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“Public health impacts all of us, in every corner of
the globe, every day of our lives — not only our
health and safety, but also how we live, what we
wear, what we eat, what happens to our
environment and the stewardship of our planet”
COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING
PUBLIC HEALTH TRAINING
AND PRACTICE CENTRES
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
Public Health practitioners today face a growing range
of population health challenges worldwide.
HEALTH INEQUALITIES 4
Obesity epidemic and
Aging populations in
Colossal burden of ill health
resulting from poverty in
A competent public health workforce and infrastructure is
therefore crucial to address these often complex issues
Not enough is known about how Public
Health practitioners are trained globally or
whether the training received prepares them
adequately to address these issues?
The training and education of public health practitioners
should address the requirements of the role to be
This is achieved through adoption of a competency-
based approach to education and training.
'a unique set of applied knowledge, skills, and other
attributes, grounded in theory and evidence, for the broad
practice of Public Health.'
The American Association of Schools of Public Health (AASPH)
COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING
WHERE DO PUBLIC HEALTH
PROFESSIONALS GET TRAINED?
AND WHERE DO THEY PRACTICE?
were defined as those health
organisations involved in the
actual delivery of Public
Health advice, interventions
Academic institutions as
only those schools that
public health masters-level
courses (e.x. Mph, MDS &
msc in public health).
THE COMPETENCIES TAUGHT THE COMPETENCIES SOUGHT
Academic institutions tended to favour elements that were
more akin to research competencies such as critical appraisal,
research methodologies and the dissertation component
PRACTICE• Practitioner organisations on the other hand favoured
applied topics such as disease control and programme
• These may mirror the organisational realities of their
responsibilities and functions.
• The lack of congruence between what is delivered and
what is needed in Public Health education is of concern
as it ill-prepares students for the real world.
• The lack of an internationally agreed universal set of
defined competencies or approaches to public health
training and education.
Established in 1992
is a collaborative of 20 national organizations that
aims to improve public health education and
training, practice, and research.
Twenty national organizations are members of
the Council on Linkages:
American Association of Colleges of Nursing
American College of Preventive Medicine
American Public Health Association
Association for Prevention Teaching and
Association of Accredited Public Health
Association of Public Health Laboratories
Association of Schools and Programs of
Association of State and Territorial Health
Association of University Programs in Health
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Community-Campus Partnerships for Health
Health Resources and Services
National Association of County and City
National Association of Local Boards of
Development of the Core Competencies
The Core Competencies grew from a
desire to help strengthen the public
health workforce by identifying basic
skills for the effective delivery of public
Since development began in 1998, the Core Competencies
have gone through three versions:
2001 version – Adopted April 11, 2001 (original version)
2010 version – Adopted May 3, 2010
2014 version – Adopted June 26, 2014 (current version)
Organization of the Core Competencies
The Core Competencies are organized into eight domains,
reflecting skill areas within public health, and three tiers,
representing career stages for public health professionals.
Tier 1 – Front Line Staff/Entry Level
Tier 1 competencies apply to public health professionals who carry out the day-to-day tasks
of public health organizations and are not in management positions. Responsibilities of
these professionals may include data collection and analysis, fieldwork, program planning,
outreach, communications, customer service, and program support.
Tier 2 – Program Management/Supervisory Level
Tier 2 competencies apply to public health professionals in program management or
supervisory roles. Responsibilities of these professionals may include developing,
implementing, and evaluating programs; supervising staff; establishing and maintaining
community partnerships; managing timelines and work plans; making policy
recommendations; and providing technical expertise.
Tier 3 – Senior Management/Executive Level
Tier 3 competencies apply to public health professionals at a senior management level and
to leaders of public health organizations. These professionals typically have staff who report
to them and may be responsible for overseeing major programs or operations of the
organization, setting a strategy and vision for the organization, creating a culture of quality
within the organization, and working with the community to improve health.
Policy Development/Program Planning Skills
Cultural Competency Skills
Community Dimensions of Practice Skills
Public Health Sciences Skills
Financial Planning and Management Skills
Leadership and Systems Thinking Skills
"...the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases
and promoting dental health through organized community efforts.
It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a
patient rather than the individual. It is concerned with the dental
education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the
administration of group dental care programs as well as the
prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis.. "
• This population-based approach to professional practice is quite different from
the approach required for individual patient care in private practice, though
both forms of practice are integral parts of the dental profession.
• Accordingly, dental public health practice demands an additional body of
knowledge and a set of skills beyond those obtained in an undergraduate dental
HOW IS IT DIFFERENT?
Fundamental Attributes of the
Dental Public Health Specialist
Being a dentist……
The scientific background and clinical skills to diagnose,
prevent, and manage oral diseases and conditions inherent in a
dental education provide the underlying foundation for
advanced knowledge of dental public health.
Public health values
Demonstration of public health values, which essentially means a view of
health issues as they affect a population rather than an individual with
particular emphasis on prevention, the environment in its broadest sense, and
service to the community.
Public health dentists usually work collaboratively as part of a multidisciplinary
team of public health professionals and community representatives.
Leadership characteristics, such as influencing health policies and
practice through research, education, and advocacy; articulating a
vision for the organization; negotiating and resolving conflicts; etc.
Subscribing to the code of ethics set down by the Research ethics of the country.
Incorporate ethical standards in oral health programs and activities
I. Plan oral health programs for populations.
II. Select interventions and strategies for the prevention and control of oral diseases
and promotion of oral health.
III. Develop resources, implement and manage oral health programs for
IV. Incorporate ethical standards in oral health programs and activities.
V. Evaluate and monitor dental care delivery systems.
VI. Design and understand the use of surveillance systems to monitor oral health.
VII. Communicate and collaborate with groups and individuals on oral health issues.
VIII. Advocate for, implement and evaluate public health policy, legislation, and
regulations to protect and promote the public's oral health.
IX. Critique and synthesize scientific literature.
X. Design and conduct population-based studies to answer oral and public health
Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Volume 58, Supplement 1, 1998, p. 119-122.
DENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH
The scope of dental public health practice?
– Is it all about:
• Fluoride, seal, brush, and fill
• Financing of dental care
Demand for DPH expertise
It is a commodity;
Addressing the causes of inequalities and inequities in
health and oral health
Comprehensive dental/oral care models
Advanced oral health promotion
Social and policy changes 41
• Oral health Promotion Workforce (DDS,
Social Workers, others)
– Community health workers (Promotors)
– Community-based oral health promotion
– Community-based DPH clinical dentists and
– Advanced dental public health specialists
• Health management and policy
• Strategic planning and social marketing
• Program development and implementation
• Policy and advocacy
• Health promotion
– (with a certificate in dental public health
Competencies in DPH are dynamic and have to be updated
Periodic revisions are essential due to evolution of the specialty,
financial, workforce and technological changes in health care
delivery, changing characteristics of populations served, changing
patterns of dental disease, developments in informatics, big data,
and scientific advances.
Greater engagement between academic institutions and
practitioner organisations is necessary to ensure DPH courses are
appropriate and up-to-date.
1. Sadana R, Mushtaque A, Chowdhury R, Petrakova A. Strengthening public health education
and training to improve global health. Bull World Health Org 2007; 85: 163-4.
2. Calhoun JG, Ramiah K, Weist EM, Shortell SM. Development of a core competency model for
the Master of Public Health degree. Am J Public Health 2008; 98: 1598-607.
3. Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice. Core Competencies for
Public Health Professionals (adopted May 3, 2010).Washington, DC: Public Health
Foundation. (Online) (Cited 2011 March 26). Available from URL:
4. Khanagar S, Naganandini S, Rajanna V, Naik S, Rao R, Reddy S. Self-perceived competency
among postgraduate students of public health dentistry in India: A cross-sectional survey. J
Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2014;12:106-12.
5. 5. Chandrashekar J, Vinita S, Joe J. Public healther: The true role of public health dentist. J
Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14:241-2
6.Altman D, Mascarenhas AK. New competencies for the 21st century dental public
health specialist. Journal of public health dentistry. 2016 Sep 1;76(S1).
7.Weintraub JA. The development of competencies for specialists in dental public
health. Journal of public health dentistry. 1998 Dec 1;58(s1):114-8.
8. Abbas SM, Lee A, Mubashir H. Competencies required from public health
professionals by health based organisations and the role of academia. JPMA. The
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2014 Jan;64(1):57-63.
9. Competency Statements for Dental Public Health. Journal of Public Health
Dentistry, Volume 58, Supplement 1, 1998, p. 119-122.
10. Entry-level competencies: public health dentistry (community dentistry), Dental
Board of Australia, July 2016
11.Sawleshwarkar S, Negin J. A Review of Global Health Competencies for
Postgraduate Public Health Education. Frontiers in public health. 2017 Mar 20;5:46.
12. Rozier RG. AAPHD Turns 60—Back to the Future: Whatever Became of Dental
Public Health?. Journal of public health dentistry. 1997 Jan 1;57(1):3-4.
CHALLENGES ARE OPPORTUNITIES
THE POLICY OF BEING
TOO CAUTIOUS IS THE
GREATEST RISK OF ALL