Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×

Hasani Ahamad Said at. all. - The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X.pdf

Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige
Anzeige

Hier ansehen

1 von 6 Anzeige

Hasani Ahamad Said at. all. - The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X.pdf

Herunterladen, um offline zu lesen

The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X

The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X

Anzeige
Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Ähnlich wie Hasani Ahamad Said at. all. - The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X.pdf (20)

Weitere von HASANI AHMAD SAID (20)

Anzeige

Hasani Ahamad Said at. all. - The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars - Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020, ISSN 1943-023X.pdf

  1. 1. Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020 3280 DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12I2/S20201450 *Corresponding Author: Hasani Ahmad Said , Email: hasaniahmadsaid@uinjkt.ac.id Article History: Received: Jan 12, 2020, Accepted: Mar 15, 2020 The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars Hasani Ahmad Said1 , Muhamad Zen2 , Sunandar3 , Syahrullah4 , Sihabudin Noor5 1 Faculty of Ushuluddin, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. 2 Faculty of Da’wah and Communication Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. 3 Faculty of Da’wah and Communication Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. 4 Faculty of Ushuluddin, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. 5 Faculty of Da’wah and Communication Sciences, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia. Abstract-Digital Al-Qur'an is one of the responses from technological developments that have many benefits for human needs, especially for Muslims. This digital version of the Koran is at the same time advancing the services of the needs of Muslims in modern times. The main objective of this study was to understand the responses and views of Indonesian muslim scientists and practitioners of the digital version of the Al-Qoran. To get the data needed, a series of semi-structural interviews, field observation as well as literature documentation were conducted with a number of Indonesian Islamic scholars. The results of this study indicated there are two perceptions about the digital version of the Qur'an. The first perception is that the digital version of the Koran makes it easier to read and study practically in accordance with the demands of an age where more and more scientists are using digital tools. The second perception is the digital version of the Koran has many advantages, but on the other hand, it also has many shortcomings such as digital version of the Koran technology which is increasingly used in the field freely, without any legalized by muslim authority for its validity and acuracy. This what make the digital version of the Koran both individuals and institutions pass from state surveillance especially in content and its features. So that the digital version of the Koran is very vulnerable to misuse, not to mention the capacity of science and digital devices that are not qualified according to the scientific principles of the Qur'an. Keywords: Technological Development , Muslim Indonesian, Scholars Views, Digital Versions of the Qur'an Introduction Al-Qur'an is a guide for Muslims who were first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad as well as the last Prophet (Von Denffer, 2015; Hashi, 2011). The Qur'an was revealed not all at once but gradually in order to answer the problems of the people at that time. The first verse revealed is the command to read, this gives an understanding that humans must continue to learn and master science, including science and technology. Technology that develops along with changes experienced by humans, so Toffler (1970), as an observer of the future provides justification about technological changes that change the lives of so many people in such a short time. To map changes in society, Toffler (1980) illustrated that changes in society underwent three periods, namely the agricultural period (agrarian) (800 BC-1700 AD), industry (1700-1970) and the information age to the present (1979-2000). The agricultural era is a time when technology is not developed so that the mobility of people and information at that time is very slow. This process describes the growth and development of Islam in Indonesia at that time (Lapidus, 1991). Technology that does not play a role is only traditional technology so the interest in reading is so strong. The journey of this era underwent a change into the industrial era as described by Sztompka (1993) about changes in society is a journey about human history. This period was a time of development of Islam with the establishment of a library in the Middle East, with the name Bait al-Hikmah (Amin 1993). Bait al-Hikmah is a library that experiences gold with the birth of scientists, both Islamic law issues, general, philosophy and other sciences (K. Hitty, 1974). However, the glorious eras of Islam were destroyed by Europeans with their modern technology (Lapidus, 2002). Progress in the East seems to have shifted to the West. This is indicated by the dwindling of Eastern scholarship and the emergence of the golden age of science and technology in Europe with many modern thinkers being born as well as the presence of orientalists. Orientalist means here are researchers from Europe who study seriously the East (Islam) such as Golziher (1971; Goldziher, 1981; Schacht (1971) and other European thinkers who are concerned about law in Islam, namely the Qur'an and the Hadith. thinkers from Europe who questioned the hadith were opposed by Fazlur Rahman (1965) that the hadith originated from the Prophet and was valid or could be trusted throughout the ages.This conflict would never end so that the industrial era was replaced by the present era. in detail, so as to be given an overview by the Dutch alumni and currently the Chancellor of UIN Antasari Banjarmasin, that
  2. 2. The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars 3281 the current era is the information era (Mujiburrahman, 2017) .The information period is the time of the typewriter replaced with an electronic period. (Mujiburrahman, 2017) Piliang (2011) ) call the information period is the world period that has been folded from distance and time. Technological developments are in line with changes experienced by the community both positively and negatively (Tonnies, 1988) so that the Koran is not only printed but is now published through online media, play stores, and other media, so that from the development of these media many al- The Qur'an is not only enjoyed by a certain group of people, especially Muslims, but also by people who are not from Islam. Al-Qur'an in the current information age on the one hand brings positive impacts but on the other hand brings negative impacts (Alginahi, et al., 2017). Negatively, the Koran is enjoyed by human beings in this world without knowing religion any more so that non-Muslims interpret the Koran with the will of reason so that the Koran is considered Muhammad's work and ultimately insulting Muslims. Meanwhile, al-Qur'an viewed from the positive impact, Muslims do not need carry al-Qur'an print everywhere, but only enough with smartphone technology. Research on the digital version of the Qur'an has been carried out, both in Indonesia and abroad. Research conducted by Hidayat (2016) illustrated the form of the Qur'an from the digital version which needs to be updated in accordance with technological developments, so that the Qur'an is clearer. Then, research conducted by Alginahi et al., (2017) about digital authentication, certification and standardization of information technology applications. This study is about the digital version of al-Qur'an which is of little concern. Meanwhile, a study conducted by the author with the theme Muslim Indonesian Scholar's views on the digital version of the Qur'an. The scholar referred to here is a Muslim educator or lecturer who teaches in Higher Education, graduates of both private and public universities in Indonesia. Muslim scholars take the version of Steenbrink (1994) which is someone who is recognized by society. The lecturer is an academic with the lowest level of master's education and has a diploma on his academics. Meanwhile, the digital version of al-Qur'an is the Qur'an found on the internet, Play Store and the like (Haleem & Haleem, 2010). Method And Materials Qualitative methods with descriptive types have been used to collect and process data. A number of Islamic scholars or academics have been invited to semi-structured interviews, field observations and documentation studies as well as completing data collection. According to Hancock, Ockleford, & Windridge (2009), not all qualitative research interacts directly with others but can go directly to the field. This is in accordance with the current conditions in Indonesia at the time of the covid pandemic 19 virus, so that nearly a few weeks of state and private universities were closed, so that direct interaction was carried out through online media using WhatsApp media. Data analysis in this study was indeed carried out by many other researchers, by experiencing some differences in the process of data reduction, such as Creswell (2009), Robert C. Bogdan & Sari Knopp Biklen (1998), Berg (2001) and other theories, but This study uses the theory of Matthew B. Miles A Michael Huberman (1994), with three stages, namely data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions. From the three stages of Huberman's theory, the important cores of the results of the study are in accordance with what you want to study. Data that is not in accordance with what is desired by the researcher is not taken for data presentation. Result And Discussion Al-Qur'an which was revealed by Allah to the Prophet Muhammad (Von Denffer, 2015; Hashi, 2011). . Not directly carried out the process of recording in paper because at that time paper was still not available. But still using the power of memorization. The Qur'an was written on animal skin, palm fronds, stones, camel bones and other scattered materials. The description of the Qur'an at that time was still considered not to be composed in a rapid manner with the community and other punctuation so that it was possible to misread it or interpret it. Only after the death of the Prophet was given harakat and punctuation. The process of the development of science in Islam experienced rapid development with the birth of Bait al-Hikmah. Bait al-Hikmah is an association of scholars, Islamic and Western scholars, so that not only the Qur'an is seriously studied, but also develops philosophical, cultural, economic and other scientific studies (Hitty, 1974). The Caliph Harun al-Rasyid as the leadership of Baghdad had studied from the Bait al-Hikmah library that the Greek language books were translated into Arabic. (Amin, 1983). Scientific studies including the interpretation of the Koran suffered a setback when the city of Baqdad was destroyed by the Mongol army, so that Islamic studies that have been previously advanced are now turning to the West, including Islamic studies that are of interest to the Orientalists. The progress of Islamic studies in the West attracted Muslim scholars including Indonesian to study in the West and some were sent to the Middle East (Welch, 2012).. The pattern of differences in the system of
  3. 3. Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020 3282 DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12I2/S20201450 *Corresponding Author: Hasani Ahmad Said , Email: hasaniahmadsaid@uinjkt.ac.id Article History: Received: Jan 12, 2020, Accepted: Mar 15, 2020 education pursued turns out to have also experienced differences. In understanding religious texts, there are those who carry out understanding of the Qur'an textually, but on the other hand there are those who understand the Qur'an contextually. Presenting an understanding of religion with technology is a necessity as well as a necessity. Technology that has developed from handwriting, print, visual and even audio visual (Mujiburrahman, 2017). From handwriting to sound-form technology to sound-form images. As if the television media like the real world for those watching television. The development of technology is not only limited to audio-visual media but also created the latest technology at this time, called the internet. So that anyone and anywhere can access technological advances. The internet is easily accessible by anyone, so internet features are provided with quite a variety, from Instagram, Facebook, Whatshapp, and other features. In fact, Vitur Play Store is available in various general books, Islam and al-Qur'an with various versions. However, so far the digital version of the Qur'an has not been monitored for its authenticity (Alginahi, at al., 2017). The forms of the version of the Koran examined by Tamuri et al., (2003) with the j-QAF model are available for beginners to read the Koran, which is equipped with four models of recitations of the Koran, which takes six months. The versions of al-Qur'an available online are also diverse, including al-Qur'an versions of local cultural communities such as the Banjar community. The meaning of the Qur'an is spoken in the Banjar language. Even the launching of the Koran was inaugurated by the Minister of Religion, H. Lukman Hakim Syaifuddin on February 26, 2018. (Yanti, 2018). The Banjar version of the Qur'an is an example of alQur'an which later could give birth to another version in accordance with the culture of the people in Indonesia. Indonesia, which consists of a number of cultural variations, cannot be separated from symbols (Cassirer, 1994). Symbols that humans use as language interactions among humans (Herbert, 1969; Blumer, 1986). Interaction is not only face to face, but also through technology, such as mobile phones. In this case, Piliang (2011), said that the world today has been folded with a short time and a very close distance. So do not be surprised, if there is an online learning term that was conceived by Dron and Anderson (2014), with the title "Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media". Learning by using online can bring great benefits for humans who want to learn. It can be enjoyed by all people who have a smartphone, including the Qur'an. However, al- Qur'an which is considered as the word of God so that it has a sacred value, resulting in the pros and cons of the value of the sacredness that is owned by the Qur'an. This difference in outlook, Indonesian Muslim scholars provide insight, both in terms of benefits and harms about the presence of the digital version of the Qur'an so that it is not misinterpreted for current technological advances. According to Basir (2020), Sholihin (2020), Muhdi (2020; Shodiqin, 2020; Sya'rani, 2020), as lecturers of UIN Antasari Banjarmasin and STAI Rakha Amuntai, that the existence of digital mushafas certainly makes it easier for millennials to access Holy Qur'an because it is very helpful without any other obstacles to read it anytime and anywhere. This version of the Qur'an is very suitable for modern society. It spreads faster than the printed version, as far as internet facilities are available. The visual quality is also better than paper, avoiding damage and physical obsolescence. For educated people, it must be very helpful for the flexibility and optimization of the use of the Koran to make it more familiar, effective and efficient (Syafruddin, 2020). It can even be a reference at any time wherever located (Tawhid, 2020). Comments on the benefits of the digital version of the Qur'an are also commented on by one of Indonesia's health lecturers (Dyah, 2020). According to him, with the existence of an online version of al-Qur'an or in the form of an application, so there is no need to bring the printed version of the Qur'an. Before the availability of the online version of Al-Qur'an, then to go everywhere carrying the printed version of Al-Qur'an with a small size, so when you want to read it needs to be careful. After the digital version of the Qur'an, Dyah no longer carried the printed version of the Qur'an because the digital version of the Qur'an was easier and more practical. The size of the letters can be enlarged, the color can be changed and to interpret it yourself also has features that support it. Al-Qur'an digital version actually has followed the development of modern times. So, there is no reason to simplify the process of digitizing various types of learning, including the Qur'an in the system of reading, understanding, or developing it so that it can be understood more comprehensively (Hafidzi, 2020). Motion, space and boundaries are no longer a limit for Muslims and non-Muslims, so to download the digital version of the Qur'an there is no longer a border between religions. Non-Muslims can be as free as possible to read the Qur'an at the same time may not rule out the possibility of getting guidance (Shodiqin, 2020). As manager and caregiver of undergraduate students in providing al-Qur'an education before studying at UIN Antasari Banjarmasin, Muamar (2020), with the digital version of the Koran, memorizers of the Koran can repeat their memorization, because in addition to practical , there are also applications that are very suitable for memorizing the design of memorization. The memorizers can also learn the contents of the Qur'an without having to be bound by a particular teacher and not bound by a certain time as well.
  4. 4. The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars 3283 Al-Qur'an digital or online versions also bring benefits to human life to live the Koran, which at any time can be opened, studied and studied as well as possible. According to Anas et al., (2017) the development of science and technology brings enormous benefits to humans, including the availability of digital al-Qur'an. This new phenomenon has also been enjoyed by Muslims. On one hand, the digital version of the Qur'an has many benefits but on the other hand it has a negative impact. According to Shodiqin (2020), the digital version of the Koran is negative is that people will become less vigilant when opening the online quran application even though when the online quran is opened then the status of the quran is the same as the form of the quran Manuscripts for example may not be opened in an unfavorable place such as a bathroom or toilet and open it in a joking state. Coenraad (2020), as a lecturer at STIE Pasundan, the digital version of the Qur'an should be kept away from unclean but by being carried around so that the telephone can be made for immoral acts. The Qur'an loses its purity so this digital version needs to be explained in more detail from the scholars who allowed it. As a result, al-Qur'an becomes not glorified by people, even more mixed with other files (Khasi’in, 2020). The digital version of the Qur'an is a double-edged knife. For ordinary people it is easy but educating pragmatic thinking without checking and rechecking because of their inability to refer to authoritative references (Syafruddin, 2020). Thus, for ordinary people and students who do not get a verbal explanation will conclude the reading results independently and can have fatal consequences, namely: feeling right, most right and others wrong just because of differences in interpretation (Muamar, 2020). This fatal error is due to learning the Qur'an without the guidance of the teacher (Muhdi, 2020). Alumni of the Qur'an who studied in Jakarta, Maulana (2020) and studied directly to Prof. Dr. M. Quraish Shihab, that the error in interpreting the Qur'an is something human. Because the Qur'an has been downloaded, it is believed that authenticity and truth have been guaranteed (Rauf 2020; Arifin 2020). However, not all Indonesian lecturers or scholars who have taken raw conclusions about the digital version of the Qur'an are believed to have authenticity. One Papuan lecturer at Maba University, Damopoli (2020), once downloaded the Koran online, but when compared to the Koran printed there were differences. With the difference between online and print, according to Shariah (2020), it can lead people astray. The impact of this technological development, so that technology is said to be a double-edged knife, on one hand brings benefits on the other hand brings mudharat. According to Tawhid (2020), technological developments can lead to al-Qur'an manipulation, both in the case of incorrectly marking lines, kasrah, fathah and dhammah, so that the wrong sign of the Qur'an results in having the wrong understanding as well (Hafidzi, 2020). The mistake of the Qur'an being downloaded on the internet, there should be a significance. In addition, the Qur'an downloaded is infected by a virus which causes data to be corrupted, lost or changed. The negative impact of misinterpreting the Qur'an by interpreting itself so that it relies more on reason than the rules of interpretation. As a result, mistakes in living the printed version of the Qur'an make new laws that are contrary to the culture in the community. Al-Qur'an which is wrong in giving the sign, then it results in miss information, for example if in the content there are differences in writing can be fatal because those who download and use the Qur'an become wrong (Coenraad, 2020). According to Basir (2020), the digital version of the Qur'an needs to be given a guarantee of its truth. To avoid this, the LPMQ needs to emphasize again the importance of digital al-Quran application just as it does for printed Al-Quran Manuscripts in order to avoid mistakes. However, until now it could be that the performance does not cover all layers, so that ordinary people to download the online version of the Qur'an should choose an account that can be trusted with credibility, for example Nahdathul Ulama (NU) (Dyah, 2020). The problem of the digital version of al-Qur'an is to be monitored more closely so that it does not occur arbitrarily in the launch of the Qur'an both illegally and legally which is wrongly used by irresponsible humans. Tauhid (2020), as one of the Indonesian lecturers in Surabaya, has repeatedly suggested the merit of Qur'an software, but there has not been a positive response from the government. In this case, the need for cooperation with the community. Nursobah (2020), as an IT Lecturer, STMIKWidya Cipta Dharma Samarinda, East Kalimantan, so that the government prepares someone who is indeed an IT expert to help check and recharge as well as cooperation with the UI Quran Assembly team, so that the authenticity of the Quran will always guarantee its authenticity . Indeed, in general there are differences in scholars about the difference in the verses of the Koran which consists of 6,251, 6,205, 6,666 but there are also those who argue 6,200 verses. The paradigm of the Indonesian Muslim scholar about the digital version of the Qur'an cannot be denied about its existence, because every change that is experienced by society, the technology will also experience development. The impact of these developments is everything to be facilitated both in the provision, so that more young people are accessed on the internet. However, the digital version of al-Qur'an is right and wrong depends on the people who use it.
  5. 5. Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, Vol. 12, Issue-02, 2020 3284 DOI: 10.5373/JARDCS/V12I2/S20201450 *Corresponding Author: Hasani Ahmad Said , Email: hasaniahmadsaid@uinjkt.ac.id Article History: Received: Jan 12, 2020, Accepted: Mar 15, 2020 Conclusion Technology in human life cannot be denied its existence and development. Technology is a tool that can be used for good or for bad. The development of technology is a tool that has been made, updated with features that have strengths and weaknesses. For Muslims, technological development is the inevitable sunnatullah, so the availability of the digital version of the Qur'an is already an inevitable provision of God (Rosyad, 2007) For non-Muslims, who access the Koran through the internet, it can also be a guidance from Allah to convert to Islam, but it can also be a tool to destroy Muslims by changing the digital Koran from its authenticity, so that Muslims who download al-Qur'an -Qur'an which is spread by people who are not responsible, then understanding the Qur'an also experienced errors that impact on life in society. References [1] Alginahi, Yasser, Khurram Khan, Omar Tayan, dan Mohammed Zakariah. 2017. “Digital Holy Quran Authentication, Certification and Standardization: A Survey.” International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 15(12):98–117. [2] Amin, Ahmad. 1983. Dhuha al-Islam. Vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. [3] Amin, Ahmad. 1993. Fajr al-Islam: Bahts ’an al-Hayat al-Aqliyyat fi Sadr al-Islam ila Akhir al-Dulat al-Amawiyyat. Singapore: Maktabah wa Mathaba’ah Sulaiman Mar’i. [4] Anas, Norazmi, Zulkifli Mohd. Ghazali, Anaztasia Natasha Muhamad Ramlan, dan Mohd. Rizal Hanafi. 2017. “The Use of Digital Quran Application among Diploma Students of UiTM Perak Branch, Tapah Campus.” International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 7(2):561–69. [5] Berg, Bruce L. 2001. Qualitative Research Methods For The Social Sciences. Boston. London. Toronto. Sydney. Tokyo. Singapore: ALLYN AND BACON. [6] Blumer, Herbert. 1986. Symbolic Interactionism Perspective and Method. 1 ed. California: University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles. [7] Cassirer, Ernest. 1994. An Essay on Man, An Introduction to Philosophy of Human Culture. New York: University Press. [8] Creswell, John W. 2009. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3 ed. Los Angeles. London. New Delhi. Singapore: SAGE. [9] Dron, Jon, dan Terry Anderson. 2014. Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media. Canada: AU, Press, Athabasca University. [10]Goldziher, Ignaz. 1981. Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. New Jersey: Princenton University Press. [11]Golziher, Ignaz. 1971. Muslim Studies, terj. C.R. Barber dan S.M. Stern. London: Goerge Allen & Unwin. [12]Haleem, M. A., & Haleem, M. A. (2010). Understanding the Qur'an: themes and style. Bloomsbury Publishing. [13]Hancock, Baverley, Elizabeth Ockleford, dan Kate Windridge. 2009. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Yorkshire & The Humber: University of Sheffield regent Court. [14]Hashi, A. A. (2011). Islamic ethics: An outline of its principles and scope. Revelation and Science, 1(03). [15]Herbert, Blumer. 1969. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Englewood: Cliiff NJ. [16]Hidayat, Syarif. 2016. “Al-Qur’an Digital (Ragam, Permasalahan dan Masa Depan).” MUKADDIMAH: Jurnal Studi Islam 1(1):1–40. [17]K. Hitty, Philip. 1974. History of The Arabs. 10 ed. T.P: The Macmilland Press. [18]Lapidus, Ira M. 1991. A History of Islamic Societes. New York: Cambridge University Press. [19]Matthew B. Miles A Michael Huberman. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: an expanded sourcebook. London: SAGE Publication. [20]Mujiburrahman. 2017. Agama Generasi Elektronik. Cetakan Pertama. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. [21]Mujiburrahman. 2017. Humor, Perempuan dan Sufi. Jakarta: Kompas, Gramedia. [22]Piliang, Yasraf Amir. 2011. Dunia Yang Telah Diliipat: Tamasya Melampaui Batas-Batas Kebudayaan. Bandung: Matahari,. [23]Rahman, Fazlur. 1965. Islamic Methodology in History. Karachi: Central Institute of Islamic Research. [24]Robert C. Bogdan & Sari Knopp Biklen. 1998. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Boston: Aliyn and Bacon, Inc.,. [25]Rosyad, R. (2007). A quest for true Islam: A Study of the Islamic resurgence movement among the youth in Bandung, Indonesia. ANU E Press. [26]Schacht, Josept. 1971. The Origin of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. London: Oxfort at The Clarendon Press.
  6. 6. The Digital Al-Qur'an Viewed by Indonesian Muslim Scholars 3285 [27]Steenbrink, Karel A. 1994. Pesantren Madrasah Sekolah: Pendidikan Islam Dalam Kurun Modern, terj. Karel A. Steenbrink dan Abdurrahman. Cetakan II. Indonesia, Jakarta: LP3ES. [28]Sztompka, Piotr. 1993. Sociology Of Social Change. Cambridge USA: Oxford UK. [29]Tamuri, AB. Halim, Ahmad Munawar Ismail, Amal Hayati MD. Noor, dan Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Pisol. 2003. “Teachers Evaluation on the Implementation of j-QAF Quranic Recitation Models.” International Journal of Islamic Thought 3:1–17. [30]Toffler, Alvin. 1970. Future Shock. New York: Bantam Books. [31]Toffler, Alvin. 1980. The Third Wave. New York: William Morrow and Company, INC. [32]Tonnies, Ferdinand. 1988. Community and Society: Gemeinschaft Und Gesellschaft. Transaction Publisher: New Brunswick (USA) and London (U.K). [33]Von Denffer, A. (2015). Ulum al Qur'an: an introduction to the sciences of the Qur'an (Koran). Kube Publishing Ltd. [34]Welch, A. (2012). Seek knowledge throughout the world? Mobility in Islamic higher education. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(1), 70-80. [35]Yanti. 2018. “Menag RI: Aplikasi Al-Qur’an Terjemah Bahasa Banjar Pertama di Indonesia.” Diambil 28 Maret 2020 (https://kalsel.kemenag.go.id/berita/510949/Menag-RI-Aplikasi-Al- Qur%E2%80%99an-Terjemah-Bahasa-Banjar-Pertama-di-Indonesia).

×