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Chapter # 21
XII FDC Prepared by: Sidra Javed
PROTEINSPrepared by: Sidra Javed
PROTEINS
• The Molecules which yields amino acids upon
hydrolysis are called proteins.
• Proteins are natural polymer of a...
PROTEINS
• Proteins are the basis for the major structural
components of animal and human tissue.
• They act as biological...
CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEINS
• Those which give one amino acid only upon
hydrolysis.
(a) Simple Proteins
• Those which give ...
(a) SIMPLE PROTEINS - Albumins
Blood
(Serumbumin)
Milk
(Lactalbumin)
Egg White
(Ovolbumin)
Lentils
(Legumelin)
Kidney Bean...
• Globular protein is insoluble in water and
dilute salt solution.
• Precipitated by saturation with (NH4)2SO4
solution.
•...
(a) Simple Proteins - Globulins
Blood (Serum
Globulins)
Muscles (Myosin) Potato (Tuberin) Brazil Nuts
(Excelsin)
Hemp (Ede...
• Globular Protein is sparingly soluble in
water and neutral solutions.
• Precipitated by dilute Ammonium
Sulphate.
• Coag...
(a) Simple Proteins - Glutelins
Wheat (Glutenin) Rice (Oryzenin)
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
• Insoluble in water and dilute salt solutions.
• Soluble in dilute acids.
• Found in grains & cereals.
(a) Simple Protein...
• Thymus Gland, Pancrease and
Nucleoproteins (Nucleohistones).
• Soluble in water, salt solutions & dilute
acids.
• Insolu...
• Thymus Gland, Pancrease and
Nucleoproteins (Nucleohistones).
• Soluble in water, salt solutions & dilute
acids.
• Insolu...
• Connective tissues and hard tissues.
• Fibrous protein is insoluble in all solvents.
• Resistant to digestion.
(a) Simpl...
(a) Conjugated Proteins - Nucleoproteins
Cytoplasm of Cells
(Ribonucleoprotein)
Nucleus of Chromosomes &
Ribosomes
(Deoxyr...
• It contains nucleic acids, nitrogen and
phosphorus.
• It is present in chromosomes and in all
living forms as a combinat...
(b) Conjugated Proteins - Mucoprotein
• Saliva (Mucin) and Egg white
(Ovomucoid).
• Proteins combined with amino sugars,
s...
(b) Conjugated Proteins - Glycoproteins
• Bones (Osseomucoid), Tendons
(Tendomucoid) and Cartilage
(Chondromucoid).
• Cont...
(b) Conjugated Proteins – Phosphoproteins
• Milk (Casein) and Egg yolk (Ovovitellin).
• Phosphoric acid joined in ester li...
(c) Derived Proteins - Proteans
• Edestan ( from Elastin) and Myosin
(Myosin).
• It results from short action of acids or
...
(c) Derived Proteins - Proteases
• Intermediate product of protein digestion
• Soluble in water.
• Not coagulated by heat....
(c) Derived Proteins -Peptones
• Intermediate product of protein digestion
• Same properties as proteases except that
they...
(c) Derived Proteins - Peptides
• Intermediate product of protein digestion
• Two or more amino acids joined by a
peptide ...
STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
• Depends upon the spatial arrangement of
polypeptide chains.
• Three arrangements are possible.
• F...
The Primary Structure Of Proteins
• The sequence of amino acids in a
polypeptide chain is called a primary
structure.
• Am...
The Primary Structure Of Proteins
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
The Secondary Structure Of Proteins
• Peptide chains may acquire spiral shape
or may be present in a zig zig manner.
• Thi...
The Secondary Structure Of Proteins
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
The Tertiary Structure Of Proteins
• Twisting or folding
of polypeptide
chains represents
tertiary structure of
proteins.
...
The Quaternary Structure Of Proteins
• Quaternary means four.
• It is the arrangement of multiple folded
protein or coilin...
The Quaternary Structure Of Proteins
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Properties Of Proteins
• Found in all living organisms.
• Involved in processes such as digestion of
food, cell structure,...
Importance of Proteins
• Proteins play an important role in
formation of protoplasm.
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Importance of Proteins
• Nucleoproteins are
complex proteins and
act as the carrier of
heredity materials from
one generat...
Importance of Proteins
• Enzymes are the biological catalyst and
they are also proteins
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Importance of Proteins
• Hemoglobin is a protein. It act as oxygen
carrier.
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Importance of Proteins
• Tanning of hides is actually precipitation of
proteins by tannic acid.
Prepared by: Sidra Javed
Importance of Proteins
• Gelatin is obtained by heating bones,
skins and tendons in water. It is used in
bakery goods.
Pre...
Importance of Proteins
• Casein is another protein used in
manufacture of buttons and buckles.
• Proteins obtained from so...
Prepared by, Sidra Javed
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Proteins

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Proteins, classification and functions

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Proteins

  1. 1. Chapter # 21 XII FDC Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  2. 2. PROTEINSPrepared by: Sidra Javed
  3. 3. PROTEINS • The Molecules which yields amino acids upon hydrolysis are called proteins. • Proteins are natural polymer of amino acids. • The number of amino acids in a protein molecule may range from two to several thousands. • Protein molecules contain Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  4. 4. PROTEINS • Proteins are the basis for the major structural components of animal and human tissue. • They act as biological catalysts (Enzymes), form structural parts of organisms, participate in different cell reactions, act as molecules of immunity and also provide fuel. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEINS • Those which give one amino acid only upon hydrolysis. (a) Simple Proteins • Those which give an amino acid and a non-protein group upon hydrolysis. (b) Conjugated Proteins • Those which are derived from simple and conjugated proteins. (c) Derived Proteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  6. 6. (a) SIMPLE PROTEINS - Albumins Blood (Serumbumin) Milk (Lactalbumin) Egg White (Ovolbumin) Lentils (Legumelin) Kidney Beans (Phaseolin) Wheat (Leucosin) Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  7. 7. • Globular protein is insoluble in water and dilute salt solution. • Precipitated by saturation with (NH4)2SO4 solution. • Coagulated by heat. • Found in plant and animal tissue. (a) Simple Proteins - Albumins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  8. 8. (a) Simple Proteins - Globulins Blood (Serum Globulins) Muscles (Myosin) Potato (Tuberin) Brazil Nuts (Excelsin) Hemp (Edestin) Lentils (Legumin) Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  9. 9. • Globular Protein is sparingly soluble in water and neutral solutions. • Precipitated by dilute Ammonium Sulphate. • Coagulated by Heat. • Distributed in both plant and animal tissues. (a) Simple Proteins - Globulins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  10. 10. (a) Simple Proteins - Glutelins Wheat (Glutenin) Rice (Oryzenin) Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  11. 11. • Insoluble in water and dilute salt solutions. • Soluble in dilute acids. • Found in grains & cereals. (a) Simple Proteins - Glutelins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  12. 12. • Thymus Gland, Pancrease and Nucleoproteins (Nucleohistones). • Soluble in water, salt solutions & dilute acids. • Insoluble in Ammonium Hydroxide. • Yeilds large amount of Lysine & arginine. • Combined with nucleic acids within cells. (a) Simple Proteins - Histones Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  13. 13. • Thymus Gland, Pancrease and Nucleoproteins (Nucleohistones). • Soluble in water, salt solutions & dilute acids. • Insoluble in Ammonium Hydroxide. • Yeilds large amount of Lysine & arginine. • Combined with nucleic acids within cells. (a) Simple Proteins - Histones Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  14. 14. • Connective tissues and hard tissues. • Fibrous protein is insoluble in all solvents. • Resistant to digestion. (a) Simple Proteins - Scleroproteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  15. 15. (a) Conjugated Proteins - Nucleoproteins Cytoplasm of Cells (Ribonucleoprotein) Nucleus of Chromosomes & Ribosomes (Deoxyribonucleoprotein) Viruses & Bacteriophage Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  16. 16. • It contains nucleic acids, nitrogen and phosphorus. • It is present in chromosomes and in all living forms as a combination of protein with either DNA or RNA. (a) Conjugated Proteins - Nucleoproteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  17. 17. (b) Conjugated Proteins - Mucoprotein • Saliva (Mucin) and Egg white (Ovomucoid). • Proteins combined with amino sugars, sugar acids and sulfates. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  18. 18. (b) Conjugated Proteins - Glycoproteins • Bones (Osseomucoid), Tendons (Tendomucoid) and Cartilage (Chondromucoid). • Containing more than 4% Hexosamine, mucoproteins; if less than 4%, then Glycoproteins. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  19. 19. (b) Conjugated Proteins – Phosphoproteins • Milk (Casein) and Egg yolk (Ovovitellin). • Phosphoric acid joined in ester linkage to protein. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  20. 20. (c) Derived Proteins - Proteans • Edestan ( from Elastin) and Myosin (Myosin). • It results from short action of acids or enzymes • Insoluble in water. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  21. 21. (c) Derived Proteins - Proteases • Intermediate product of protein digestion • Soluble in water. • Not coagulated by heat. • Precipitated by saturated ammonium sulphate • Result from a partial digestion of protein by pepsin or trypsin. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  22. 22. (c) Derived Proteins -Peptones • Intermediate product of protein digestion • Same properties as proteases except that they cannot be salted out. • Smaller molecular weight than proteases. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  23. 23. (c) Derived Proteins - Peptides • Intermediate product of protein digestion • Two or more amino acids joined by a peptide linkage. • Hydrolyzed to individual amino acids. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  24. 24. STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS • Depends upon the spatial arrangement of polypeptide chains. • Three arrangements are possible. • Four structures: i. Primary structure ii. Secondary structure iii. Tertiary Structure iv. Quaternary Structure Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  25. 25. The Primary Structure Of Proteins • The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is called a primary structure. • Amino Acids are linked with one another through peptide bonds. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  26. 26. The Primary Structure Of Proteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  27. 27. The Secondary Structure Of Proteins • Peptide chains may acquire spiral shape or may be present in a zig zig manner. • This coiling of peptide chains is called the secondary structure of proteins. • It is due to Hydrogen bonding. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  28. 28. The Secondary Structure Of Proteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  29. 29. The Tertiary Structure Of Proteins • Twisting or folding of polypeptide chains represents tertiary structure of proteins. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  30. 30. The Quaternary Structure Of Proteins • Quaternary means four. • It is the arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. • A variety of bonding interactions including Hydrogen bonding, salt bridges and disulfide bonds holds the various chains into a particular geometry. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  31. 31. The Quaternary Structure Of Proteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  32. 32. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  33. 33. Properties Of Proteins • Found in all living organisms. • Involved in processes such as digestion of food, cell structure, catalysis, movement, energy manipulation etc. • Complex molecules. • Polymers of amino acids. • Long chains of amino acids are called Polypeptides. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  34. 34. Importance of Proteins • Proteins play an important role in formation of protoplasm. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  35. 35. Importance of Proteins • Nucleoproteins are complex proteins and act as the carrier of heredity materials from one generation to another. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  36. 36. Importance of Proteins • Enzymes are the biological catalyst and they are also proteins Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  37. 37. Importance of Proteins • Hemoglobin is a protein. It act as oxygen carrier. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  38. 38. Importance of Proteins • Tanning of hides is actually precipitation of proteins by tannic acid. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  39. 39. Importance of Proteins • Gelatin is obtained by heating bones, skins and tendons in water. It is used in bakery goods. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  40. 40. Importance of Proteins • Casein is another protein used in manufacture of buttons and buckles. • Proteins obtained from soya bean are used for manufacture of plastics. Prepared by: Sidra Javed
  41. 41. Prepared by, Sidra Javed

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