a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors
where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from
4. Harbor or harbour
a part of a body of water along the shore deep enough for anchoring a
ship and so situated with respect to coastal features, whether natural
or artificial, as to provide protection from winds, waves, and currents.
5. TYPES OF PORTS
• Inland port
An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river (fluvial port), or
canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail
from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo. An example of
this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic
Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-
Superior and Chicago
6. TYPES OF PORTS
• Fishing port
A fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish. It
may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is
the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may
cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. In recent decades, regulations to
save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, perhaps effectively
closing it. Sample: Navotas Fish ports
7. TYPES OF PORTS
• Dry port
A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal
directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and
operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea
cargo to inland destinations.
8. TYPES OF PORTS
A seaport is a facility which can accommodate ships
which go out to sea. Seaports can be found in natural and
artificial harbors along many coastlines in the world, and they
have a variety of fixtures including cranes to help ships handle
cargo, and docks for ships to attach to.
9. TYPES OF PORTS
• Cruise Home Port
A cruise home port is the port where cruise-ship passengers board
(or embark) to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of
their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the
cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits,
vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise.
Sample: Tianjin International Cruise Home Port,
14. Harbor vs Ports
• Harbor can be a man-made or
a natural feature connecting a
piece of land with a large
water body that is mainly used
to provide shelter to ships and
vessels from bad weather.
Harbors are used for safe
anchorage of ships. Natural
harbors are surrounded by
land on most sides but have an
entrance point to the sea.
• Ports are commercial places
along the coastline that are
used for import and export
of goods and cargo from
one country to another.
• Ports are mostly man made
and are bigger and have
16. • “Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of
coastal defense or to protect an anchorage from the effects
of both weather and long shore drift.”
• “ A structure protecting a shore area, harbor, anchorage or
basin from wave disturbance.”
• “A barrier that breaks the force of waves, as before a
17. • “Built to provide shelter from waves to manipulate the
littoral/sand transport conditions and thereby to trap some
sand entrance inside the Anchorage Area”
• “Built to reduce beach erosion”.
• “It is designed to block the waves and the surf. Some
breakwaters are below the water's surface (a submerged
• “Usually built to provide calm waters for harbors and artificial
19. - breakwaters without any constructed connection to the shore.
This type of system detached breakwaters are constructed away
from the shoreline, usually a slight distance offshore .they are
designed to promote beach deposition on their leeside
appropriate in areas of large sediment transport.
20. - a series of breakwaters constructed in an
“Attached” fashion to the shoreline & angled in the
direction of predominant waves -the shoreline
behind the structures evolves into a natural
“crenulate” or log spiral embayment.
21. -Nearshore breakwaters are detached, generally
• structures that reduce the amount of wave energy reaching a protected area.
They are similar to natural bars, reefs or nearshore islands that dissipate wave
22. RUBBLE MOUND breakwater
• Rubble mounds are frequently used structures which consists of
armor layer, a filter layer & core.
• It is a structure, built up of core of quarry run rock overlain by one or
two layers of large rocks. Armor stone or precast elements are used
for outer armor layer to protect the structure against wave attack.
Crown wall is constructed on top of mound to prevent or to reduce
Layout of rubble mound breakwater
23. RUBBLE MOUND breakwater
• “These type of breakwaters dissipate the incident wave
energy by forcing them to break on a slope and thus do not
produce appreciable reflection.”
24. VERTICAL BREAKWATER
• A breakwater formed by the construction in a regular and
systematic manner of a vertical wall of masonry concrete blocks
or mass concrete, with vertical and seaward face.
• Reflect the incident waves without dissipating much wave energy.
• Wave protection in port/channel
• Protection from siltation, currents
• Tsunami protection
• Normally it is constructed in locations where the depth of the sea
is greater than twice the design wave height.
26. • Structures erected on the margin of Navigable
Waters where vessels can stop to load and unload
• A platform built out from the shore into the
water and supported by piles; provides access to
ships and boats.
• A structure or platform of timber, masonry, iron,
earth, or other material, built on the shore of a
harbor, river, canal, or the like, and usually
extending from the shore to deep water, so that
vessels may lie close alongside to receive and
discharge cargo, passengers, etc.
27. • A Wharf is a man-made structure on a river or by the
sea, which provides an area for ships to safely dock.
Some are very intricate, with multiple types of berth
over a large area, and navigable channels, and others
are more straightforward. A Wharf can contain quays
and piers and will normally have buildings within it to
service the ships. Because of their abundance of
unusual buildings and ready-made water features,
unused wharfs are often converted into expensive
retail and housing areas.
29. There are public and private wharves. Public
wharves, which can be used with or without paying a
fee, ordinarily belong to a government organization,
such as a city or town. Private wharves are owned or
leased by individuals for their own private use. Such
a wharf may be opened to the public in exchange for
a one-time payment or a rental fee. If the public is
allowed to use the private wharf, it becomes a quasi-
public facility that is open to all who are able to pay
the charges. Whether a particular wharf is public or
private depends mainly on its use, rather than on its
30. Several terms peculiar to wharves:
Wharfage - in its most general sense refers to
the use of a wharf in the usual course of
navigation for such practices as loading and
unloading goods and passengers.
Wharfinger - is an individual who maintains a
wharf for the purposes of receiving goods for
Dock - refers to an enclosure for the reception of
vessels as well as a place where ships are built
37. • A pier is a raised structure typically supported by well-
spaced piles or pillars. Bridges, buildings,
and walkways may all be supported by piers. Their open
structure allows tides and currents to flow relatively
unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of
a quay or the closely spaced piles of a wharf can act as
a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to
39. WORKING PIER
• Working piers were built for the handling of
passengers and cargo onto and off ships or
40. PLEASURE PIER
• Providing a walkway out to sea, pleasure piers often include
amusements and theatres as part of the attraction. Such a pier
may be open air, closed, or partly open, partly closed.
Sometimes a pier has two decks.
43. Docks are enclosed areas for berthing the ships to keep
them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading and
A dock is a marine structure for berthing of vessels for
loading and unloading cargo and passengers.
45. • Dry docks
The docks used for repairs of ships
are known as dry docks.
• Wet docks
Docks required for berthing of
ships or vessels to facilitate the loading
and unloading of passengers and cargo
are called wet docks. These are also
known as harbor docks.
48. Shape of docks and Basins
Shape of dock or basin should be
straight to facilitate the ships to stand
The following are the shapes may be
adopted as per site conditions:
Inclined Quay type
49. Rectangular dock:
The length and breadth should be
adjusted in such a way as to give maximum
For the same perpendicular distance
between long sides, the long side could be
Inclined Quay dock:
It consists of a number of projecting
quays into the dock or basin.
50. Classification of Dry docks:
Dry docks are classified in the following five
Graving or dry docks.
Floating dry dock.
Marine railway dock.
Ship lift dry docks.
51. • Dry or graving dock:
A dry dock is also known as graving dock. It
is long excavated chamber, having side walls, a
semi circular end wall and a floor. The open
end of the chamber is provided with a gate
and acts as the entrance to the dock.
Floating dry dock:
It may be defined as a floating vessel, which
can lift ship out of water and retain it above
water by means of its own buoyancy. It is a
hollow structure made of steel or R.C.C
consisting of two walls and a floor with the
54. Marine railway dock:
The marine railway or slip dock or slip
way is an inclined railway extending from
the shore well into the water as the off
there. This railway track is used to draw out
a ship needing repair out of the water.
56. • Lift dry dock:
This is a constructed platform capable of
being lowered into and raised from water.
Lowering and raising is achieved by means of
hydraulic power applied through cylinders
supporting the ends of cross girders carrying
As the name suggests, in the ship lift,
the ships are lifted bodily out of water. The
ship lifts may be either electric, hydraulic.
These lifts are used for launching as well as for
dry docking the ships.
61. STORAGE FACILITIES
“The performance requirement for the storage facilities shall be such that the storage facilities
satisfy the requirement specified by the Minister of Land, Infrastructures, Transport and tourism
so to enable the safe and appropriate storage of cargo in consideration of geotechnical
characteristic, meteorological, sea states and or other environmental condition as well as the
conditions of cargo handling.”
• A storage facility is a place or shelter where any kind of shipped goods are placed in
intermediate storage along a shipping route, usually at a point of transfer such as an air, rail,
trucking, or shipping cargo terminal.
63. CARGO SORTING FACILITIES
“The performance requirement for cargo sorting facilities shall be such that the
facilities have stability against self weight, waves, earthquake ground motions,
impose load, wind and/or other actions.”
65. FACILITIES FOR SHIP SERVICES
“The facilities shall installed at appropriate locations, corresponding to the condition
of use by ships. The facilities shall have structure which is capable of preventing
water pollution and the water hydrants shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.”
67. MOVABLE PASSENGER BOARDING
“The performance requirement of the fixed and movable passenger boarding facilities shall be
as specified in the subsequent items for the safe and smooth embarkation and disembarkation
of passengers. Damage due to self weight, ground motions, imposed load, winds or other
actions shall not adversely affect the continued use of the fixed or movable passenger boarding
facilities and not impair their functions .”