WORLD HEALTH DAY -APRIL 7 2011<br />COLLEGE OF NURSING <br />KANNUR MEDICAL COLLEGE<br />ANJARAKANDY<br />KANNUR, KERALA<br />
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATIONAT A GLANCE…..<br />The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on April 7, 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which was an agency of the League of Nations.<br />
WHY THIS THEME?<br />WHO SAYS;<br />We live in an era of medical breakthroughs with new wonder drugs available to treat conditions that a few decades ago, or even a few years ago in the case of HIV/AIDS, would have proved fatal. For World Health Day 2011, WHO will launch a worldwide campaign to safeguard these medicines for future generations. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick, while at the same time it risks jeopardizing important advances being made against major infectious killers.<br />
Previous world health daysIn 1948, the first world health assembly called for the creation of A "world health day" to mark the founding of the world health organization. Since 1950, world health day has been celebrated on the 7th of April annually. Each year A theme is selected for world health day that highlights A priority area of concern for WHO. World health day is A worldwide opportunity to focus on key public health issues that affect the international community. World health day launches longer-term advocacy programme that continue well beyond 7 April.<br />
PREVIOUS THEMES AT A GLANCE….<br />2010: URBANIZATION AND HEALTH - 1000 CITIES, 1000 LIVES<br />2009: MAKE HOSPITALS SAFE IN EMERGENCIES<br />2008: PROTECTING HEALTH FROM CLIMATE CHANGE<br />2007: INTERNATIONAL HEALTH SECURITY<br />2006: WORKING TOGETHER FOR HEALTH<br />2005: MAKE EVERY MOTHER AND CHILD COUNT<br />2004: ROAD SAFETY<br />2003: SHAPE THE FUTURE OF LIFE<br />2002: MOVE FOR HEALTH<br />2001: MENTAL HEALTH: STOP EXCLUSION, DARE TO CARE <br />
Why AMR is a global concern?<br />Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) kills<br />Challenges care and control of infectious diseases<br />Greatly increases care costs<br />Threatens a return to the pre-antibiotic era<br />Jeopardizes healthcare gains for individuals and society<br />Compromises health security, damages trade and economy<br />Lack of coherent approaches to prevention and containment<br />
AMR: a major challenge<br />Tuberculosis (TB): 440,000 new multidrug resistance (MDR) TB cases annually; extensively drug resistance (XDR) TB cases reported in 64 countries so far<br />Malaria: Emergence of Artemisinin resistance linked to on-going use of monotherapies<br />HIV: With expanded use of antiretroviral (ARVs), resistance is a concern<br />Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: lethal infections in hospital settings becoming increasingly frequent<br />Multi-drug resistant E.coli, K.pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp.: infections are on the rise and a new beta-lactamase, NDM-1, is causing alarm <br />Neisseriagonorrheae and Shigella: becoming increasingly resistant to drugs <br />
What drives AMR?<br />PLANS AND RESOURCES NOT COMPREHENSIVE OR COHERENT; POOR ACCOUNTABILITY<br />CONSUMERS AND COMMUNITIES NOT ENGAGED <br />SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS WEAK OR ABSENT<br />SYSTEMS FOR ENSURING QUALITY AND SUPPLY OF MEDICINES INADEQUATE<br />USE OF MEDICINES INAPPROPRIATE AND IRRATIONAL, INCLUDING IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY<br />INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL POOR<br />ANTIMICROBIALS AND DIAGNOSTICS ARSENAL LIMITED <br />RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND MEDICINES INSUFFICIENT<br />
Global policy response to AMR<br />Global commitment: WHO global strategy for containment of AMR (2001)<br /> Surveillance systems and response strategies being pursued<br /> Task force and informal network at global and regional levels<br />Regional action: who regional committee resolutions (e.g. Afro, paho, searo)<br />Political will: world health assembly resolutions<br /> 1998 – emerging and other communicable diseases AMR<br /> 2005 – improving the containment of AMR<br /> 2009 – prevention and control of MDR-TB and XDR-TB<br />Despite progress, strategies for amr containment have not been widely implemented <br />
AMR: What is blocking progress?<br />Complex problem requiring a comprehensive response among and between Member States across different sectors<br />Actions needed are clear – but there is a failure of commitment, implementation and accountability <br />Preventing AMR is a "public good" which strengthens health security – but financing is insufficient <br />
WHD 2011- flagship event of the year!<br />World Health Day will: Draw global focus on AMR<br /> Engage all 193 WHO Member States and the global health community <br /> Foster action for change worldwide <br />World Health Day will engage and enlist: <br /> Health Ministers, other policy makers and health leaders, The public, patients and civil society <br /> Pharmaceutical industry, health institutions, prescribers and dispensers, Journalists and the media<br />
WHD 2011: What will we achieve?<br />Goal: <br /> To save lives and protect health by keeping precious, lifesaving medicines effective and useful to combat disease <br />Aims:<br /> To raise awareness on what drives AMR<br /> To build commitment for effective policies and practices and their implementation to combat AMR<br />Objectives:<br /> To introduce a Policy Package for Member States focused on six top priority actions to combat AMR<br /> To reach and engage key stakeholders through innovative communications, advocacy and events <br /> To promote further collaboration across sectors and among stakeholders <br />
WHD 2011 will lead to<br />Coherent statement of commitment across stakeholders and by key constituencies <br />Comprehensive, financed national plans and clearer accountability lines <br />New national, regional and global initiatives, such as collaboration across AMR surveillance networks <br />Coordinated NGO action <br />Sustained information campaigns<br />Incentives for more R&D for new diagnostics and medicines <br />
Some partners who are promoting action on AMR and World Health Day<br />The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation <br />The Government of Sweden <br />ECDC (European Centre for Disease Control) <br />CDC (US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention)<br />CGD (Centre for Global Development) <br />TATFAR (Trans-Atlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance) <br />ReACT (Action on Antibiotic Resistance) <br />IDSA (Infectious Diseases Society of America)<br />APUA (Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics) <br />IFPMA (Int'l Fed. Of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations)<br />FIP (International Pharmaceutical Federation) <br />The Global Fund<br />Stop TB Partnership<br />WHONET<br />UK Health Protection Agency<br />
ANTI MICROBIAL RESISTANCE [AMR]-AN OVERVIEW<br />
WHAT IS AMR?<br />Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of certain microorganisms to withstand attack by antimicrobials, and the uncontrolled rise in resistant pathogens threatens lives and wastes limited healthcare resources.<br />
CONCLUSION<br />While it’s very difficult to quantify the total impact of resistance on health, published data clearly indicate that morbidity and mortality are increased by delays in administering effective treatment for infections caused by resistant pathogens.<br />In this light, implementation of <br />WHO STRATEGY can be considered appropriate risk management to protect current health care initiatives and the availability of treatment for future generations.<br />
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