SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 32
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
 http://www.essortment.com/all/lea
dershipstyle_rrnq.htm
Leadership
A leader is best , when people barely know he
exists…
Not so good when people obey and acclaim him.
Worst when they despise him .
But of a good leader , who talks little,
when his work is done and aim fulfilled ,
they will say : we did it ourselves.
By Lao –tzu
INTRODUCTION
 According to Stephen Robbins leadership" is the
ability to influence a group towards the
achievement of goals”.
 According to Paul Heresy and Kenneth Blanchard ,
leadership “is a process of influencing group activities
towards accomplishment of goals in a given
situation”
 Besides influence, leadership has been defined in terms
of group process, personality,compliances,particular
behaviours, persuasion, goal achievement, interaction,
role differentiations and combination of two or more.
SOME REAL ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERS
The most successful business icons has been heroic
CEO’s who sit astride the giant corporations- the
huge system and steers it brilliantly along .
 Michel Eisner at Disney
 Jack Welch at GE
 Bill Gates at Microsoft
 John Reed at Citicorp
Indian Business Leaders
Dhirubhai Ambani
with Mukesh & Anil
Ambani
JRD Tata with
Ratan Tata
The Birla Group
N.R. Narayana Murthy: Leader of Infosys
N. R. Narayana Murthy: Non-executive Chairman
of the Board and Chief Mentor of Infosys
Technologies Limited.
MURTHY-
5 ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS
 Openness to learn: Openness to subordinate your
ego to take ideas from others.
 Second, meritocracy: The best ideas are adopted
and implemented using data to arrive at the best
decision.
 Third, speed: Assuring you do things faster
compared to yesterday and last quarter.
 Fourth, imagination: You continually bring better
ideas and better innovation to the table.
 And finally, excellence in execution: That is
implementation of these great ideas with a higher
level of excellence today than yesterday.
LEADERS OR MANAGERS?
 According to Bennis “to survive in the 21st
century,
we are going to need new generations of leaders not
managers
 John Kotter also argues that leadership is different
from management .Leadership is about coping with
change and management is about coping with
complexities.
 “Management is doing things right, leadership is
doing the right things”
(Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
Characteristics of …
MANAGER v/s LEADER
 Administers.
 A copy.
 Maintains.
 Focus on system & structures
 Relies in control.
 Short Range view.
 Asks how and when.
 Eyes on the bottom line.
 Imitates
 Accept the status quo
 Classic good soldier
 Does things right
 Innovates.
 An original.
 Develops.
 Focus on people.
 Inspire trust.
 Long range perspective.
 Asks what and why.
 Eyes on horizon.
 Originates.
 Challenges the status quo.
 Own person .
 Does the right thing.
Some Qualities For Becoming A Successful
Leader
1. Sound Health :If you are healthy you can invest energy
you can work hard without any physical discomfort
2. Managerial Ability :You should be able to plan and control the
work of assistants.
3. Communication Skill :You should know what to speak, when and
how. Listen in depth !
4. Decision Making :Must possess capacity to think / analyze
problems and take right decisions.
5. Motivational Ability :You should possess the skill to energize &
keep the morale high.
6.Education and Training :Good academic education
In depth training in chosen field of operation.
7. Intelligence and Attitude :Your intellectual capacity is sharp &
approach is focused.
8. Impressive Personality :
Total behavior, writing, speech, dress ,manner- give a Role Model.
CONTENT
LEADERSHIP
FACTORS
EFFECTING
LEADERSHIP
TYPES OF
LEADERSHIP
STYLES
THEORIES OF’
LEADERSHIP
CHANGE
LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP STYLES : BASIC
TYPES
AUTOCRATIC
BUREAUCRATIC
DEMOCRATIC
LAISSEZ FAIRE
AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager
retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The managers
don't consult employees nor are they allowed to give inputs.
Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management
style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:
 --Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees
 --Do not trust employees
 --Do not allow for employee input
Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to
use. These situations can include:
 --New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which
procedures to follow
 --Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and
instructions
 --Employees do not respond to any other leadership style
 --There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis
 --There is limited time in which to make a decision
 --A manager’s power is challenged by an employee
 --The area was poorly managed

--Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages “by the
book. Every thing must be done according to procedure and policy.
This style can be effective when:
 --Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.
 --Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.
 --Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment
that requires a definite set of procedures to operate.
 --Safety or security training is being conducted.
 --Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash.
This style is ineffective when:
 --Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no
longer useful.
 --Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow
workers.

--Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it
encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. This style
requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers
information from staff members before making a decision.
The democratic leadership style is most effective when:
 --The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect
them.
 --The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-
solving duties.
 --The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a
high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.
 --There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve.
 --Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or
groups of employees.
Democratic leadership should not be used when:
 --There is not enough time to get everyone’s input.
 --It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the
decision.
 --The business can’t afford mistakes.
 --The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.
 --Employee safety is a critical concern
LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP STYLE
The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨
style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction
and gives employees as much freedom as possible.
This is an effective style to use when:
 --Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.
 --Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it
successfully on their own.
 --Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being
used
 --Employees are trustworthy and experienced.
This style should not be used when:
 --It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a
manager.
 --The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees
know how well they are doing.
 --Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work.
 --The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is
hoping the employees can cover for him or her.
VARYING LEADERSHIP STYLE
While the proper leadership style depends on the
situation, there are three other factors that also influence
which leadership style to use.
 1. The manager’s personal background. What personality,
knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the
manager have. What does he or she think will work?
 2. The employees being supervised. Employees are
individuals with different personalities and backgrounds.
The leadership style managers use will vary depending
upon the individual employee and what he or she will
respond best to.
 3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and
concerns of the company will influence how a manager
acts.
CHANGE IN LEADERSHIP
THE PROCESS
THE PROBLEM
THE SOLUTION
SELLING THE IDEA
RESENTMENT AND ILIENATION
RESIGNATION
ACCEPTANCE
INTERNALISATION
Change Leadership
 The most challenging aspect of business is
leading and managing change
 The business environment is subject to fast-
paced economic and social change
 Modern business must adapt
and be flexible to survive
 Problems in leading change stem mainly from
human resource management
Change Leadership
Self-esteem
Time
1. Immobilisation
– as rumours of the
change circulate, the
individual feels some
sense of shock and
possible disbelief –
so much so that they
deem it worthy of
doing nothing.
1
2. Minimisation: As the
change becomes clearer,
people try to fit in the
change with their own
personal position and may
try to believe that it will
not affect them.
2
3. Depression: as reality
begins to dawn staff may
feel alienated and angry,
feelings of a lack of control
of events overtake people
and they feel depressed as
they try to reconcile what
is happening with their
own personal situation.
3
4
4. Acceptance/letting go:
The lowest point in self-
esteem finally sees people
starting to accept the
inevitable. Fear of the
future is a feature of this
stage.
5
5. Testing out:
Individuals begin to
interact with the change,
they start to ask questions
to see how they might
work with the change.
6
6. Search for meaning:
Individuals begin to work
with the change and see
how they might be able to
make the change work for
them – self esteem begins
to rise.
7
7. Internalisation:
the change is
understood and
adopted within the
individual’s own
understanding – they
now know how to
work with it and feel a
renewed sense of
confidence and self
esteem.
THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
THEORIES
OF
LEADERSHIP
TRAIT
THEORY
BEHAVIOURAL
THEORIES
(IOWA
LEADERSHIP
STUDY,THE
OHIO STATE
LEADERSHIP
STUDY
THE
UNIVERSITY
OF MICHIGAN
STUDIES
THE
MANAGERIAL
GRID
THEORY
THE
CONTINGENCY
THEORY
PATH
GOAL THEORY
OF
LEADERSHIP
LIKERT FOUR
SYSTEM
TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
Assumptions
 People are born with inherited traits.
 Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
 People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination
of traits. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills of leaders

Traits Skills
•Adaptable to situations
•Alert to social environment
•Ambitious and achievement-orientated
•Assertive
•Cooperative
•Decisive
•Dependable
•Dominant (desire to influence others)
•Energetic (high activity level)
•Persistent
•Self-confident
•Tolerant of stress
•Willing to assume responsibility
•Clever (intelligent)
•Conceptually skilled
•Creative
•Diplomatic and tactful
•Fluent in speaking
•Knowledgeable about group task
•Organised (administrative ability)
•Persuasive
•Socially skilled
BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP
Assumptions
 Leaders can be made, rather than are born.
 Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.
 Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things
Iowa leadership studies by R.lippit and Ralph k White is a
behavioural theory of leadership based on the impact of leadership styles
on a group. It was experimentally found that democratic leadership lead to
an overwhelming behaviour were as laissez faire lead to a worst form of
aggression.
The Ohio State Leadership study: In 1945 the bureau of business
research initiated a series of studies on leadership. They plotted
behaviour on 2 separate axis
1. Initiating structure :the extent to which the leader is suppose to define
his and his subordinates role .
2.Consideration : the extent to which a leader is suppose to have trust,
regards, job relationship with is subordinates.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
In the Michigan university, a group of researcher also
came up with 2 dimensions of leadership behavior. They
are :
 Employee centered: Emphasizing interpersonal
relationship considered with the welfare of the
subordinates
 Production centered: Emphasizing task or technical
aspect.
THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY
Robert R Blake and Jane S Mouton developed managerial grid which is
very famous among leaders and manager for adopting styles . They
proposed managerial grid based on two dimensions.
A. Concern for people
B. Concern for production
The scale range for each dimension range from 1 to 9 . Based on these
range 5 types of basic management styles evolved .
They are:
(1,1) :Also known as impoverished managers , were leaders plays least
importance to production and concern for people
(1,9) : Also known as Country club managers , the leaders have high concern
for people and low concern for production
(5,5): Leaders maintains adequate performance , maintaining a balance .
(9.1):Leaders initiate autocratic control with least interference of human
element
(9.9): Leaders initiate high concern for people and production , leading to
maximum productivity
CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
This model states that most appropriate style of leadership depends upon
the nature of situations the leaders face. The first contingency theory was
developed by Fred Feidler (1967)
He developed an instrument which was called LPC (least preferred
coworker) Questionnaire.
According to him , there are 3 situational variables
 Leader member relationship : The manner a leader is accepted in a group.
 Task structure : One's specific ways one is required to do the job.
 Leader position power: The organizational power a leader occupies
PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY
Developed by Robert House and others , the theory mainly
emphasize on the path and goal concept , were a leader mainly
helps his subordinates or followers on what need to be done
(Goal) and how to be done (Path)
According to this theory a leader can adopt 4 styles while
following the path and goal concept .They are:
 Directive style.
 Supportive style.
 Achievement style.
 Participative style.
LIKERTS FOUR SYSTEM THEORY
Renis Likert developed four basic system or styles of
organizational leadership called the “style of management
leadership”.
They are:
 Exploitative Autocratic :Tries to exploit subordinates.
 Benevolent Autocratic: Initiate paternalistic approach while
exploiting
 Participative or consultative
 Democratic: Total participation and consensus by majority
FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE
 Risk - decision making and change initiatives
based on degree of risk involved
 Type of business – creative business
or supply driven?
 How important change is –
change for change’s sake?
 Organisational culture – may be long
embedded
and difficult to change
 Nature of the task – needing cooperation?
Direction? Structure?
PROBLEMS OF LEADERSHIP IN MODERN
INDUSTRY
 No uniformity in attitude, personality &
educational background.
 Favoritism
 Lack of transparency in decision making,
provide very little scope for participation.
 Power tactics
 Unable to cope up with the fast pace of
change.
Corporate Leadership in the 21st
Century needs
• The magnitude of change will demand:The magnitude of change will demand:
 More leadershipMore leadership
 Newer forms of leadershipNewer forms of leadership
• Tomorrow’s corporate leaders should be:Tomorrow’s corporate leaders should be:
 Strategic opportunistsStrategic opportunists
 Global/cultural/diversityGlobal/cultural/diversity
awarenessawareness
 Decentralized managersDecentralized managers
 Interpersonally competentInterpersonally competent
 Builders of organizationalBuilders of organizational
communitiescommunities
The first responsibility of a leader is to define
reality. The last is to say thank you. In between the
two, the leader must become a servant and debtor.
That sums up the progress of an artful leader.”
- Max DePree

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Transactional and transformational leadership(1)
Transactional and transformational leadership(1)Transactional and transformational leadership(1)
Transactional and transformational leadership(1)jjadhav1972
 
Leadership Concept, Theories and Styles
Leadership Concept, Theories and StylesLeadership Concept, Theories and Styles
Leadership Concept, Theories and StylesDr. Abzal Basha H S
 
Managerial grid theory ppt
Managerial grid theory pptManagerial grid theory ppt
Managerial grid theory pptPaulo Sambo
 
Leadership theories
Leadership theoriesLeadership theories
Leadership theoriesShilpi Arora
 
Contemporary Approach to Leadership.
Contemporary  Approach to Leadership.Contemporary  Approach to Leadership.
Contemporary Approach to Leadership.Kuntal Pal
 
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and Politics
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and PoliticsOrganizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and Politics
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and PoliticsGanesha Pandian
 
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational Behaviour
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational BehaviourMotivational concepts and its application - Organizational Behaviour
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational BehaviourRaja Manzar
 
Leadership- Organizational Behavior
Leadership- Organizational BehaviorLeadership- Organizational Behavior
Leadership- Organizational BehaviorGaurav Singh Bisen
 
Employee empowerment
Employee empowermentEmployee empowerment
Employee empowermentSaad Ejaz
 
Motivation and its theories
Motivation and its theoriesMotivation and its theories
Motivation and its theoriesfunwithsiddh
 
Motivation and theories of motivation
Motivation and theories of    motivationMotivation and theories of    motivation
Motivation and theories of motivationSanjana Bharadwaj
 
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts Francis Jackson Uchegbu
 
organizational behaviour power
organizational behaviour powerorganizational behaviour power
organizational behaviour powerRenosh R
 
Impact of leadership on organizational performance
Impact of leadership on organizational performanceImpact of leadership on organizational performance
Impact of leadership on organizational performanceFaheem Ulhaq
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Transactional and transformational leadership(1)
Transactional and transformational leadership(1)Transactional and transformational leadership(1)
Transactional and transformational leadership(1)
 
Path goal theory
Path goal theoryPath goal theory
Path goal theory
 
Leadership Concept, Theories and Styles
Leadership Concept, Theories and StylesLeadership Concept, Theories and Styles
Leadership Concept, Theories and Styles
 
Managerial grid theory ppt
Managerial grid theory pptManagerial grid theory ppt
Managerial grid theory ppt
 
Leadership theories
Leadership theoriesLeadership theories
Leadership theories
 
Leadership, Power & Coalition
Leadership, Power & CoalitionLeadership, Power & Coalition
Leadership, Power & Coalition
 
Contemporary Approach to Leadership.
Contemporary  Approach to Leadership.Contemporary  Approach to Leadership.
Contemporary Approach to Leadership.
 
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and Politics
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and PoliticsOrganizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and Politics
Organizational Behavior unit 4 Leadership and power and Politics
 
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational Behaviour
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational BehaviourMotivational concepts and its application - Organizational Behaviour
Motivational concepts and its application - Organizational Behaviour
 
Leadership- Organizational Behavior
Leadership- Organizational BehaviorLeadership- Organizational Behavior
Leadership- Organizational Behavior
 
Employee empowerment
Employee empowermentEmployee empowerment
Employee empowerment
 
Leadership
LeadershipLeadership
Leadership
 
Motivation and its theories
Motivation and its theoriesMotivation and its theories
Motivation and its theories
 
Motivation and theories of motivation
Motivation and theories of    motivationMotivation and theories of    motivation
Motivation and theories of motivation
 
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts
Francis Jackson Uchegbu Presentation on Leadership and Managerial Concepts
 
organizational behaviour power
organizational behaviour powerorganizational behaviour power
organizational behaviour power
 
Leadership
LeadershipLeadership
Leadership
 
Impact of leadership on organizational performance
Impact of leadership on organizational performanceImpact of leadership on organizational performance
Impact of leadership on organizational performance
 
Group behaviour ppt
Group behaviour pptGroup behaviour ppt
Group behaviour ppt
 
Contingency theory
Contingency theoryContingency theory
Contingency theory
 

Andere mochten auch

Dhirubhai Ambani leadership style
Dhirubhai Ambani leadership styleDhirubhai Ambani leadership style
Dhirubhai Ambani leadership styleSagar Agarwal
 
Leadership theories
Leadership theoriesLeadership theories
Leadership theoriesSreena Bose
 
Leadership styles
Leadership stylesLeadership styles
Leadership stylesMohini Sahu
 
Presentation on leadership
Presentation on leadershipPresentation on leadership
Presentation on leadershipsd college
 
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadershipTheories of leadership
Theories of leadershipKesari Nandan
 

Andere mochten auch (6)

leadership
leadershipleadership
leadership
 
Dhirubhai Ambani leadership style
Dhirubhai Ambani leadership styleDhirubhai Ambani leadership style
Dhirubhai Ambani leadership style
 
Leadership theories
Leadership theoriesLeadership theories
Leadership theories
 
Leadership styles
Leadership stylesLeadership styles
Leadership styles
 
Presentation on leadership
Presentation on leadershipPresentation on leadership
Presentation on leadership
 
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadershipTheories of leadership
Theories of leadership
 

Ähnlich wie Leadership

Leadership styles _organisational_behavior
Leadership styles _organisational_behaviorLeadership styles _organisational_behavior
Leadership styles _organisational_behaviorsukesh gowda
 
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopy
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopyLeadership and social responsibility hardcopy
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopyAizell Bernal
 
The supervisor as leader
The supervisor as leaderThe supervisor as leader
The supervisor as leaderBKC1981
 
A brief history of leadership research (6)
A brief history of leadership research (6)A brief history of leadership research (6)
A brief history of leadership research (6)mineflores99
 
Leadership and management of teams
Leadership and management of teamsLeadership and management of teams
Leadership and management of teamsJSlinkyNY
 
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02fafani
 
Leadership and it's styles.pptx
Leadership and it's styles.pptxLeadership and it's styles.pptx
Leadership and it's styles.pptxDrx Gaurav Yadav
 
new ppt leadership issues.pptx
new ppt leadership issues.pptxnew ppt leadership issues.pptx
new ppt leadership issues.pptxssuserb9efd7
 
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Aliorganizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad AliAhmad Ali
 
Leading
LeadingLeading
Leadingo3fhey
 
Management and leadership notes
Management and leadership notesManagement and leadership notes
Management and leadership notesibrar shahid
 
Leadership and managmant
Leadership and managmant   Leadership and managmant
Leadership and managmant Wael Ammar
 

Ähnlich wie Leadership (20)

Leadership styles _organisational_behavior
Leadership styles _organisational_behaviorLeadership styles _organisational_behavior
Leadership styles _organisational_behavior
 
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopy
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopyLeadership and social responsibility hardcopy
Leadership and social responsibility hardcopy
 
The supervisor as leader
The supervisor as leaderThe supervisor as leader
The supervisor as leader
 
A brief history of leadership research (6)
A brief history of leadership research (6)A brief history of leadership research (6)
A brief history of leadership research (6)
 
Leadership and management of teams
Leadership and management of teamsLeadership and management of teams
Leadership and management of teams
 
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02
Leadershipandmanagementofteams 100930125759-phpapp02
 
Management powerpoint done
Management powerpoint doneManagement powerpoint done
Management powerpoint done
 
Leadership and it's styles.pptx
Leadership and it's styles.pptxLeadership and it's styles.pptx
Leadership and it's styles.pptx
 
Leader vs manager
Leader vs managerLeader vs manager
Leader vs manager
 
Mgnfinal
MgnfinalMgnfinal
Mgnfinal
 
Leadership Style
Leadership StyleLeadership Style
Leadership Style
 
Professional Development - Leadership
Professional Development - LeadershipProfessional Development - Leadership
Professional Development - Leadership
 
new ppt leadership issues.pptx
new ppt leadership issues.pptxnew ppt leadership issues.pptx
new ppt leadership issues.pptx
 
Leadership
Leadership Leadership
Leadership
 
Leadership
LeadershipLeadership
Leadership
 
Leadership report
Leadership reportLeadership report
Leadership report
 
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Aliorganizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali
organizational behaviour presentation by Ahmad Ali
 
Leading
LeadingLeading
Leading
 
Management and leadership notes
Management and leadership notesManagement and leadership notes
Management and leadership notes
 
Leadership and managmant
Leadership and managmant   Leadership and managmant
Leadership and managmant
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exporters
EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exportersEUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exporters
EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exportersPeter Horsten
 
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdf
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdftrending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdf
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdfMintel Group
 
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referenceExcvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referencessuser2c065e
 
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreJewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreNZSG
 
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your Business
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your BusinessHow to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your Business
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your BusinessHelp Desk Migration
 
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifePlanetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifeBhavana Pujan Kendra
 
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataNAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataExhibitors Data
 
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansSimplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansNugget Global
 
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesData Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesAurelien Domont, MBA
 
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management Team
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management TeamTechnical Leaders - Working with the Management Team
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management TeamArik Fletcher
 
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerDriving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerAggregage
 
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...PRnews2
 
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptx
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptxRakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptx
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptxRakhi Bazaar
 
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...Hector Del Castillo, CPM, CPMM
 
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCustomizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCalvinarnold843
 
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare Newsletter
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare NewsletterHealthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare Newsletter
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare NewsletterJamesConcepcion7
 
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applications
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applicationsIntroducing the Analogic framework for business planning applications
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applicationsKnowledgeSeed
 
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky
 
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfWSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfJamesConcepcion7
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exporters
EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exportersEUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exporters
EUDR Info Meeting Ethiopian coffee exporters
 
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdf
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdftrending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdf
trending-flavors-and-ingredients-in-salty-snacks-us-2024_Redacted-V2.pdf
 
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referenceExcvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
 
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource CentreJewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
Jewish Resources in the Family Resource Centre
 
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your Business
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your BusinessHow to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your Business
How to Conduct a Service Gap Analysis for Your Business
 
Toyota and Seven Parts Storage Techniques
Toyota and Seven Parts Storage TechniquesToyota and Seven Parts Storage Techniques
Toyota and Seven Parts Storage Techniques
 
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in LifePlanetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
Planetary and Vedic Yagyas Bring Positive Impacts in Life
 
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataNAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
 
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business LoansSimplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
Simplify Your Funding: Quick and Easy Business Loans
 
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and TemplatesData Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit and Templates
 
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management Team
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management TeamTechnical Leaders - Working with the Management Team
Technical Leaders - Working with the Management Team
 
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon HarmerDriving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
Driving Business Impact for PMs with Jon Harmer
 
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...
Introducing the AI ShillText Generator A New Era for Cryptocurrency Marketing...
 
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptx
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptxRakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptx
Rakhi sets symbolizing the bond of love.pptx
 
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
How Generative AI Is Transforming Your Business | Byond Growth Insights | Apr...
 
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration TrainingCustomizable Contents Restoration Training
Customizable Contents Restoration Training
 
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare Newsletter
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare NewsletterHealthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare Newsletter
Healthcare Feb. & Mar. Healthcare Newsletter
 
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applications
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applicationsIntroducing the Analogic framework for business planning applications
Introducing the Analogic framework for business planning applications
 
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate ProfessionalPaul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
Paul Turovsky - Real Estate Professional
 
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfWSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
 

Leadership

  • 2. Leadership A leader is best , when people barely know he exists… Not so good when people obey and acclaim him. Worst when they despise him . But of a good leader , who talks little, when his work is done and aim fulfilled , they will say : we did it ourselves. By Lao –tzu
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  According to Stephen Robbins leadership" is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals”.  According to Paul Heresy and Kenneth Blanchard , leadership “is a process of influencing group activities towards accomplishment of goals in a given situation”  Besides influence, leadership has been defined in terms of group process, personality,compliances,particular behaviours, persuasion, goal achievement, interaction, role differentiations and combination of two or more.
  • 4. SOME REAL ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERS The most successful business icons has been heroic CEO’s who sit astride the giant corporations- the huge system and steers it brilliantly along .  Michel Eisner at Disney  Jack Welch at GE  Bill Gates at Microsoft  John Reed at Citicorp
  • 5. Indian Business Leaders Dhirubhai Ambani with Mukesh & Anil Ambani JRD Tata with Ratan Tata The Birla Group
  • 6. N.R. Narayana Murthy: Leader of Infosys N. R. Narayana Murthy: Non-executive Chairman of the Board and Chief Mentor of Infosys Technologies Limited.
  • 7. MURTHY- 5 ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS  Openness to learn: Openness to subordinate your ego to take ideas from others.  Second, meritocracy: The best ideas are adopted and implemented using data to arrive at the best decision.  Third, speed: Assuring you do things faster compared to yesterday and last quarter.  Fourth, imagination: You continually bring better ideas and better innovation to the table.  And finally, excellence in execution: That is implementation of these great ideas with a higher level of excellence today than yesterday.
  • 8. LEADERS OR MANAGERS?  According to Bennis “to survive in the 21st century, we are going to need new generations of leaders not managers  John Kotter also argues that leadership is different from management .Leadership is about coping with change and management is about coping with complexities.  “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
  • 9. Characteristics of … MANAGER v/s LEADER  Administers.  A copy.  Maintains.  Focus on system & structures  Relies in control.  Short Range view.  Asks how and when.  Eyes on the bottom line.  Imitates  Accept the status quo  Classic good soldier  Does things right  Innovates.  An original.  Develops.  Focus on people.  Inspire trust.  Long range perspective.  Asks what and why.  Eyes on horizon.  Originates.  Challenges the status quo.  Own person .  Does the right thing.
  • 10. Some Qualities For Becoming A Successful Leader 1. Sound Health :If you are healthy you can invest energy you can work hard without any physical discomfort 2. Managerial Ability :You should be able to plan and control the work of assistants. 3. Communication Skill :You should know what to speak, when and how. Listen in depth ! 4. Decision Making :Must possess capacity to think / analyze problems and take right decisions. 5. Motivational Ability :You should possess the skill to energize & keep the morale high. 6.Education and Training :Good academic education In depth training in chosen field of operation. 7. Intelligence and Attitude :Your intellectual capacity is sharp & approach is focused. 8. Impressive Personality : Total behavior, writing, speech, dress ,manner- give a Role Model.
  • 12. LEADERSHIP STYLES : BASIC TYPES AUTOCRATIC BUREAUCRATIC DEMOCRATIC LAISSEZ FAIRE
  • 13. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The managers don't consult employees nor are they allowed to give inputs. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style. These studies say that autocratic leaders:  --Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees  --Do not trust employees  --Do not allow for employee input Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include:  --New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow  --Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions  --Employees do not respond to any other leadership style  --There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis  --There is limited time in which to make a decision  --A manager’s power is challenged by an employee  --The area was poorly managed  --Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization
  • 14. BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages “by the book. Every thing must be done according to procedure and policy. This style can be effective when:  --Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.  --Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.  --Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate.  --Safety or security training is being conducted.  --Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash. This style is ineffective when:  --Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful.  --Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.  --Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.
  • 15. DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. The democratic leadership style is most effective when:  --The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them.  --The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem- solving duties.  --The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.  --There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve.  --Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees. Democratic leadership should not be used when:  --There is not enough time to get everyone’s input.  --It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.  --The business can’t afford mistakes.  --The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.  --Employee safety is a critical concern
  • 16. LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADERSHIP STYLE The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. This is an effective style to use when:  --Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.  --Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.  --Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used  --Employees are trustworthy and experienced. This style should not be used when:  --It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.  --The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.  --Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work.  --The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her.
  • 17. VARYING LEADERSHIP STYLE While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use.  1. The manager’s personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work?  2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to.  3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts.
  • 18. CHANGE IN LEADERSHIP THE PROCESS THE PROBLEM THE SOLUTION SELLING THE IDEA RESENTMENT AND ILIENATION RESIGNATION ACCEPTANCE INTERNALISATION
  • 19. Change Leadership  The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change  The business environment is subject to fast- paced economic and social change  Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive  Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management
  • 20. Change Leadership Self-esteem Time 1. Immobilisation – as rumours of the change circulate, the individual feels some sense of shock and possible disbelief – so much so that they deem it worthy of doing nothing. 1 2. Minimisation: As the change becomes clearer, people try to fit in the change with their own personal position and may try to believe that it will not affect them. 2 3. Depression: as reality begins to dawn staff may feel alienated and angry, feelings of a lack of control of events overtake people and they feel depressed as they try to reconcile what is happening with their own personal situation. 3 4 4. Acceptance/letting go: The lowest point in self- esteem finally sees people starting to accept the inevitable. Fear of the future is a feature of this stage. 5 5. Testing out: Individuals begin to interact with the change, they start to ask questions to see how they might work with the change. 6 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to work with the change and see how they might be able to make the change work for them – self esteem begins to rise. 7 7. Internalisation: the change is understood and adopted within the individual’s own understanding – they now know how to work with it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem.
  • 21. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORY BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES (IOWA LEADERSHIP STUDY,THE OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP STUDY THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY THE CONTINGENCY THEORY PATH GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP LIKERT FOUR SYSTEM
  • 22. TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP Assumptions  People are born with inherited traits.  Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.  People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills of leaders  Traits Skills •Adaptable to situations •Alert to social environment •Ambitious and achievement-orientated •Assertive •Cooperative •Decisive •Dependable •Dominant (desire to influence others) •Energetic (high activity level) •Persistent •Self-confident •Tolerant of stress •Willing to assume responsibility •Clever (intelligent) •Conceptually skilled •Creative •Diplomatic and tactful •Fluent in speaking •Knowledgeable about group task •Organised (administrative ability) •Persuasive •Socially skilled
  • 23. BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP Assumptions  Leaders can be made, rather than are born.  Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior.  Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things Iowa leadership studies by R.lippit and Ralph k White is a behavioural theory of leadership based on the impact of leadership styles on a group. It was experimentally found that democratic leadership lead to an overwhelming behaviour were as laissez faire lead to a worst form of aggression. The Ohio State Leadership study: In 1945 the bureau of business research initiated a series of studies on leadership. They plotted behaviour on 2 separate axis 1. Initiating structure :the extent to which the leader is suppose to define his and his subordinates role . 2.Consideration : the extent to which a leader is suppose to have trust, regards, job relationship with is subordinates.
  • 24. UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES In the Michigan university, a group of researcher also came up with 2 dimensions of leadership behavior. They are :  Employee centered: Emphasizing interpersonal relationship considered with the welfare of the subordinates  Production centered: Emphasizing task or technical aspect.
  • 25. THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY Robert R Blake and Jane S Mouton developed managerial grid which is very famous among leaders and manager for adopting styles . They proposed managerial grid based on two dimensions. A. Concern for people B. Concern for production The scale range for each dimension range from 1 to 9 . Based on these range 5 types of basic management styles evolved . They are: (1,1) :Also known as impoverished managers , were leaders plays least importance to production and concern for people (1,9) : Also known as Country club managers , the leaders have high concern for people and low concern for production (5,5): Leaders maintains adequate performance , maintaining a balance . (9.1):Leaders initiate autocratic control with least interference of human element (9.9): Leaders initiate high concern for people and production , leading to maximum productivity
  • 26. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP This model states that most appropriate style of leadership depends upon the nature of situations the leaders face. The first contingency theory was developed by Fred Feidler (1967) He developed an instrument which was called LPC (least preferred coworker) Questionnaire. According to him , there are 3 situational variables  Leader member relationship : The manner a leader is accepted in a group.  Task structure : One's specific ways one is required to do the job.  Leader position power: The organizational power a leader occupies
  • 27. PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY Developed by Robert House and others , the theory mainly emphasize on the path and goal concept , were a leader mainly helps his subordinates or followers on what need to be done (Goal) and how to be done (Path) According to this theory a leader can adopt 4 styles while following the path and goal concept .They are:  Directive style.  Supportive style.  Achievement style.  Participative style.
  • 28. LIKERTS FOUR SYSTEM THEORY Renis Likert developed four basic system or styles of organizational leadership called the “style of management leadership”. They are:  Exploitative Autocratic :Tries to exploit subordinates.  Benevolent Autocratic: Initiate paternalistic approach while exploiting  Participative or consultative  Democratic: Total participation and consensus by majority
  • 29. FACTORS AFFECTING STYLE  Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved  Type of business – creative business or supply driven?  How important change is – change for change’s sake?  Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change  Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?
  • 30. PROBLEMS OF LEADERSHIP IN MODERN INDUSTRY  No uniformity in attitude, personality & educational background.  Favoritism  Lack of transparency in decision making, provide very little scope for participation.  Power tactics  Unable to cope up with the fast pace of change.
  • 31. Corporate Leadership in the 21st Century needs • The magnitude of change will demand:The magnitude of change will demand:  More leadershipMore leadership  Newer forms of leadershipNewer forms of leadership • Tomorrow’s corporate leaders should be:Tomorrow’s corporate leaders should be:  Strategic opportunistsStrategic opportunists  Global/cultural/diversityGlobal/cultural/diversity awarenessawareness  Decentralized managersDecentralized managers  Interpersonally competentInterpersonally competent  Builders of organizationalBuilders of organizational communitiescommunities
  • 32. The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you. In between the two, the leader must become a servant and debtor. That sums up the progress of an artful leader.” - Max DePree