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Influence of seed treatments on germination and seedling.pptx

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Influence of seed treatments on germination and seedling.pptx

  1. 1. Influence of pre-sowing treatments on germination and seedling vigour in important tree species Uday Kumar Lodh M.Sc. Forestry (Plantation Technology) ICAR JRF (AIR-2)
  2. 2. 3 • Introduction • Case studies • conclusion INTRODUCTION • Pre-sowing treatment • Dormancy •Types of dormancy •Mechanism CONCLUSION • ????? Sterculia urens Pinus gerardiana Pterocarpus marsupium Acacia auriculiformis Garcinia gummi-gatta Tectona grandis Cassia glauca Pterocarpus santallinus Case studies
  3. 3. • The demand for nursery grown seedlings has increased manifold for planting programme and massive afforestation programme taken up by the government agencies. • Lack of standard nursery techniques hinders such attempts. • A healthy and succesful germinating seed is beginning of good establishment . • This depends largely on seed germination and vigour potential of the seeds used for sowing , which can be improved by various pre-sowing treatments . Introduction 4
  4. 4. Pre-sowing treatment is a treatment of the seed often applied to overcome seed dormancy and accelerate germination or to enhance rapid and uniform germination of seed and to speed up seed germination ( Mbora.,2012). Seed Dormancy??? The physical or physiological condition of a viable seed that prevents germination even in the presence of otherwise favorable germination conditions.(Leadem, C. L. 1997). 5
  5. 5. WHY DOES DORMANCY OCCUR? Dormancy is a biological mechanism to ensure that seeds will germinate at a time and under conditions that will optimize the chances for the growth and survival of the next generation. • Unfavorable climatic conditions for germination . • Incomplete development. • Protection against predation. • Protection against time (seed longevity) : evolved survival strategy to extend germination over many years and different environmental conditions. ex., Lupine seeds found in a lemming burrow by a Yukon mining engineer were able to germinate and produce healthy, flowering plants after10,000 years (Porsild et al., 1967). • Genetic variation : The expression of dormancy in natural seed populations is known to be under genetic control(Edwards and El-Kassaby 1995). 6
  6. 6. Comparision of the major stages of seed maturation,dormancy and germination in the natural and artificial regeneration of temperate tree seedlings Biological stage Dormancy Germination Hydration Activation Emergence Mature seed Germinants Natural regeneration Soil Seed bank Seeds soaked by rains Overwinter in soil Warm conditions in spring Artificial regeneration Storage (-1.8oC, < 10 %MC) Soak in water Stratification (25Oc,>25%MC) Sow in nursery Leadem., 1997 7
  7. 7. Different types of dormancy Leadem,1997 8
  8. 8. Type of dormancy Examples Coat imposed dormancy Acacia, Elaeocarpus, sterculia urens, Pterocarpus marsupium, cassia spp & Terminalia spp.. Morphologically immature Embryo Abies, Adina cordifolia, Fraxinus, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Panax spp,, Picea, Terminalia chebula, Pinus gerardiana etc., Internal dormancy Adina cordifolia, Albizia lebbeck, Castanea spp., Dalbergia latifolia,Ginkgo biloba, Picea, Taxus baccata, and Tsuga. Double dormancy Emblica officinalis, Gmelina arborea. Bisht,1999 9
  9. 9. Different pre-sowing treatments Treatment Description Stratification Moist chilling at 2-5oC; removes metabolic blocks, weakens seed coats, increases germination- promoter levels ex., Abies, Acer, Pinus gerardiana, Fagus, pinus spp etc. Light Exposure to specific wavelengths; stimulates the phytochrome system Gmelina arborea, and Pinus merkusii Scarification Chemical (sulphuric acid) or mechanical (abrasion) treatment; breaks down seed coats ex., Acacia, Leucaena, Albizia, Cassia glauca, & Sterculia urens . Plant growth regulators Enhance natural levels in favor of germination, or trigger regulators other metabolic pathways leading to germination Boiling water It is generally used for the seeds having very hard seed coat e.g. Acacia auriculiformis, A.mangium, etc. Cold Water Treatment The seeds are soaked at room temperature for a period ranging from 2 to 48 hrs depending on the species e.g. Acacia, Poplars & Pterocarpus marsupium . Bisht, 1999 10
  10. 10. Factors influencing germination Water Temperature Oxygen Light 11
  11. 11. • 1. Imbibed water stimulates Gibberellin synthesis. • 2-3. Gibberellins diffuse to the aleurone layer and stimulate the synthesis of enzymes. • 4-5. Enzymes break down the starch and the sugars are transported to the developing embryo. Thomas,2012 12
  12. 12. Graeber et al., 2012 13 A hypothetical model showing the mechanisms of seed dormancy induction and release.
  13. 13. CASE STUDIES 14
  14. 14. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on germination of Sterculia urens Roxb. Sanjeev,2015 Case study - 1 15
  15. 15. Importance of study The annual production of gum karaya is about 1500 T and 90% of it is exported to Europe and US. Gum karaya contributes 2% of the revenue from the medicinal plant exports from India (Avinash Upadhayay, 2006). This tree is also known as ‘Bulnaru’ (Uttar Kannada), a well known tree for fibre, for this reason only most of the farmers cut the entire tree to get fibre. Sanjeev,2015 16
  16. 16. Location :- This study was carried out in polyhouse ,College of Forestry, sirsi in 2014-15. Methodology :-  Seeds collected from karwar forest division  Uniform seeds were collected for germination trail  150 seeds were used in each treatment  10 treatments and 3 replications. Design Completely Randomized Design Collection of data Germination was recorded up to 45 days from the day of seed sowing. Experiment: Sanjeev,2015 17
  17. 17. • Type of seed : Orthodox (Gondwe et al., 2007) • Habitat : Dry, tropical deciduous forests, often associated with Boswellia serrata, on hilltops, exposed ridges, rocky crevices, eroded slopes and similar habitats. • Germination percentage : 30-37% (khan,2013) • Distribution : Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh(Anon,1976) • Type of seed dormancy: Seed coat dormancy Sanjeev,2015 18
  18. 18. Influence of pre sowing treatments on seed germination parameters of Sterculia urens. Treatments Germination % MDG PV GV GR T1 Mechanical scarification (rubbing with sand paper) 38.7 0.87 4.32 3.77 2.56 T2 Chemical scarification (dipping in conc.H2SO4 for 1minute, followed by washing with tap water) 42.7 0.94 5.00 4.75 3.03 T3 Cow dung slurry treatment (2 days). 33.3 0.74 3.92 2.90 2.44 T4 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 54.7 1.22 7.61 9.29 4.60 T5 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 65.3 1.44 8.95 12.97 5.80 T6 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 56.7 1.25 7.00 8.81 4.52 T7 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 54.0 1.19 7.41 8.87 4.36 T8 Mechanical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 60.0 1.33 8.23 10.96 4.96 T9 Chemical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 57.3 1.27 6.72 8.54 3.96 T10 Control 34.7 0.77 3.66 2.85 2.21 Mean 49.74 1.10 6.28 7.37 3.84 SEm± 1.01 0.03 0.37 0.61 0.26 CD @ 5% 3.01 0.11 1.11 1.82 0.78 19
  19. 19. Influence of various pre sowing treatments on shoot length, root length and total length of Sterculia urens seedlings Treatments Shoot length (cm) Root length (cm) Total seedling length (cm) T1 Mechanical scarification (rubbing with sand paper) 26.50 10.25 36.75 T2 Chemical scarification (dipping in conc.H2SO4 for 1 minute, followed by washing with tap water) 30.02 9.70 39.72 T3 Cow dung slurry treatment (2 days). 27.97 9.47 37.45 T4 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 32.22 10.33 42.55 T5 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 34.81 12.10 46.91 T6 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 34.27 10.12 44.40 T7 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 30.24 10.30 40.54 T8 Mechanical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 31.83 9.12 40.95 T9 Chemical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 29.78 8.65 38.44 T10 Control 22.04 7.15 29.19 Mean 29.96 9.71 39.69 SEm± 1.81 0.62 2.17 CD @ 5% 5.39 1.86 6.44 Sanjeev,2015 20
  20. 20. Influence of pre sowing treatments on seedling vigour index Treatments Seedling vigour index T1 Mechanical scarification (rubbing with sand paper) 1418.4 T2 Chemical scarification (dipping in conc.H2SO4 for 1 minute, followed by washing with tap water) 1702.8 T3 Cow dung slurry treatment (2 days). 1249.2 T4 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 2328.3 T5 Mechanical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 3070.0 T6 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 200 ppm for 12 hours 2521.8 T7 Chemical scarification + Treating with Gibberlic acid (GA3) of 250 ppm for 12 hours 2184.1 T8 Mechanical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 2458.6 T9 Chemical scarification + Treating with KNO3 (0.5%) for 12 hours 2208.7 T10 Control 1014.5 Mean 2015.6 SEm± 148.71 CD @ 5% 438.70 Sanjeev,2015 21
  21. 21. Effect of pre sowing treatments on germination percent of Sterculia urens. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 38.7 42.7 33.3 54.7 65.3 56.7 54 60 57.3 34.7 Germination percent Treatments Sanjeev,2015 22
  22. 22. Conclusion • That germination was highest in two treatments i.e., mechanical scarification + Gibberelic acid(GA3) 250 ppm for 12 hours (65.3% )and mechanical scarification + KNO3(0.5%) for 12hours (60%). • Highest germination was due to softening of hard seed coat which may be impermeable for water and the seeds given scarification treatment make the seed coat permeable. • GA3 induced the production of enzymes by gibberllins , like protease,lipases for mobilizing storage reserves for seed germination. Sanjeev,2015 23
  23. 23. Influence of seed pretreatment on seed germination and seedling vigour of Pterocarpus Marsupium ROXB. Case study - 2 Ved pal Singh and Devendra kumar , 2014 24
  24. 24. Location :- Nursery in center for forestry research and human resource development, poama, chhindwara , M.P Methodology :-  Seeds are collected from gondia forest division  potting media is 1:1:1 ( sand, soil,compost) .  Seeds were sown in july  100 seeds of each treatment with 4 replications were sown in nursery bed. Design Randomized block design Collection of data Germination was recorded up to 28 days from the day of seed sowing. The hypocotyls emerged 1cm above round was considered as criterion for seed germination. Ved pal Singh and Devendra kumar , 2014 25
  25. 25. Type of seed: Orthodox Habitat : Mainly found in deciduous forests at low elevations(Gamble., 1972) Distribution : Found in the Deccan Peninsula, central India and certain parts of northern India. Type of seed dormancy : Physical – seed coat dormancy 26
  26. 26. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY • Excellent timber and high valued in international market i.e.,1000-1500 rupees/cft ( muralidhara .,2016) • In diabetes control (Trivedi., 2006) • high market price of its dry heartwood (Rs. 70/kg) (NMPB 2008), Ved pal Singh and Devendra kumar , 2014 27
  27. 27. Treatments parameters Germination percentage vigour index T1 ( soaking in conc. H2SO4 for 10 min and washed with running water) 21.67 172.8 T2(soaking in conc.HCl for 10min & washed with running water) 31.67 253.9 T3 (soaking of seeds in hot water for 24 hr) 47.33 602.9 T4 (soaking of seeds in cold water for 24hr) 58.67 1009.3 T5 (control) 33.00 611.8 CD at 5% 5.14 12.96 Ved pal Singh and Devendra kumar , 2014 28
  28. 28. Conclusion • The seed coat is thin and water is permeable through the seed coat and absorbed by the seed and helped in mobilizing storage reserves. Ved pal Singh and Devendra kumar , 2014 29
  29. 29. Effect of different pre-sowing treatments for early germination in Garcinia gummi-gutta Shankar,2014 Case study - 3 30
  30. 30. Importance of study • Traditionally people of high rainfall tracks of Karnataka and Kerala use the dried fruit rind in culinary preparations as flavoring agent while preparing fish and beef curries in lieu of tamarind or lime. • Fruit rind is marketed in large quantities. In India exports of over 50 tones (valued at 17 million rupees) have been recorded. • In the recent years 'Garcinia' has become one of the major NTFP because of its newly identified pharmaceutical property. Hydroxy Cirtic Acid (HCA) a chemical that is believed to reduce fat accumulation when consumed isextracted from the dried fruit rind. Marketed in the name of citin, citrimax. Shankar,2014 31
  31. 31. Garcinia gummi-gatta • Type of seed : Recalcitrant (Chacko and Pillai ,1997) . • Habitat : Semi-evergreen to Evergreen forests, river banks and valleys (Abraham et al., 1999). • Distribution : Western ghats, Konkan belt & Northern part of Kerala (Abraham et al., 1999). • Type of seed dormancy : Innate or Induced (Vazquez-Yanes & Orozcosegovia 1993). Shankar,2014 32
  32. 32. 41.97 33.61 33.57 31.04 28.84 19.3 18.36 15.74 9.52 34.00 31.33 26.67 11.33 6.67 0 0 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Seed moisture content and Germionation percentage Treatments Seed Moisture content (%) Germination (%) Shankar,2014 Influence of seed drying on seed moisture content and seed germination percentage in Garcinia gummi-gutta seed. 33
  33. 33. Pre-sowing treatment Germination (%) MDG PV GV Shoot length (cm) Root length(cm) T1: With seed coat(control) 20.00 0.11 0.13 0.01 5.43 8.86 T2: De coated seed 74.67 0.41 0.46 0.19 11.63 13.36 T3: Cow dung(3:1)- 1week 26.00 0.14 0.16 0.02 5.66 8.80 T4: Ash 1kg/kg 21.00 0.12 0.14 0.02 5.56 10.01 T5:H2O2 30% - 30 min 21.00 0.12 0.13 0.01 5.83 9.53 T6:Halving 29.33 0.16 0.18 0.03 7.10 7.73 T7: T2+GA3(50ppm) (1:2)12hr 86.33 0.48 0.58 0.28 13.33 13.43 T8: T3+GA3(50ppm)-(1:2)12hr 31.00 0.17 0.19 0.03 6.53 8.33 T9: T4+GA3(50ppm) (1:2)12hr 26.33 0.15 0.16 0.02 5.83 11.56 T10:T5+GA3(50ppm) (1:2)12hr 28.33 0.16 0.17 0.03 6.50 10.50 T11: T6+GA3(50ppm)(1:2)12hr 43.67 0.24 0.25 0.06 6.50 9.66 SEm± 0.74 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.16 0.50 CD@5% 2.17 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.49 1.46 Shankar,2014 34
  34. 34. 20 74.67 26 21 21 29.33 86.33 31 26.33 28.33 43.67 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T1: With seed coat T2: De coated seed T3: Cow dung T4: Ash T5: H2O2 (30%) T6: Halving(Cut into two pieces) T7: T2+GA3 (50ppm) T8: T3+GA3 (50ppm) T9: T4+GA3 (50ppm) T10: T5+GA3 (50ppm) T11: T6+GA3 (50ppm) Germination % Shankar,2014 Effect of various pre-sowing treatments on seed germination in Garcinia gummi- gutta. 35
  35. 35. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Values Treatments MDG PV GV Shankar,2014 Effect of various pre-sowing treatments mean daily germination(MDG) , peak value(PV) and germination value (GV) in Garcinia gummi-gutta . 36
  36. 36. Pre-sowing treatment Germination % Seedling height (cm) Seedling vigour index T1: With seed coat(control) 20.00 14.30 286 T2: De coated seed 74.67 25.00 1867 T3: cow dung 26.00 14.46 376 T4: Ash 21.00 14.91 313 T5:H2O2 21.00 15.36 323 T6: Halving(cutting in 2 pieces) 29.33 14.83 435 T7: T2+GA3(50ppm) 86.33 26.76 2311 T8: T3+GA3(50ppm) 31.00 14.86 461 T9: T4+GA3(50ppm) 26.33 17.40 458 T10:T5+GA3(50ppm) 28.33 17.00 482 T11: T6+GA3(50ppm) 43.67 16.16 706 SEm± 0.74 0.55 25.49 CD@5% 2.17 1.62 74.76 Shankar,2014 37
  37. 37. Conclusion • The Germination was highest in decoated seed and decoated seeds treated with GA3 . • This is due to either damaging or removal of seed coat and change in metabolic activities , which made easy permeability of water to the cotyledons and led to higher germination percentage. Shankar,2014 38
  38. 38. Effect of treatments on seedling vigour of cassia glauca Bahar ,2013 Case study - 4 39
  39. 39. – The leaves of this species are used for the treatment of diabetes. – In folk medicine, bark and leaves of Cassia glauca are used for the treatment of diabetes and gonorrhea (Salahuddin,2010) IMPORTANCE OF STUDY Bahar ,2013 40
  40. 40. Location :- Study was conducted in forest research institute, Dehradun. Methodology :-  Mature pods were collected during January from Dehradun.  8 treatments with 4 replications with 100seeeds in each replication.  The petridishes were kept in germinator at 98% relative humidity and 32 ± 2oC temperature in controlled cabinet on top of a moist blotting paper. Design Completely Randomized Design. Collection of data Germination was recorded up to 28 days from the day of seed sowing. Seeds were considered germinated when the radicle had emerged 1cm. Bahar ,2013 41
  41. 41. In each column values not followed by the same letter are significantly different at 0.05 level by DMRT Treatments Germination (%) Vigour index Control(untreated) 10.22e 277.20e Soaking in cold water(260C) for 24hrs 22.65e 375.52e Soaking in hot water(700C) for 24hrs 70.58b 392.77e Mechanical scarification (nicking at the cotyledon end) 95.66a 1133.82a Sulphuric acid scarification for 10 min 75.36d 511.40d Sulphuric acid scarification for 20 min 80.83c 678.39c Sulphuric acid scarification for 30 min 90.54b 1096.30b Sulphuric acid scarification for 40 min 82.69c 869.75c Bahar ,2013 42
  42. 42. conclusion Problem in germination of Cassia glauca is due to hard seed coat and the germination can be enhanced by mechanical or by sulphuric acid scarification. Bahar ,2013 43
  43. 43. Studies on cone maturation and pre-sowing seed treatment on germination behaviour of chilgoza pine (pinus gerardiana wall.) Shamet et.al.,2013 Case study - 5 44
  44. 44. • Type of seed: Orthodox • Habitat : Dry temperate region of North-Western Himalaya between 1600 m to 3000 m above mean sea level (Dogra, 1964) • Germination percentage: Low germination 20 to 30 per cent (Luna, 2008) • Distribution : . It is found in Afghanisthan and parts of Pakistan, i.e. Baluchistan. • Type of seed dormancy : Physiological Shamet et.al.,2013 45
  45. 45. Location :- Horticulture research station sharbo(peo), kinnaur, h.p (2010-11) Methodology :-  Seeds are collected from 40 middle aged cone bearing trees in october (when cone scales started opening).  10 treatments with 3 replications  120 seeds were used in each treatment  Seeds were placed on moist germination sheets in germinator at 25oC. Design Completely Randomized Design ( factorial) The data was subjected to (ANOVA) to determine the (CD) following the method of Snedecor and cochran(1989). Collection of data Germination was recorded up to 40 days from the day of seed sowing. The radicle emergence was considered as criterion for seed germination. Shamet et.al.,2013 46
  46. 46. Effect of collection date on seed viability and cone characteristics of chilgoza pine Harvest period(H) Seed viability(%) Seed moisture content(%) Cone moisture content(%) Cone specific gravity 23rd August 52.44 34.21 60.70 1.05 6th September 68.00 32.88 57.38 0.97 20th September 87.56 30.99 52.23 0.93 4th October 82.67 27.90 43.09 0.87 18th October 80.00 23.26 26.80 0.79 CD0.05 3.67 0.50 1.76 0.05 Shamet et.al.,2013 47
  47. 47. Treatment Germination (%) S1 S2 Mean Germination value(%) S1 S2 Mean Control 31.67 31.67 31.67 0.09 0.09 0.09 Water 38.33 45.00 41.67 0.34 0.17 0.15 100 ppm IAA 46.67 51.67 49.17 0.18 0.22 0.20 100 ppm IBA 51.67 51.67 51.67 0.23 0.24 0.24 100 ppm GA3 56.67 65.00 60.83 0.30 0.37 0.34 100 ppm NAA 51.67 53.33 52.50 0.22 0.27 0.25 100 ppm Kinetin 51.67 53.33 52.50 0.22 0.25 0.23 100 ppm Ethrel 45.00 51.67 48.33 0.13 0.22 0.17 1% KNO3 43.33 50.00 46.67 0.14 0.22 0.18 1% MgSo4 40.00 51.67 45.83 0.14 0.24 0.19 Mean 45.67 50.50 0.18 0.23 T S T*S CD(0.05) 5.98 2.67 NS 0.05 0.02 NS Shamet et al.,2013 48
  48. 48. CONCLUSION • Application of 100ppm GA3 for 24hr most effective pre-sowing treatment. • Enhancement of seed germination with GA3 treatment might probably be due to increased hydrolase ( alpha amylase) synthesis or diffusion of endogenous auxin and giberellin like substances . 49
  49. 49. Effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed germination percentage and growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis Azad et al., 2011 Case study - 6 50
  50. 50. Importance • Proved successful for afforestation, reforestation and agroforestry programme. • It is planted for fuel wood production and erosion control (NAS 1979). • It is also planted as an ornamental, shade bearer, sources of pulp and tannin producing plant in many tropical areas in the world (NAS 1979). • It gained a favourable reputation as a good cover crop of tea & in land reclamation,erosion control, and water conservation. • The leaves can be used as mulch around other crops (Duke 1981). Azad et al., 2011 51
  51. 51. Location : The experiment was carried out in the nursery of Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh, Methodology :-  The seeds were collected from 20 to 30 years old matured and healthy trees during the month of January 2008.  The germination test was done by sowing the seeds in poly-bags (4cm × 6 cm).  The media of the poly-bags was topsoil, coconut husk compost, coarse sand and fine sand in the ratio of (3:4:1:1).  5 treatments with 4 replications.  80 seeds were sown in each treatment . Design:  Randomized Block Design (RBD) .  Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test(DMRT) (Duncan 1955) were carried out for data analysis. Collection of data:  Germination was recorded up to 35 days from the day of seed sowing.  The growth performance of the seedlings was monitored for 180 days to assess the pre-sowing treatment effect on growth. Azad et al., 2011 52
  52. 52. Different pre-sowing treatment on Seed germination percentage, height and diameter growth of A . auriculiformis at nursery stages. Pre-sowing treatment Total Germination(%) Mean Height Growth(cm/Month) Mean Collar Diameter (cm/month) T1 - Control 43.75c 12.91b 0.17b T2 - Immersion in the cold water (4°C) for 12 hours 52.50c 13.24b 0.18b T3 - Immersion in the hot water (80°C) for 10 min 83.75a 17.65a 0.24a T4 - Scarification with the sand paper 78.75b 14.31b 0.19b T5 - Immersion in the concentrated H2SO4 (80%) for 20 min. 75.00b 13.92b 0.20b Azad et al., 2011 53
  53. 53. Conclusion • Among the pre-sowing treatments, seed germination under immersion in hot water performs significantly well than other Treatments. • Seedling growth from hot water treatment performed significantly higher than others. • Therefore,it is suggested to apply hot water treatment on seed germination for Acacia auriculiformis in Bangladesh for social forestry and agroforestry program. Azad et al., 2011 54
  54. 54. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination of Tectona grandis . Billa et al.,2015 55
  55. 55. Location :- The experiment was conducted in the nursery of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology (SUST),Sylhet, Bangladesh. Methodology :- Seeds were collected from Shekhghat Nursery, Sylhet, Bangladesh 6 treatments and 3 replications with 30 seeds in each replication Design Randomized Complete Block Design Collection of data Germination was recorded for 45 days Billa et al.,2015 56
  56. 56. Tectona grandis germination period and germination percentage under different treatments Treatment No. of germinated seeds Germination Period (days) Germination (%) Start complete T0 - control 13 28 43 36.67b T1 -soaking in normal water for 24 hours 16 23 33 53.33a T2 -soaking in normal water for 72 hours 22 21 32 73.33a T3 - soaking in hot water for 5 minutes 18 20 31 60.00a T4 – Pit method 26 14 27 86.67a T5 - immersion in 80% concentrated H2SO4 for 20 minutes 17 17 29 56.67a Billa et al.,2015 57
  57. 57. Mean daily germination (%) of T. grandis seeds under different treatments Billa et al.,2015 58
  58. 58. CONCLUSION • Among the treatments applied in the experiment, the best effective treatment found for Tectona grandis was Pit method in respect to faster germination, higher germination percentage and germination value. • The main reason behind the successful germination of Pith method may be of that seeds of Teak require continuous hot temperature in association with available water to germinate. • If the seeds are kept first time in normal water for 3 days, the seed coat become soft and after that if they get sufficient temperature in association with water, then their highest and successful germination is ensured. Billa et al.,2015 59
  59. 59. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on germination of Pterocarpus santalinus Sankanur,2008 60
  60. 60. Location :- college of forestry, sirsi in 2007-2008. This study was carried out in polyhouse Methodology :- 50 pods were sown in each replication. Mature pods were collected for germination trail. After pre-sowing treatment , pods were sown in sand beds Design Completely Randomized Design . Collection of data Germination was recorded up to 30 days from the day of seed sowing. Sankanur,2008 61
  61. 61. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on germination of Pterocarpus santalinus Treatment Germination (%) Seedling height(cm) Seedling vigour index Control – T1 17.33 2.23 38.67 Pods soaking in water for 72 hrs – T2 40.00 2.73 109.33 Pod soaking in 40% HCl for 24 hrs – T5 75.67 4.37 333.93 T2+ dipping in beejamrutha – T7 42.00 2.93 123.20 Edge cutting of pods with secature – T8 52.00 3.33 173.47 Scarification of pods by rubbing with sand paper –T9 58.33 3.63 211.97 T9 + 200 ppm GA3 for 3 hrs – T10 66.00 3.73 246.40 T9+100 ppm GA3 for 6hrs – T11 71.33 4.03 287.93 SEm± 1.11 0.06 5.56 CD@5% 3.25 0.16 16.23 Sankanur,2008 62
  62. 62. Conclusion • Scarification of pods by rubbing with sand paper and further treatment with GA3 for 6 hrs allowed early germinaton process by activating enzyme production . • GA3 play a central role in early germination proces by activating enzyme production , mobilizing stored reserves and thus overcoming the inhibitory effect as Pterocarpus santalinus pods contain phenolic compounds as inhibitors Sankanur,2008 63
  63. 63. Overall conclusion • Seeds of Pterocarpus marsupium when soaked in cold water for 24hour resulted in better germination (58.67%) as compared with control (33%) • The Germination in Garcinia gummi-gutta was highest in decoated seed(74.67%) and decoated seeds treated with GA3 50 ppm(86.33) • The germination was highest in Sterculia urens of two treatments i.e., mechanical scarification + Gibberelic acid(GA3) 250 ppm for 12 hours (65.3% )and mechanical scarification + KNO3(0.5%) for 12hours (60%). • Application of 100ppm GA3 for 24hours proved to be most effective pre-sowing treatment in pinus gerardiana which has resulted in highest germination(65%) as compared to control (31.67%). 64
  64. 64. • Germination in Cassia glauca is due to hard seed coat and the germination can be enhaAnced by mechanical(95.66%) or by sulphuric acid scarification for 30 minutes(90.54%). • Among different pre-sowing treatments, seed germination under immersion in hot water for 10 minutes performs significantly well(83.75%) than other Treatments. • The best effective treatment for Tectona grandis was Pit method in respect to faster germination, higher germination percentage (86.67%) as compared to control. • Scarification of pods by rubbing with sand paper and further treatment with GA3 for 6 hrs allowed highest germinaton (66%) in Pterocarpus santalinus by activating enzyme production mobilizing stored reserves and thus overcoming the inhibitory effect .
  65. 65. We need to understand • Habitat , • Morphological features of the seed • By applying different pre-sowing treatments we can overcome seed dormancy and obtain early germination and high seedling vigour as compared to those which are not treated.
  66. 66. Habitat of origin Dormancy treatment Species Temperate region by cold winters Stratification Pinus gerardiana Dry climate (grassland, desert) Leaching, scarification,soaking Acacia auriculiformis Tectona grandis Warm, high humidity Scarification, de-coating Garcinia gummi-gatta 65
  67. 67. Thank you

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