3. Plant source
Plant Sources is the oldest source of drugs.
Almost all parts of the plants are used i.e. leaves, stem, bark, fruits and
Only a small percentage of the total species have been studied scientifically
for the presence of any therapeutic activity and isolation of the responsible
Majority of the natural drugs from plant sources are derived from
Spermatophytes (seed bearing plants).
4. Thy phyla Angiospermae is the dominant one while the phyla
Gymnospermae yields few useful drugs such as Turpentine oil, Colophony,
Male Fern from Pteridophyta provides Taenicide (tape worm killing) agents
Dicotyledon plants provide more drugs than the Monocotyledon plants
which yield limited drugs such as Squill, Lemon grass oil, Aloes etc.
Examples of drugs obtained from plants include Quinine, Atropine, Cocaine,
Morphine, Codeine, Ergotamine, Reserpine, Caffeine, Sennosides,
Glycyrrhizin, volatile oils, fixed oils etc
5. Animal Source
Gelatin is obtained from ox and sheep.
Wool fat from sheep.
Beeswax from honeycomb.
Cochineal from insects are some examples of drugs obtained from land
Spermaceti, Shark liver oil, Cod liver oil, halibut liver oil are some of the
drugs obtained from marine animals.
6. Microbial Sources
Microbial Sources: Well-known antibiotics produced by a group of
microorganisms known as actinomycetes yielding antibiotics such as
actinomycin, amphotericin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin,
neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and tetracycline.
Aspergillate group of fungi produce antibiotics such as penicillin,
griseofulvin and cephalosporin.
Among the bacteria, genus Bacillus produces antibiotics such as polymyxin B
Ergot alkaloids also are obtained from a resting stage of a fungus.
Algae are source of limited number of drugs such as Agar and Alginate
7. Mineral Sources
Mineral Sources: Several silicates such as Kaolin, Bentonite, Diatomite and
compounds of Na, K, Al, Ca, Mg etc. are obtained from Mineral sources
including Sulphur and Iodine.
8. Biotechnology source
Recombinant DNA technology involves cleavage of DNA by enzyme restriction
The desired gene is coupled to rapidly replicating DNA (viral, bacterial or
Important example is Human insulin is produced by modification of porcine
insulin or by bacteria using recombinant DNA technology.
Few others include Somatotrophin, Erythropoietin, Human blood coagulation
Scopolamine, Podophyllotoxin, Paclitaxel, Rosmarinic acid, Vanillin and
Shikonin are some of the examples of compounds produced from plant cell
9. Different source of drug summaries
1.Plants Cinnamon, digitalis, saffron and clove
2.Animal Beeswax, cantharides, cod liver oil
3.Mineral Chalk, bentonite, asbestos, talc, kaolin
4.Microbial source Penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline
5.Biotecnology Somatotrophin, Erythromycin, Human Blood coagulation factors
6.Allergens Pollen grains ,mold spores
7.Immunizing agents Vaccine, sera.