2. • SOCIOLOGY is derived from latin socio, meaning society and the
Greek logos, meaning science
• Society is derived from word socius meaning individual and
societa meaning group.
• Sociology deals with the study of society.
• Society is a group of individuals who have organized themselves
and follow a given way of life. The behaviour of man depends
very much upon his relationship with other fellow beings.
3. • Sociology is the scientific study of human social
behavior and its origins, development, organizations,
• Aim of sociology is to search for the pattern of relationships
between people for betterment of individuals in relation to
4. • Sociology is the study of
1) Relationship between human beings ( unit of study can be a
small group like family or can be complex society)
2) Human behaviour (biological, physical environment and social
5. Specialization in sociology
1) Medical sociology – to study cultural factors and social relations
in connection with illness and the social principles in medical
organization and treatment.
2) Urban sociology
3) Rural sociology
4) Industrial sociology
5) Sociology of religion
6) sociology of education, criminology
7) Hospital sociology and demography
• It is an group of people settle down and organize themselves.
• A system of social relationships between individuals
• It controls and regulates the behaviour of the individual both by
law and customs.
• example if a group of people coming together temporarily to
watch a hockey match donot constitute society, they are merely
crowd. But if the same group of people settle down and organize
themselves then they form society.
W.H.O defination - A community is a social group determined by
geographical boundries and /or common values and interest.
Community can be defined as a group of people who have some
common characteristics and are bound together by “WE” feeling.
This sense of ‘we’ feeling (i.e., shared togetherness) may be due to
a place where they all stay or due to some other common interest.
8. Communities can be either
1) Functional communities or
2) Structural communities
• Functional communities are non geographical aggregates which
are bound together by some common factor other than
geographical place of residence or work;
e.g., religion (as, Hindu community),
occupation (as medical community),
special interest (as cricket lovers) or
Need (as socially backward communities).
9. Structural communities
They are organised by geographical or political boundaries.
Eg- indoor patient’s community in a hospital or
city, district, state or even a nation.
• Community affiliations provide a source of support for
individuals and group.
• The community is ideal for focal point of programme.
10. Social structure
• Definition: Social structure is the organized pattern of social
relationships and social institutions that together compose
• Social class is one example of social structure.
11. Social institutions
• A social institution is an organized complex pattern of behaviour
in which a number of persons participate in order to further
• Example- Family, school, church, club, hospital, political parties,
professional associations and the panchayats
12. Role in a society
In a society, individuals are allocated roles as people in a drama.
Roles are classified into-
1) Ascribed – Role which are given by virtue of sex, age and birth
2) Achieved – Role which are given by virtue of education.
13. Example : In a single day man can play a role of husband, father,
employee, friend, son, brother, committee chairman, guest,
Sick role- When a person falls ill, he is expected to decrease or
relinquish his normal duties seek medical ai and carry out the
orders given by physician
• Socialization means teaching the values of society and
transmitting information, culture, beliefs, general codes of
conduct, by example and precept, in order to make them fit for
membership in the wider society of the family is a part.
• Hence it is an process by which an individual gradually acquires
culture and becomes a member of social group.
• The family plays the most dominant role in the individual’s
• Example children going to school is an instance of socialization
15. SOCIAL CONTROL MECHANISMS
In every society there are rules, formal and informal for
maintenence of relationship of authority and subordination.
The laws and enactments of parliament are social control
Besides formal rules sometimes, informal social pressures are
broughtto bear upon individuals to help construct norms of
• A custom is a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned
way of appearing or behaving that is considered characteristic of
life in a social system.
• Shaking hands, bowing, and kissing are all customary ways of
greeting people that distinguish one society from another.
17. CULTURE –
• It is defined as learned behaviour which has been socially
• Culture is the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the
material objects that together shape a people's way of life.
• Culture can be any of two types, non-material culture ormaterial
18. • Every culture has its own customs some of which have a
profound influence on the incidence of the disease.
• Example- widely proclaimed social habits like
cancer of lung from smoking,
liver cirrhosis from drinking alcohol ,
oral cancer by pan chewing
• Acculturation is a process in which members of one cultural
group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another cultur group.
• There are various ways by which culture contact takes place
1) Trade and commerce
3) Propogation of religion
20. Dynamics of social change
• It deals with the processes by which societies change.
• The interaction between social factors and health issues is
complex and sometimes unpredictable.
• A typical feature of traditional societies is a sense of continity
and immutability in patterns of social life.
• Transitional societies are better able to cope with change
• Modern societies are best adapted to assimilative rapid change.
21. Social stress
• Is a stress that stems from one's relationships with others and
from the social environment in general.
• A person experiences stress when he or she does not have the
ability or resources to cope when confronted with an external
stimulus (stressor), or when they fear they do not have the
ability or resources.
• An event which exceeds the ability to cope does not necessarily
have to occur in order for one to experience stress, as the threat
of such an event occurring can be sufficient.
• This can lead to emotional, behavioral, and physiological
changes that can put one under greater risk for developing
amental disorder and physical illness.
22. • Causation of physical and psychological disorders is
• Stress have direct link to hypertension and coronary heart
• Pressure is mostly felt where young people have little life
control over thier own destiny
• In Transitional societies social stress condition include the wave
of migration from rural to urban areas.
• Exposure through mass media to ideas that had been previously
23. Social problems
• Individual problems becomes social problem when they affects
alarge number of people amounting a threat to the welfare or
safety of the whole group.
• All individual problem are not social problems.
• Poverty, crime, disease are common social problem.
• Public health and social problems are alcoholism, veneral
disease, mental illness and narcotic addiction.
24. • Social pathology
• It is used to describe the relation between disease and social
• social factor, as poverty, old age, or crime, that tends to increase
social disorganization and inhibit personal adjustment.
• The study of such factors and the social problems they produce
is termed social pathology.
• Such factors are surved through social surveys, case study, field
25. • 1) social surveys-
survey used to collect data on demographic, characteristics and
attitudes of residents. The survey is conducted face-to-face with
an in-person interview of adult in randomly selected
• 2) case study: It is a method of exploring and analyzing the life
of a social unit ( family/ institution/ culture group/ entire
• Case study differs from survey. Case study attempts to collect a
large amount of informaation from a small number of unit
whereas survey collect small information from a large unit
26. • A combination of survey and case study can provide more
information about a population of interest.
• Field study – are concerned with the breadth of knowledge (
systemic collection of data from population through personal
interview or data collection devices)
• They are concerned with depth of knowledge of people
27. Role of Communication in sociology
• It refers to a social process- the flow of information, the
circulation of knowledge and ideas and propagation of thoughts.
• It helps in motivating people to accept ideas, changes in
• Mass media is widely used as vehicles of dissemination of
28. • Social defence- The protection of society against crime
through a systematically organized and coherent action by both
the State and civil society.
• Social defence approach aims not only at perfecting the system
that deals with offenders but also at forestalling conditions that
• It closely interacts with various sectors of socio-economic
development in creating an environment conducive to the
prevention of crime.
• Mobilizing resources appropriate for the treatment and
rehabilitation of offenders in the totality of their life situations