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Design Thinking in Education

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Design Thinking in Education

  1. 1. Where I am from, and what I do The Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), founded in 1981, serves the edtech community with international conferences, journals, digital library and social media channels (AACE Review). As the largest university-based local government training, advisory, and research organization in the United States, the School of Government serves more than 12,000 public officials each year.
  2. 2. What’s the idea? Design Thinking Design Thinking is problem solving method geared to overcome wicked problems. o Transcend the immediate boundaries of the problem to ensure that the right questions are being addressed o Analyze, synthesize, diverge, generate insights from different domains o Drawing, prototyping and storytelling (Brown, 2009) o Constraints as inspiration (Brown, 2009) o No technological "quick fix”, integration of signs, things, actions, and environments Design Thinking
  3. 3. “Even on a cursory inspection, just what design thinkingis supposed to be is not well understood, either by the public or those who claim to practice it”. Kimbell,2011 Design Thinking
  4. 4. Designerly Thinking vs. Design Thinking (Johansson‐ Sköldberg et al., 2013) designerly thinking scholarly discourse, analysis, reflection of the professional designer’s practice (skills and competence) design thinking design practice and competence used beyond the design context (including art and architecture), for and with people without a scholarly background in design vs .
  5. 5. Related Approaches o Participatory Design o Bricolage or Tinkering o LEGO Serious Play (LPS) o Makerspace / Maker Culture o Tacit Experiences o Creative Empowerment o Process and Product o Users as Co-Designers o Empowerment
  6. 6. Process & Mindset (von Thienen et al., 2014) o Address wicked problems where you will fail and experiment first to become more successful later o Mindsets and tools which save you from the impossible task of finding ‘the correct problem view’ or ‘the optimal solution’. o Draw attention to needs that await their fulfillment o New interpretations of the problem o Perspectives of different stakeholders o Propel the process of problem solving in a productive direction
  7. 7. http://dschool.stanford.edu/dgift/ 90-minute, interactive video series with individual and partner activities Design Thinking: Resources In 2005, the Hasso-Plattner- Institute of Design at Stanford University in California began to teach Design Thinking to engineering students.
  8. 8. Design Thinking For Education: Special Issue https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/edu/1/1/edu.1.issue-1.xml
  9. 9. Design Thinking Use Cases Website Redesign Workshops o School of Government (2013/14) o Carolina MPA Website Redesign (2016) o Center for Faculty Excellence (2017) o Center for Public Leadership and Governance (2018) o Development Finance Initiative (2019) Designing Web Apps / Tools Designing Courses o Public Executive Leadership Academy course design workshop series (2017)
  10. 10. Design Thinking Examples: Website Strucure with LEGOs Content Sections Annotate Groups structure the main areas of the website / navigation / homepage
  11. 11. Design Thinking Examples: Website Strucure with LEGOs
  12. 12. 1 hour 30 minutes 15 minutes 2 hours Build Course Strucure with LEGOs
  13. 13. Please think about the website as a museum. What are 10 things you want to point visitors to? (Really useful resources, interesting events, services, downloads, projects…) Design Thinking Examples: Website as Museum (Flyer)
  14. 14. Design Thinking Examples: Content Types ‘Information Curators’ describe the content using visual building blocks provided
  15. 15. Audience: Pwebsite ersonas Personas are fictional, yet data-driven, user biographies that allow design teams to relate to the users’ point of view instead of focusing on personal experiences and anecdotes. Understanding Audiences: Personas
  16. 16. o June 2019: Design thinking workshop at Kempten University of Applied Sciences (Germany) o 2 day workshop o Workshop theme: Social Media o 32 participants Social Media for Public Health Students
  17. 17. Customer JourneyMap / SocialMediaPlate Take 15 Minutes to think about a typical week day. Map out the most important places as you move through the day. When and where do you engage with From waking up to falling asleep, when to you check social media apps? Which one?
  18. 18. Organizational Personas Every organization has a ‘personality’, comprising of: o Organizational culture o Organizational Structure o Behavioral patterns o Trends and events that are currently affecting the organization.
  19. 19. Collaboration / Consulting Work at FH Münster, Germany https://www.fh-muenster.de/wandelwerk/index.php
  20. 20. o February 2018: Design thinking workshop at Muenster University of Applied Sciences (Germany) o Workshop theme: Inclusive community development - designing neighborhoods for engagement, social cohesion and inclusion o 15 participants o Part of the research cluster ‘participation and well-being’ o Faculty from different disciplines, city Research Workshop: Inclusive Community Development
  21. 21. Ice Breaker: Tell Me About Your Neighborhood – Who / What Is Not On the Map? o Draw a map of your own neighborhood. o What are some barriers to inclusiveness and social activities that you experience? o Who do you never meet in your neighborhood? Why do you think that is?
  22. 22. ‘I do not interact with the people in my neighborhood. Everyone has a house with garden, every yard is fenced in. And everyone gets home from work to do their own thing. Results: Unexpected Barriers
  23. 23. (1) DEFINE & FOCUS: Specify which social inclusion problem you want to solve. (2) GENERATE & DEBATE Generate 3-5 ideas to address the problem with novel solutions or disruptive technologies. (3) SELECT & SKETCH Choose one of your ideas and sketch it out in more detail (literally). (4) BUILD & PRESENT: Design a prototype or three-dimensional representation of your solution with the materials in the room (card board, paper, tape, clay). Design Thinking Cycle
  24. 24. Design Thinking Outcomes
  25. 25. o June 2018: Design thinking workshop at Muenster University of Applied Sciences (Germany) o Workshop theme: Pedagogical Planning for Engineers – training engineering students to become vocational school teachers o Participants: 10 Students Engineering Students As Teacher Candidates
  26. 26. Students worked in groups on lesson planning. Students identified threshold concepts. Curricular Planning & Lesson Planning
  27. 27. Design Thinking • We randomly assigned threshhold concepts. • Students develop a pedagogical approach using design thinking as a technique.
  28. 28. o June 2019: Design thinking workshop at Muenster University of Applied Sciences (Germany) o Duration: 1.5 days, additional preparation tasks o Workshop theme: Ideas for new learning spaces (day 1) and curricular innovation with agile techniques (day 2) o Participants: 17 Students o Location: Innovation Lab Learning Spaces & Agile Curricula http://www.learntechlib.org/ p/211093/
  29. 29. Customer Journey Maps o Students used the photo material that they collected prior to the workshop. o Students worked individually. o Each student presented their map to the group.
  30. 30. Customer Journey: How does this person move through their day on campus? Activities: What is happening in this situation? What is your persona doing? Expectations: What does the person expect in this situation? Opportunities: What opportunities does this situation offer? How can the School leverage them? Who has the option to implement changes? Emotional state (red – negative, green - positive), Note down one emotion Sketch: Scenarios, People, Places Mind Focus: Is the person focused in this situation? Checking social media? Thinking about dinner? Name
  31. 31. Results o Predictability: Changes in schedule or additional scheduling needs (based on group assignments) are challenging and can be an excluding factor. o Expectations: The more difficult it is for students to get to campus - be it because of long commutes, child care or work shifts - the higher are their expectations when attending classes. Lecturers are typically unaware of these struggles and likely cannot meet the heightened expectation of ‘this better be good’. o Distractions: Students switch to social media distractors when feeling disappointed by the content or instructional delivery, particularly in lecture halls. ‘I think pffh, and I start
  32. 32. Room(s) for Improvement
  33. 33. (1) DEFINE & FOCUS: Interview your partner to make sure you understand the problem (2) GENERATE & DEBATE Generate 3-5 ideas to address the problem with novel solutions or disruptive technologies. (3) SELECT & SKETCH Choose one of your ideas and sketch it out in more detail (literally). (4) BUILD & PRESENT: Design a prototype or three-dimensional representation of your solution by transforming a shoe carton into a spatial model with the materials in the room (card board, paper, Design Thinking Cycle
  34. 34. Redesigning Learning Spaces A total of eight teams derived 15 different solutions – one team decided to merge their ideas and collaborate instead of developing individual prototypes.
  35. 35. Resulting Design Ideas - Examples 1. Revived Registrar's Office: Physical space (a coffee bar, plants, innovative furniture) plus digital tools (web queue for requests, mobile app for scheduling). 2. Give me a break: Solution for busy campus learning spaces - ‘chill zones’ (with hammocks, beanbags, cushions, blankets), small group learning spaces (2-3 people) 3. Climate challenge: Solution for too hot / cold classroom – Installing a large table in the center of the room, flexible furniture, fans in the summer, blankets in the winter, and a flexible blackboard. 4. DIY Wall Design: Improve lighting and atmosphere in classrooms - 'moss wall', color effects, and LED panels, ‘do-it-yourself guides’ available online, learning project for engineering students. 5. Lecture Hall of Requirements: Design that adapts to the fluctuations. Reduces frustration because of a lack of attendance, intimate, interactive
  36. 36. What’sInfrastruct? Design Thinking 20 SPAGHETTI :: 1 MARSHMALLOW :: 1 YARD STRING::: 1 YARD TAPE o “Build the the tallest freestanding tower you can that will support the marshmallow in 18 minutes using only these materials.” Marshmallow Challenge
  37. 37. Marshmallow Challenge
  38. 38. Evaluation Results – Positive Aspects o To receive impulses to think in other directions. o Open approach, integration of different perspectives o Creativity, possibility to think through unconventional ideas. o Personas allowed me to see my students as real people for the very first time o I felt that my ideas mattered "Teaching is actually a marshmall ow challenge“
  39. 39. Evaluation Results – Negative Aspects o It is unclear how to move from first ideas to further development of innovative, marketable products / services. o Realistic assessments of models and ideas: all comments and ideas were treated equal (both strength and weakness), missing data (ideas arise from a ‘gut feeling’) o challenges for shy or introverted people o negative team dynamics o fading effectiveness if used too often
  40. 40. Literature Review: Panke (2019): Corpus of 167 document Predominantly single case studies Typical data sources: observation, interviews, analysis of artifacts produced in the design thinking process, survey evaluation.
  41. 41. Panke, S. (2019). Design Thinking in Education: Perspectives, Opportunities and Challenges. Open Education Studies, 1(1), 281- 281-306. https://doi.org/10.1515/ed u-2019-0022 p.302
  42. 42. Potential o Tacit experiences o Increased empathy o Reduced cognitive bias o Playful learning o Flow/verve o Inter/Meta-disciplinary Collaboration o Productive failure/resilience o Surprising, delightful solutions o Creative confidence
  43. 43. Limitations o Lack of creative confidence o Teamwork conflicts o Anxiety and frustration o Shallow ideas o Idea creation over evaluation o Lack of long-term impact o Misalignment between learning content and design thinking process o Creative Overconfidence
  44. 44. Conclusions Time is magical. Listening is too. It’s not the end all be all.
  45. 45. StudentFeedback The experience I gained in the design thinking class has had long-lasting impact. During my recent internship I served at a huge vocational school over the course of five months. The school had over 3000 students and almost 200 teachers. Armed with spaghetti and marshmallows, I had absolutely outstanding experiences with the students in the various courses. The students did not take advantage of the unconventionally open structure, as the seasoned teachers had predicted. Instead, they developed their results in both emotional and constructive discussions. This led to a culture shift that teachers in other subjects noticed. They asked me what I had done. Before, classes shifted between lethargic and aggressive and it was not possible to work. Teaching was a struggle and at least one of student had to leave the room every hour. The activities changed student attitudes. In the course of the typical session, soda bottles flew across the room and the active participation concentrated chiefly on students having conversations among themselves about the weekend. Students were initially hesitant about the Marshmallow Challenge. Within moments, they were hooked. In a subsequent series of lessons that incorporated design thinking elements we discussed what
  46. 46. Design Thinking is for YOU What’s on your plate right now? Take 2 minutes to note down what’s on your plate right now.
  47. 47. Wicked Problem Checklist https://goo.gl/AbwfWz

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Design thinking is a problem solving method geared to overcome wicked problems, that have no right or wrong solution and resist traditional scientific and engineering approaches, as “the information needed to understand the problem depends upon one's idea for solving it” (Rittel & Webber, 1973, 161). Design thinking aims at transcending the immediate boundaries of the problem to ensure that the right questions are being addressed. The process foresees steps that allow participants to analyze, synthesize, diverge and generate insights from different domains through drawing, prototyping and storytelling (Brown, 2009). During the design thinking process, the facilitator encourages learners to see constraints as inspiration (Brown & Wyatt, 2010). The results are typically not directed toward a technological "quick fix” but toward new integrations of signs, things, actions, and environments (Buchanan, 1992). The essence of design thinking is to put learners into contexts that make them think and work like an expert designer, and thereby foster civic literacy, empathy, cultural awareness and risk taking (Sharples et al., 2016).
     
  • In 2005, the Hasso-Plattner-Institute of Design at Stanford University in California began to teach Design Thinking to engineering students. The philosophy behind this venture was the conviction that it is possible to train engineers and scientists to become innovators.
  • We used the personas approach as a narrative tool to give workshop participants an authentic glimpse into the everyday life of people living in a prototypical neighborhood. Personas are an immersive way for bringing abstract target group information to life through the presence of a specific, fictional personality (Junior & Filgueiras, 2005). Acting as a “projection screen”, personas aid in identifying needs and possible behavioral patterns (Panke, Gaiser & Werner, 2007).

    After a brief overview of statistical data on typical demographics in a German neighborhood, participants worked in teams of 3, and designed 1-2 portraits, that outlined characteristics of each persona.
  • In February 2018 the authors of this article were involved in a design thinking workshop at Muenster University of Applied Sciences (Germany) in the roles of facilitator and participant. Our case study analysis reflects both perspectives, and uses evaluation results to further illuminate how the workshop structure fostered creativity and empathy. A central aspect of the research cluster 'participation and well-being' at the Münster University of Applied Sciences is to seek ideas of how to develop the living quarters and neighborhoods in Germany cities. Despite the predominantly excellent digital infrastructure, the excellent health care and manifold assisted living offers in Germany, the potential of inclusion, equal co-existence and social coherence are not sufficiently supported.
  • Since design thinking is a visual and haptic approach, we started the workshop with an exercise that tapped into the visualization and spatial thinking skills of the participants by asking them to draw a map of their quarter. Specifically, the task was to map out barriers to inclusion and participation.
  • The personas and their legends delivered the necessary context for design decisions and priorities in the next step of the creative process, the design thinking cycle. During the design thinking process participants cycle rapidly through a series of tasks that prompt them to observe, brainstorm, synthesize, prototype and discuss. Each participant worked in a dyadic team. The partners went through four design sheets with structured prompts:
    DEFINE & FOCUS: Pick one of the personas and specify which social inclusion problem you want to solve for this person. Remember that how you describe the problem affects the solution, so pay attention to precise, concise and action-oriented language. Present to your partner.
    GENERATE & DEBATE Generate 3-5 ideas to address the problem with novel solutions or disruptive technologies. Aim for a large effect, broad reach and replicable results. Present to your partner.
    SELECT & SKETCH Choose one of your ideas and sketch it out in more detail (literally). Select the best-received, the most interesting to you, the most likely to be implemented, the most unusual or the solution with the most options for collaborating with others. Present to your partner.
    BUILD & PRESENT: Design a prototype or three-dimensional representation of your solution with the materials in the room (card board, paper, tape, clay). Let your partner / the gropup react to the prototype. Both express and receive positive and negative feedback, ideas for improvement or extension, and open questions.
  • We went through two cycles of the design thinking process so that each participant developed, discussed, sketched, and built out two ideas. After the first round, we re-formed the teams, so that everyone worked with two different people, ideally each from a different context. While the conceptual idea stages where developed in a dyadic setting, each participant presented their prototypes to the whole group and got feedback from the plenum.
    Community Engagement can happen in different spaces and places, through events or programs, facilitated by technology and public infrastructure, comprising public, commercial and private spheres. The workshop participants developed 28 different design ideas.

  • The personas and their legends delivered the necessary context for design decisions and priorities in the next step of the creative process, the design thinking cycle. During the design thinking process participants cycle rapidly through a series of tasks that prompt them to observe, brainstorm, synthesize, prototype and discuss. Each participant worked in a dyadic team. The partners went through four design sheets with structured prompts:
    DEFINE & FOCUS: Pick one of the personas and specify which social inclusion problem you want to solve for this person. Remember that how you describe the problem affects the solution, so pay attention to precise, concise and action-oriented language. Present to your partner.
    GENERATE & DEBATE Generate 3-5 ideas to address the problem with novel solutions or disruptive technologies. Aim for a large effect, broad reach and replicable results. Present to your partner.
    SELECT & SKETCH Choose one of your ideas and sketch it out in more detail (literally). Select the best-received, the most interesting to you, the most likely to be implemented, the most unusual or the solution with the most options for collaborating with others. Present to your partner.
    BUILD & PRESENT: Design a prototype or three-dimensional representation of your solution with the materials in the room (card board, paper, tape, clay). Let your partner / the gropup react to the prototype. Both express and receive positive and negative feedback, ideas for improvement or extension, and open questions.

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