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Phycology lecture

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Phycology lecture

  1. 1. Phycology Lecture Coverage: Algae: Microalgae - phytoplankton Macroalgae - seaweeds Sea grasses – vascular (upper margin of the intertidal zone) Mangroves – vascular (estuarine) Beach and coastal – seashore (inland) Plants Require: Water and CO2 Mineral ions/Nutrients Light – for photosynthesis
  2. 2. Development: Life cycle – alternation of sporophytic and gametophytic generation Higher plants –involve tissues (xylem – conduction of water (phloem – conduction of food / by products of photosynthesis) Sporophytic Generation Multi-celled diploid body producing haploid spores Gametophytic Generation Multi-celled haploid body producing haploid gametes
  3. 3. Algae Division Cyanophyta (blue-green) - Pyrrophyta/ Monera Dinophyta (dinoflagellates) Chrysophyta (golden algae/ diatoms) Englenophyta (photosynthetic flagellates) Plantae Pyrrophyta/Dinophyta (dinoflagellates) Rhodophyta – red algae Phaeophyta – brown algae Chlorophyta – green algae
  4. 4. Intertidal Communication Ties Species Major Sub-division Algal Groups Ultra, Enteromorpha supra littoral zone species w/ stand dessication Prostrate brown algae supra littoral fringe species w/ strong waves Sargassum, Turbinaria mid littoral species w/ anchored in deep substrate Brown Algae sub littoral w/ stand variable illumination w/ stand wave action w/ stand temperature Factors a. Tide tidal amplitude (vertical range) tidal frequency (diurnal, semi diurnal mixed) b. Exposure of Algae shore topography wave action time of dessication c. Type of substrate basic composition (material forming) peeble calcified rock
  5. 5. Algal Body/Thallus Higher Plants Algae Roots rhizoids/rhizomes (holdfast) Stems stipes Leaves blades Pigments: Chlorophyll – a, b, c, d, e Carotenoids – B carotene, L-carotene (yellow) Xantophyll – Lutein, Zeaxanthin, Fucoxanthin, Neoxanthin ( yellow/golden) Phycobillins – Phycocyanin (blue-green), phycoerythrin (red, purple) Reserved Foods Cellulose Mannitol Laminarin/chrysolaminarin Oil Starch
  6. 6. Morphology Filamentous – single/double stranded Foliose – blade like Siphonoceous – siphon Crustose – encrusted with CaCo3 Parenchymatous-medulla cells cuboidal/spherical Pseudoparenchymatous-medulla cells isodiametric Location of Meristems – actively dividing cell Apical- apex region (elongate) Diffuse-all over (foliose) Intercalary-at certain regions (usually give rise to branches) Habit: sessile/attached Phytoplankton free-floating picoplankton- 2 um planktonic ultraplankton – 2-5 um nanoplankton – 5-20 microplankton – 20-200 um
  7. 7. Division Pigment Reserved Food Habit Cyanophyta chloro a starch planktonic Carotene benthic Phycobillin Chrysophyta chloro a & b oil planktonic Xanthophyll chrysolaminarin Carotene benthic Pyrophyta chloro a & c starch planktonic Xanthophyll oil Carotene fats Phaeophyta chloro a & c laminarin benthic Xantophyll oil Carotene
  8. 8. Rhodophyta chloro a starch benthic Carotenes Phycobillin Chlorophyta chloro a & b starch benthic Carotene Anthophyta chloro a & b starch benthic Carotenes Types of Gametes 1. isogametes (sex cells appear the same) 2. anisogametes (unequal) 3. heterogametes (unequal) 4. homogametes (sex cells appear the same)
  9. 9. Spores Produced Organs Monospore – monosporgangium Tetraspore – tetrasporangia Carpospores- carposporangium Conchospore- conchosporagium Auxospore – auxosporangia Organs: Special Types Male – antherium/spermatium Female – ooganium Homogametes (sex cells appear the same)
  10. 10. Forms: Morphology Crustose – encrusted w/ CaC03 -Coenocytic Filamentous – as a filament -Cylindrical Foliaceous – leafy -Cartilaginous Siphonaceous – Distribution - Based on availability of photosynthetic pigments (red and blue) and activation of accessory pigments, carotenoids, xanthophylls and phycobillins HTM Green (dominant) Intertidal/Litoral Brown Red Photosynthesis at; LTM - Red and Blue Brown (dominant) Effective Light Red Green Red (dominant) Green Brown
  11. 11. R O Y G B I V Water Level chlorophyll xanthophylls carotenoids chlorophyll
  12. 12. Water Characteristics: Transparency -affect photosynthesis at certain depth Turbidity -Low penetration -Limits photosynthesis Substrate Characteristics: Algae types based on Root Structure Holdfast – discoid holdfast Rhizoids – stolon Haptere – spines/spires Ecology of the Algae Physical: Temperature - factor for the rate of metabolism. Higher the temperature, rate of metabolism up to the optimum range.
  13. 13. Shelford’s Law of Tolerance optimum deficient excessive fatal fatal Factor (Temperature/Salinity etc.)
  14. 14. Temperature Sources: 1. radiation 2. radioactive decay of substances 3. day length Heat Loss - conductive process - convection - current flow Water Current/Movement - waves - currents -distribution of nutrients - tides
  15. 15. Photynthesis – spectrum (ROYGBIV) Day length: long – chlorophyll & carotenoids short –xanthophylls and phycobilins Affects; -Metabolism -Growth -Occurrence -Distribution -Reproductive Maturity Penetration and Absorbance Visible light – 390 nm to 760 nm Ultra violet light – 290 nm to 390 nm Infrared – 760 nm to 3000 nm ________290_________390________760________30000 UV VL IR
  16. 16. FATE OF LIGHT reflected (90%) scattered scattered & reflected back absorbed absorbed (10-45%) Transmittance T = I1 / I2 Overall I1 = irradiance at depth 1 Transmitance 25 m I1 I2 = irradiance at depth 50 m I2
  17. 17. Distribution Zonation of Algae Light - irradiance Green (upper) - temperature - substrate Brown (mean) Red (deeper water) Change of Light Effects: - color pigmentation/activation - reserve food production rate - reproductive biology - gametophytic development - sporophytic development
  18. 18. Temperature Effect: Biological organization - Molecular (biochemical reaction; carbohydrate, protein metabolism) - Cellular - Organismal - Community Structure Organs: Spermatangium – sperm (male) Ooganium – egg (female) Sporangium – spore Effects: High temperature - denaturation of protein - damage to enzymes - damage in the cell membrane
  19. 19. Low temperature: - causes disruption of lipids - damage to cell membrane - mechanical damage of cell through the formation of ice crystal Tolerance - increase in cellulose - increase in cell membrane - frost camouflage - increase in the reserve food products - efficient but minimal use of products Water Movement - Current flow - tradewind - easterlies - westerlies
  20. 20. Effect - distribution of heat(- conduction, convection) - distribution of nutrients effected by: - surface rate - vertical movement - upwelling - distribution of gases - distribution of spores, sex cells Generation of Waves 1. caused by wind (meteorological) 2. caused by tide (gravitational pull ) 3. earthquake and land slide (geologic) Waves Result from: 1. Deflection of wind as it blows over the surface 2. changes in atmospheric pressure
  21. 21. Anatomy of Waves Length H – height Crest T – time L – length Height Depth D – water depth Wave Break: Time D = (4/3) H (shallow water) H = 1/7 (L) (deep water)
  22. 22. 1st quarter Neap Tide Full Moon Spring tide Spring tide New Moon Neap Tide 3rd quarter
  23. 23. Waves WC – wave crest WT – wave time/period WH – wave height WD – wave depth Shallow water break happens when ¾ H ; i.e Drag/Friction at the bottom of the wave happens Tides – the periodic rise or fall of sea level due to gravitational attraction between sun, moon and earth
  24. 24. Neap Tide (1st & 3rd Quarter) Gravitational Pull Centrifugal force Moon (rotation of the earth in its axis) Spring Tide
  25. 25. Classifications: Semi-diurnal – 2 Low and 2 High Diurnal – Single Low and Single High Mixed – Semi-diurnal and single low/single high  Spring tide (S – M – E aligned)  Neap tides (S – M- E at 45o angle)
  26. 26. Currents  Horizontal current – wind driven ( westernlies, easterlies, trade winds) Caused by prevailing wind patterns  Deep Vertical Currents  C-slope, C-rise and abyssal plain (the result of salinity and temperature gradient) Air - mixture of different kinds of gases Process; First;Equator and at warmer latitudes, heated air expands and rises Later:  Low pressure area is produced and cooled air moves  Rising air is carried north or south of the equator and eventually cools, contracts and sinks, creating a high pressure area
  27. 27. Deflection of air masses : to the right in N. Hemisphere and to the left in S. Hemisphere due to Coriolis effect because of the spinning of the planet. Easterly Tradewind - produces the equatorial current EQ Current : North – western B. current Eastwind - Western Trade wind Vertical Currents Upwelling/Downwelling Caused by: 1. halocline/thermocline (salinity/density and temperature grdient) 2. Offshore winds – push the surface and cause the deep water to move to the surface.
  28. 28. 3. Divergence – produced when deep water and surface current interaction occurs that is possible when currents pass through another current 4. Wake strain – nearby water surface is pulled along with a strong current 5. Turbulence – due to rapid current passing over shallow and rough benthos
  29. 29. Chemical Factors Affect the: Occurrence of marine plants Distribution Abundance Rep cycle – seasonal (die-off; dormant in the production of sex cell/spore Factors: Pure water plus salt (Na, Cl, Mg ,Ca) increase, correspondingly increase 1. osmotic pressure 2. boiling pt 3. density 4. conductance Lower: 1. vapor pressure 2. freezing pt (solidify pure water)
  30. 30. Salinity Ranges; Oceanic – 32-38 ppt Neritic – 25 – 32 ppt Estuarine – 1-15-32 ppt Hypersaline (Red Sea) – above 38 ppt Seaweeds Classification Euryhaline – 30 to 40 ppt Polyhaline – 18 to 30 ppt Mesohaline – 3 to 18 ppt Oligohaline - .5 to 3 ppt Brackist - .5 to 5 ppt
  31. 31. Measurement of Salinity 1. Density – hydrometer – specific gravity pycnometer – wt of salts both consider standard temperature and pressure 2. Resistance to electrical current – conductivity meter - salinometer 3. Bending of right from air to seawater –refractometer 4. Concentration of chlorine – chlorinity; titration with AgN03 as major salt  Hydrometer – sp. Gravity x salt (k)  Pycnometer – weight of salts  Refractometer – measures the refraction index of medium air to pure water = 1.3330
  32. 32.  Conductivity Meter – amount of chlorine Cl (ppt) = 0.7324 R15  R15 = rate of electrical conductance of one sample to one where; Salinity = 35 ppt; 1 atms 15oC Sal = .003 + (1.805 x chlorinity (20oC) Lab: AgN03 + NACl – AgCl + NaN03 Dissolved Oxygen; 0.9% in water 21% in air Sources: Air, Plants
  33. 33. Concentration: Polar – (2x) – compared to tropical region Lower temperature/salinity Below photic zone = 0.2 to .3% (low) Run-off = high O2 C02 in Seawater Available either as: C03 HC03 H2C03 H + removal (Acid) – negative effect (Nutrients/elements are tied up until Alkaline free)
  34. 34. Ion Concentration in Seawater 6.8 – 8.4 (normal reading) pH – rises ; C02 is removed via photosynthesis pH – lowered; C02 is added via respiration Removal of C02 - Carbonate - Bicarbonate - Carbonic acid Nutrients 2l – essential elements other trace elements 4 – elements for plant growth -C, N, P, K, O  S - major component in protein synthesis (300 mg/L (Si02) diatoms)
  35. 35.  0 – 857,000 mg/L  N – 28 mg/L  P – 0.07 mg/L  K – 0.03 mg/L  C – 28 mg/L Auxotrophic (seaweeds) req. some Vitamins: B12 – Cyanocobalamin B1 - Thiamine Biotin Nitrogenous N03 – nitrate – 1 to 43 ; H2PO4 0.07- 0.07 N02 - nitrite – 0.01 to 3.5 NH3 - ammonia – 0.35 to 3.5
  36. 36. Nitrogen Cycle Plants Animals Urine Decomposition (bacteria and fungi) Atmosphere Amino acid Dissolved N2 Ammonification N2 fixation Photochemical fixation Denitrification Ammonia (Lightning) (Blue green algae) ammonia Nitrate(NO3) Nitrite(NO2) Nitrification
  37. 37. Phosphorous Silica (cell wall formation) Si02 – 0 – 0.5 mg/L Phosphorous Cycle Land Plants Higher Organisms Weathering Dissolved Phosphate Dissolved Phosphate (inorganic) (organic) Particulate Phosphorus (inorganic + organic) Sediment
  38. 38. Macro Algae (Seaweeds) 1. Unicellular to filamentous - Chlorophyta 2. filamentous to thalloid - Phaecophyta - Rhodophyta Evolved – Pre-cambrian Types of Meristem 1. apical meristem – division of apical cells 2. diffuse meristem – throughout the plant 3. intercallary meristem – specific growth regions Growth Construction 1. filamentous – one to two rows of cells (Cladophora) 2. foliose – flattened/membranous (Halymenia)
  39. 39. Cytology of Green Algae I. Physiological Characteristics 1. chloro a and b 2. B – carotene 3. xanthophylls - lutein - zeaxanthin - violaxanthin - siphonin - siphonoxanthin (play a role in acclimation in deep water to the b-g spectrum
  40. 40. II. Cell Structure - eukaryotic - uninucleated (most) - multi nucleated (few) - coenocytic – multinucleated in a single cell III. Chloroplast (thyllakoids) - cup- shaped - discoid - reticulate - laminate Pyrenoids – amylase containing protein bodies
  41. 41. IV. Cell Wall - cellulose microfibrils – typical in flowering plants and Ulvalves - highly crystalline siphonodadales (Cladophorales) - polymers of xylan and mannan (Caulerpales) - CaC03 V. Cell Division a. Karyokinesis - closed (intranuclear) – no break of n. membrane - open (nuclear envelop disappears , e.g. like in flowering plants)
  42. 42. b. Cytokinesis - closed - spindle fibers parallel to cross wall - open – spindle fibers at right angle Asexual spores – zoospores Motile cells: - Isokontae – pair of apically inserted flagella of equal length that lack hairs - Heterokontae – unequal length Life History Alternation of: Haploid (gametophytic) Diploid (sporophytic)
  43. 43. Patterns  Haplontic – dominant phase is haploid with zygote only as diploid Fusion zygote 1N 2N gametes Zygospore Meiosis 2N Zygospore
  44. 44.  Diplontic Life History – diploid phase is dominant Anteridia Fusion Oogonia 1N 2N Meiosis 1N 2N
  45. 45.  Haplodiplontic – dominant phases are haploid and diploid Fusion Gametophytic 1N 2N Sporophytic Meiosis Isomorphic
  46. 46. Heteromorphic – haploid & diploid; unequal Fusion 1N 2N Meiosis
  47. 47. Chlorophyta Taxonomy Class (phyceae) 1. Chlorophyceae 2. Prasinophyceae 3. Charophyceae Prasinophyceae Features: 1. unicellular, motile and appearing as green 2. cells with one or more layers of fibrillar scales 3. the flagella is always attached in groove covered with scales and hairs 4. the flagellal roots with complex basal body 5. with single round- shaped chloroplast with pyrenoids 6. specialized ejectosome. e.g. Pyraminomas – pear- shaped unicel with 4 flagella
  48. 48. Charophyceae – stone worts; ancient origin/evolution Division: Chlorophyta Class: Chlorophyceae Chloroplast with pyrenoid – multi- uninucleated – haploid – haplodiplontic life history – filamentous/caenocytic morphology 1. Order: Ulvales Family: Percuriaceae - biserriate Schizomeraceae - uniseriate Prasiolaceae - filamentous/monostromatic Monostromaceae - monostromatic Ulvaceae - diastromatic and tubular
  49. 49. Common Characterictics: Parietal chloroplast Laminate Pyrenoid Rep-roduction(Anisogany/Isogamy) 2. Order: Chladophorales Genera: Cladophoraceae- filamentous Rhizoclonium - delicate, unbranched filament with rhizoids Chaetomorpha- coarse, unbranched Cladophora - branching filament
  50. 50. Family: Anadyomanaceae - filamentous but fused to form blades Anadyomene - brilliant green with anastomosed filaments 3. Order Acrosiphonales Family: Acrosiphonaceae Genera: Urospora - unbranched filament Spongopora - branched, uninucleated Acrosiphonia - branched, multinucleated General Characteristics: - single perforated chloroplast with hetero – haplodiplontic life history
  51. 51. 4. Order Siphonocladales Family: Siphonocladaceae - filamentous Family: Boodleaceae - net like blade with anastomosing filaments Family: Volaniaceae - aggregation of vesicle Siphoclodales Boodlea Valonia General Characteristics: - segregated cell division - they enlarge to form and equal or similar vesicle e.g. velonia degagropila dictyospharia caveriosa
  52. 52. 5. Order Caulerpales – siphonous, coenocytic Family: Bryopsidaceae Genera: Broyopsis – hetero- haplo-diplontic life history Derbesia Family Caulerpaceae – erect blades with rhizoid - Trebeulae in growth of cell wall - Leucoplast – without cross wall (coenocytic) Genera: Caulerpa Family Codiaceae – coenocytic with filament called siphons - surface cell is made of utricles - diplontic, onisogametes
  53. 53. Family Udoteaceae – heavily certified to Genera: Halimeda Udotea Penicillus Chlorodesmis Avrainvillea 6. Order Dassyclaudales 2 Family - Dasaycladaceae Acetabulariaceae Characteristics: whorl branching Superficial calcification Diplontic, isogametic (produced in cyst) Genera: Dasycladea Cymopolia Acetabularia
  54. 54. Division: Phaeophyta (Brown Algae) Class: Phaeophyceae 265 genera 1,500 – 2,000 species Construction a. filamentous b. massive intertidal growth c. lithophytic – attached to stable substrate d. epiphytic – living on surface of other plants e. drift population (S. filamentous (S. ratens Uses: - alginic acid (medicine, ice cream, shampoo) - fodder (food of animal additives - fertilizer
  55. 55. Cytology - Chloro a & c - B. carotene fucoxanthin and neofucoxanthin – brownish, golden brown, brown-green, greenish, yellow color - Carotenoids - Uninucleated - Thallykoid in bonds of 3 - Reserved food Motile Cells - heterokontae (unequal flagellum – usually inserted) a. acronomatic - shorter - smooth - basally oriented
  56. 56. b. pleuronomatic - long - anteriorly nemated - hairy Life History - diplontic -gametes derived in sporangia 1. unilocular 2. plurilocular Taxonomy 1. Ectocarpales Ectocarpaceae Ectocarpus
  57. 57. Characteristics: - uniseriate filament - isomorphic – equal in form 2. Ralfsiales Ralfsiaceae Ralfsia Neoderma Characteristics: - crustose morphology - diplontic - gametes (isogametes, heterogametes) 3. Sphacelariales Sphacelariaceae Clodostaphus Holotrix
  58. 58. Characteristics: -small, filamentous, multiseriated 4. Class Tiliopteridales - filamentous construction - uniseriate – multiseriate - trichothallic growth Genus: Halospora 5. Class Cutleriales - amisogamete - crustose morphology - trichothallic - alternation of isomorphic life history
  59. 59. 6. Class Dictyotales - pan tropical - isomorphic – haplo-diplomatic - parenchymatous construction DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA Characteristics: - chloro a and c - fucoxanthin (xanthophylls) predominate - laminarin and oil are reserved foods - haplo-diplomatic life history asexual – fragmentation (vegetative) sexual – isogametes - products: alginate
  60. 60. Order Fucales Blade morphology - crustose – encrusted with lime - duplicated – double margin - cystic – enclosed reproductive structure (antheridium – sperm) (ooganium – egg) 2 years life cycle 1st year – vegetative growth 2nd year – reproductive age
  61. 61. Family Fucaceae Genera: Hormophysa (triangular blade) Sargassum duplication S. crispifolium S. polycystum S. giganteifolium Characteristics: - predominantly floating (pneumatocyst) - erect thallus with air bladder - at the margin of littoral and sub-littoral zone Genera: Turbinaria ornata (ornate leaf without branching) T. trialata (with branching)
  62. 62. Family Cystoseriaceae Characteristics: - triangular type of thallus - seldom with air bladder Genera: Hormophysa triquetra’ Cystoseira Order Scytosiphonales General Characteristics: - hallow ball structure erupting at maturity - morphology net-like to ball-like - sexual reproduction only - seasonal (summer)
  63. 63. Family Scytosiphonacea Genera: Scytosiphon Hydroclathus Chnoosepora Colpomenia Order Dictyotales General Characteristics - divaricate branching - heavily calcified - linear branching to flabellate
  64. 64. Family Dictyotaceae Genus Dictyoty – linear branch, turcated, semi-permanent Padina – flabellate blades, destructs lines of growth, heavy calcification Economic Importance - source of alginate - medicinal property - fertilizer - insecticidal property - animal fodder Laminariales - large group of brown algae - hetero morphic (unequal; sporophytic; gametophytic) - developed: rhizoid stem blade
  65. 65. RED ALGAE (RHODOPHYTA) Characteristics - intertidal to subtidal – chloro to phycoerythrin change in color - enkaryotic - flagella lacking - phycobillin (phycoerythrin - reserved food (Floridean starch) long chain of glucose to lipid
  66. 66. Cytology - Chloro A packed in a thyllakoid - Phycocyanin r – phycocyanin c – phycocyanin - Carotenoids B- carotene L – carotene - pyrenoid (starch grain) distinct - phycocolloids agar-(agarophytes) carrageenan –( carrageenophyte) funoran fucellarian - starch (Floridean) Xylose amylase
  67. 67. Life History - triphasic (3 life stages)life history 1. gametophytic – produce gametes 2. carposphorophytic – produce carpaspore 3. tetrasporophytic – produce tetraspore Other Spore Types (Asexual) - monospore – derived monosporagia - paraspore – derived parasporangia - carpospore – derived carposporangia
  68. 68. Taxonomy DIVISION – RHODOPHYTA Class – Rhodophycidae Sub class – Bangiophycidae Floridiophycidae Characteristics: – uninucleate cells – single stellate central plastids – diffuse (intercellary) meristem – absence of pit connection – must have absent sexual reproduction – except, parphyra, bangia and polysiphonia – simple venicellular in multicellular group
  69. 69. 3 Orders Parphyridiales Campsogonales Bangiales a) Prephyridiales – Unicellular - pseudofilamentous – Colonial - no sexual reproduction b) Comprogonales – produce monospore of unequal division – Rep Groups: - Erythrocladia – filamentous - Erythrotrichia c) Bangiales monotype – monostroma – diatromatic – filamentous Rep. Group - Bangia - Porphyra
  70. 70. Sub-class – Florideophycidae occurrence of multinucleated cells presence of pit plug presence of several discoid chloroplast apical cell division multicellular (macroscopic) sexual reproduction (gametophytic plant) Order: Bangiales Family: Bangiaceae Genera: Porphyra Bangia Order: Palmariales Genera: Rhodymenia
  71. 71. Order: Nemalionales Genera: Liagora ;soft calcareous Helminthocladia Order: Bonnemaisorales Genera: Bonnamaisona Asparagosis Order: Cryptomoniales Genera: Halymenia Crytonemia w/ auxiliary cells Grateloupia Order: Corallinales Genera: Corallina Lithothammion Amphiroa Jania Order: Gigartinales Family: Chaetangiaeecae
  72. 72. Order: Gigantinales Family: Solieriaceae Eucheuma Kappaphycus Family: Gracilariaceae Gracilaria Order: Ceremiales Family: Ceremiaceae Genera: Ceramium Lithothamnium Family: Dellesereaceae Genera: Rhodomelaceae Laurancia Acanthophora
  73. 73. Classes: Palmariales - male gametophye and tetrasporophytes are microscopic - female gametophyte is microscopic - tetrasporophyte is parasite in female gametophyte Genus: Palmaria/Rhodymenia Nemaliales - heterotrichous – crest or postrate thallus Family: Helminthocladaceae e.g. Liagora – heavily calcified Helmithocladia – gelatinous
  74. 74. Gelidiales - typical triphasic life history gametophytic tetrasporophytic - presence of nutritive cells (after fertilization) - agar sources Genera: Gelidiella Gelidium Bonnemaisonales Bonnemaisona- heteromorphic gametophytic, tetrasporophytic generation Asparagopsis – fee living filamentous; tetrasporophytic
  75. 75. Cryptonemiales - auxiliary cells on a vegetative branch Genera: - Cryptonemiales – heteromorphic life history w/ crustae -Gloiosiphon – tetrasporic phase and fleshy gametophyte e.g. Halymenia, Grateloupia, Gloiosiphon Corallinales - with white cells - reproduction structure in pits conceptacle - intercalary and apical meristem
  76. 76. Articulated species (non-calcified with genicula , joint between segments) e.g. Amphiroa Non-articulated species - lack genicula which are crustose with erect non- jointed branched e.g. Lithothannion Family: Solieriaceae Genera: Soliera, Eucheuma Family; Kappaphyceae Characteristics: - fission of cells that occur during fertilization - some have filamentous medulla
  77. 77. Family: Gracilariaceae - multiaxial construction w/ medullary layer which is parenchymatous Genera: Gracilaria Gigartina Mastocarpus Rhodymeniales - multi axial growth and triphasis life history (isomorphic) - gametophyte with a procarp (arrangement of 3 to 4 cells carpogonial branches adjacent 2 auxiliary cells e.g. Genera: Champia Chrysonemia
  78. 78. Ceremiales - filamentous, uniseriated - carposporophytic stage is exposed - multinucleated cell - pit connection visible 3 Family (Dascyaceae, Rhodomelaceae, are provided with trichoblast /colorless hair) Genera: Laurencia Hypnea Acantophora Dasya
  79. 79. Intertidal Communication Ties Species Major Sub-division Algal Groups Ultra Enteromorpha supra littoral zone species w/ stand dessication Prostate brown algae supra littoral fringe species w/ strong waves Sargassum turbinaria mid littoral species w/ anchored in deep Substrate Brown Algae sub littoral w/ stand variable illumination w/ stand wave action w/ stand temperature Factors a. Tide tidal amplitude (vertical range) tidal frequency (diurnal, semi diurnal mixed) b. Exposure of Algae shore topography wave action time of dessication
  80. 80. c. Type of substrate basic composition (material forming) peeble calcified rock calcified rock limestone rock silt / mud textures smooth rugged d. Biological Interaction -relationship among algae
  81. 81. 1. Succession- involves seral Bare - pioneer -succeeding 1 Climax 2 Species species 3 Community Bare -seagrass –Ulva –Sargrassum -Gracilacia Stable a.) Progressive –bare – climax b) Reverse –climax -bare
  82. 82. 2. Competition a.) Interspecies –between 2 different species b.) Among a particular species shading of Ulva against Enteromorpha Ulva shading Laurencia Sargassum shading Ulva, Enteromopha Caulaperpa Species of Ulva-competing for a limited space Sargassum species competing for light 3. Grazing -feeding -preferences (profifying) disappear -less preferences
  83. 83. Micro algae Communities Division –Cyanophyta blue green (phycobillin) nitrogen fixer (heterocyst) Significance: -food chain / food web (Iry producers) absorb inorganic substances -Nutrient recycling Distribution -epizoic, epiphytic -endozoic, endophypic -sessile (substrate attached)
  84. 84. Characteristics: -cyanophycean starch -chloro a and b (chlorophyta) -some endolithic –within rocks -oligotrophic Cytology: Cytoplasm of 2 types -chromoplasm – periphery and pigmentry -centroplasm – center and usually pail
  85. 85. Accessory Pigments: -Carotene -Xanthophylls (myxoxanthin) zeaxanthin -Phycobillins Arranged in a thyllakoid (phycobillisomes) -Phycocyanin Arranged in a -Phycoerythrin thyllakoid (phycobillisomes) -Allophycocyanin -Gas vacuole –bounded by carboxysomes -Reserved Food -Starch -Granules -polyhedral -polyglucan
  86. 86. Reproduction: -fragmentation of filaments at hormogonia -occur where akinets are located Resting spore Resting spore -endospore – product of internal division of cytoplasm
  87. 87. Taxonomy: Cyanophyceae Orders: Chamaesiphonales (filamentous and endopore producing) Chroococcales (unicellular or colonial) Oscillatoriales (filamentous)
  88. 88. Division: Prochlorophyta composed of 3 genera; 3 Genera Prochloron Prochlorotrix Chloro a and b Prochlorococcus Prochloron-intracellular, obligate symbionts ; free living group Prochlorotrix, Prochlorococcos- filamentous; causes blooms in lakes
  89. 89. Division Euglenophyta -grass green motile unicells -chloro a and b, B carotene -xanthophyll (neoxanthin) -astaxanthin (responsible for red color)
  90. 90. Flagellum Ampulla (reservoir) Non-emergent falgellum Paramylum (starechgrain) Blepharroplast Chloroplast C. vacuole Nucleus Cytoplasm
  91. 91. Taxonomy: Class Euglenophyceae Trophic Classification -phageotrophic (particle absorbing, particle ingesting) -osmotrophic –absorption of organic matter to photosynthesis Orders: Eutretiales -photosynthetic -flagella, unequal -active, euglenoid movement
  92. 92. Euglenales -photosynthetic, one emergent flagella -sessile (attached to substate) -with lorica (in capsulized) Heteronematales -phageotrophic, particle colorless and leaking photoreceptors; flagellar swelling Rhabdonematales -osmotrophic type Sphenomodales -both (osmotrophic, phageotrophic)
  93. 93. Division Pyrrophyta (Dinoflagellates) Trophic Forms: -autotrophs –free living -auxostrophic –need other accessory elements (vitamins) -heterotrophic –phageotrophic -symbiotic –with zooxanthellae
  94. 94. Cytology: -chloro a and b -B carotene -peridinine -diadinoxanthin -specialize cells -trichocyst –rod of protein material -nematocyst –ejectile organelle -pusule –sac-like (function as contractile vacuole) -muciferous odies – mucilage bodies that attach to the subatate
  95. 95. Eyespot Forms: 1. mass of lipid globules 2. single layer of globules 3. double layer of globules 4. complex ocellus Life History: 1. isogametes (sexual fusion) onisogametes 2. haplontic life history
  96. 96. Taxonomy Heterotrophic: 1. Ebriophyceae –colorless, naked Parasitic naked cells 2. Ellobiophyceae Parasitic naked cells 3. Syndimophyceae 4. Dinophyceae Group a. Blastodiniales –parasitic b. Dingamoebomeales –amoeboid c. Dinoclomiales –filamentous d. Gleodiniales –colonial e. Pyrocystales –coccoid
  97. 97. Peridianiales -motile -armonia -toxic Cause of ciguatera –fish poisoning e.g. Ceratium Cause of ciguatera Gonyaulax –fish poisoning Gymnodiales (common red tide forming species) e.g. Gymnodinium
  98. 98. Division: Cryptophyta (Cryptomonels) Characteristics: -assymetrical (dorso-ventral flatter) Top/ventral cross-section -pleuronematic flagella, unequal -ejectosomes at the reservoir -single chloroplast -one to many pyrenoids -red, brown, olive, yellow –is due to chlorophyll and phycobillin -Nucleomorph –double membrane DNA enclosed in ER