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COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR IV (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR IV ESCUELA : NOMBRES: Inglés César Ochoa Cueva, M.S.Ed. BIMESTRE: Segundo Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011
Modals of Advisability <ul><li>Use modals to talk about actions and states that were advisable in the past, but did not happen . </li></ul>You should have done the laundry. + past participle should have ought to have could have might have
Contractions <ul><li>Use contractions in informal writing and speaking. </li></ul>Joe could have mowed the lawn. He might have washed the car. You should not have gone away. Joe could’ve He might’ve You shouldn’t
Negative Statements <ul><li>Use should not have and ought not to have for negative statements. </li></ul>You shouldn’t have gone away. Amy ought not to have left.
Questions <ul><li>Should have is the most common form used in questions . </li></ul>Should Amy have stayed at home? Should Joe have done the laundry?
Short Answers <ul><li>Use the modal and have to make short answers. </li></ul>Should Amy have stayed at home? Should Joe have done the laundry? Yes, she should have . No, he shouldn’t have .
Be ( not ) Past Participle ( by + Object) Subject Passive Voice = Be + Past Participle + ( by + Object) A nice song was sung by Richard Marx. Form of the Passive Voice Active Voice = Richard Marx sang a nice song. (simple past) Sunny Video was burglarized. A case is being reviewed by a judge. The videos were not stolen.
The police arrested the criminal. The criminal was arrested by the police. Subject is doing the action. Active voice Subject is receiving the action. Passive voice Active sentences focus on the agent (person or thing doing the action). Passive sentences focus on the object (person or thing receiving the action). Active vs. Passive
The case is reviewed by a judge. Passive Voice A judge reviews the case. Someone removed the videos. The videos were removed . The jury didn’t find the defendant guilty. The defendant wasn’t found guilty. Active Voice Active vs. Passive
Use the passive voice when the agent of the action is unknown or not important. Pictures and fingerprints are taken . Jurors are selected . Use of Passive Voice
Use the passive voice when we want to avoid mentioning the agent. Paulo committed a crime. A crime was committed . Active voice Paolo is responsible. Passive voice We don’t know who is responsible. Use of Passive Voice
Use a by phrase when it is important to know who performs the action . The video store was burglarized by a former employee . The information is surprising. By Phrases
Present Real Conditionals <ul><li>If people get sick , they sometimes try herbs . </li></ul>If your body temperature is above 98.6 º , you have a fever . Use present real conditionals for general truths. Use the simple present in both clauses. if clause result clause if clause result clause
Present Real Conditionals If people get sick , if clause result clause they try herbal remedies . Conditional sentences have an if clause (condition) and a result clause.
Present Real Conditionals If I ’m feeling sick, I eat more garlic. if clause simple present or present progressive result clause simple present Use real conditionals for habits and things that happen again and again.
When If I have a sore throat, I take honey bee. When I have a sore throat, I honey bee. You can often use when instead of if .
Use if with Modals If you aren’t sleeping well, you can drink chamomile tea. If you get a burn, you might use aloe gel. You can use modals in the result clause.
Use if with Imperatives If you take herbs, tell your doctor. If you have a headache, make a lavender compress. You can use imperatives in the result clause.
Clause Order If you have motion sickness , eat ginger root . if clause result clause if clause result clause Eat ginger root if you have motion sickness . If you have motion sickness , eat ginger root . A conditional sentence can begin with the if clause or the result clause.
Use with Negatives If I ’m not sleeping well, I don’t drink coffee. If I drink slippery elm tea, I don’t cough as much. You can make either or both clauses negative.
Indirect Speech When the reporting verb is in the simple past, the verb tense in the indirect speech statement often changes. Simple Past Past Progressive Past Perfect Past Perfect Direct Speech Indirect Speech Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Tense Present Perfect
Indirect Speech Modals often change in indirect speech. would could might had to Direct Speech Indirect Speech will can may must
Indirect Speech The following modals do not change in indirect speech: should, could, might, and ought to. “ You shouldn’t tell this secret to anyone.” She said I shouldn’t tell this secret to anyone. “ You ought to tell this to a friend.” ! He said I ought to tell this to a friend.
Indirect Speech “ I could have gotten help from a tutor.” He said he could have gotten help from a tutor. He said if he had studied, he would have gotten an A. “ I thought I had chosen the easy teacher.” “ If I had studied, I would have gotten an A.” He said he thought he had chosen the easy teacher. The following do not change in indirect speech: the past perfect, the present and past unreal conditional, and past modals.
Indirect Yes / No Questions Whether is more formal than if . We often use whether or not to report yes/no questions. The new guy asked whether or not he could take a break. “ Can I take a break?”
Wh - Questions The new guy asked when the next office party was. He also asked how many copies he could make. Use question words in indirect wh- questions . “ How many copies can I make?” “ When is the next office party?”
Word Order Use statement word order (subject + verb), not question word order, for indirect yes/no questions. He asked me if I could turn off the fax machine. “ Can you turn off the fax machine?”
Word Order Use statement word order (subject + verb), not question word order, for indirect wh- questions about the predicate (usually the last part of the sentence). He asked why the meetings lasted so long. “ Why do the meetings last so long?”
Auxiliaries He asked me do I have any new video games. In indirect questions, do not use the auxiliary do, does, or did. any new video games. if I had “ Do you have any new video games?”
Bibliography Advanced learner center. (2000),MyEnglishTeacher.net. Retrieved June 13 th , 2011, from http://www.myenglishteacher.net Fuchs, M. & Bonner, M. , Focus on Grammar 4 Pearson Education , White Plains, NY 10606, 2006 Richards, J., New Interchange 2 Cambridge University Press, 1998 Richards, J., New Interchange 3 Cambridge University Press, 1998