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SRK-Blue green algae and their mass multiplication

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SRK-Blue green algae and their mass multiplication

  1. 1. welcome
  2. 2. presented by, G.SIVARAMAKRISHNAN M.SC.,(AGRI.)MICROBIOLOGY ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE.
  3. 3. CYANOBACTERIA •They are photoautotrophs •On the basis of their size, cell structure, presence of murein, 70S Ribosome's and other features the cyanobacteria are prokaryotes. •They occur as unicellular, colonial or filamentous organisms. •They are gram negative bacteria. •That use water as the hydrogen donar and perform oxic photosynthesis. •Some are motile by gliding on solid surface.
  4. 4. • The photosynthesis is localized in flat, membranous vesicles, the thylakoids. • The membranes of thylakoid contain chlorophyll a, ß- carotene, oxocarotenoids and phycobili proteins. • Many cyanobacteria possess gas vacuoles, which are involved • The various pigments determine the colour of the organisms.
  5. 5. Blue green algae: • It is a widely distributed group of photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom cyanobacteria, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen. • It can be considered as simple aquatic plants that occur naturally in habitats such as rivers, lakes, damp soil, tree trunks, hot springs and snow.
  6. 6. Five orders of cyanobacteria are; 1. Chrococcales 2. Pleurocapsales 3. Oscillatoriales 4. Nostocales 5. Stigonematales
  7. 7. Blue green algae Yellow algae Green algae Brown algae
  8. 8. Species of blue green algae Nostoc: Phylum:cyanobacteria Order:harmoganales Sub order:nostocales family:nostocaceae. • Nostoc environment are diverse and widespread over the globe. • Isolates have been found in fresh water, soils, and both extremely cold and extremely acid habitats. • They are found in gelatinous colonies, composed of filamentous called trichomes surrounded by a thin sheath.
  9. 9. • It may also grow symbiotically within the tissues of plants, such as the aquatic fern or hornworts, provide nitrogen to its host. • They are photosynthetic prokaryotes that carry out oxygen evolving photosynthesis.
  10. 10. Anabaena: Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Order: Nostocales Family: Nostocaceae Genus: Anabaena • It is a filamentous BGA, they wide spread in fresh water and damp soil. • The cells are ovoid or barrel shaped. • Anabaena possess heterocysts and can also develops akinites
  11. 11. • Certain sp. Are in symbionts in higher plants E.g: Anabaena azollae in water fern. • They provide nitrogen to rice crops in flooded paddy fields adding up to 40kg bound nitrogen per ha/yr. • Anabaena helps to release soil bound phosphorus.
  12. 12. Tolypothrix Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Order: Nostocales Family:Microchaetaceae Subfamily: Tolypotrichoideae Genus: Tolypothrix • The cells are long and cylindrical or short and barrel shaped. • The cells are blue green, olive green, yellow or red in colour and some times have granules
  13. 13. • the filaments are covered by musilage. • Young filament are long with hetrocysts at the base and free apical ends. • The heterocysts are spherical, cylindrical or discoid in shape and have 1-2 pores at their base. • Akinites are rarely observed.
  14. 14. Scytonema Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria Order: Nostocales Family:Scytonemataceae • They are gram negative, oxygenic, photosynthesis, filamentous cyanobacterium. • Cells are divide in the tips of the filaments. • The genus is considered to be one of the most primitive autotrophic organism on the planet; they are credited with converting earth atmosphere from an oxygen free to an oxygen rich environment.
  15. 15. • Scytonema also produce bioactive compounds including plant growth regulators.
  16. 16. Mass production of BGA: • For cultivation of cyanobacterial biofertilizers, the regional specific strains should be used. The following methods are used for mass cultivation, 1. Cemented tank method 2. Shallow metal troughs method 3. Polythene lined method(its most suitable for small and marginal farmers for the preparation of biofertilizers) 4. Field method.
  17. 17. In polythene lined method, 1. Prepare the cemented tank, shallow trays of iron sheets or polythene lined pits ion an open area, width of tanks or pits should not be more than 1.5m. 2. Transfer 2-3kg soil and add 100g superphosphate water the pit to about 10cm height, mix lime to adjust the pH. 3. Add 2ml of insecticide to protect the culture from mosquitoes mix well and allow to settle down soil particles. 4. When water becomes clear, sprinkle 100g starter culture on the surface of water.
  18. 18. • When temperature remains around 35-40˚c during summer, optimum growth of cyanobacteria is achieved. • The water level is always maintained about 1 cm during this period. • After drying the algal mass(mat) is separated from the soil that forms flaks. • It is collected ,powdered and packed in polythene bag and supplied to the farmers after sealing the packets. • The algal flaks can be used as starter inoculam again.
  19. 19. Thank you

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