the US.
  12. 12. Many areas of negative effects Health and safety, including costs of treating patients who have suffered adverse health consequences as a result of consuming counterfeit medicines. Environmental pollution Loss of sales and damage to the reputations of legitimate producers. Additional costs and lost tex revenues to governments and economies.
  13. 13. http://euipo.europa.eu http://oe.cd/pharmatrade Nathan.Wajsman@Euipo.Europa.eu Piotr.Stryszowski@oecd.org