- 1. Module 1 Physics: A Basic Science
- 2. 1.1 PHYSICS AND OTHER BRACHES OF SCIENCE
- 3. It is a systematized body of knowledge that is based on facts gathered through observations, experiences and experiments in order to formulate a verifiable conclusion or law that serves as basis of technology for the benefit of man and his environment.
- 4. It is a systematized body of knowledge that is based on facts gathered through observations, experiences and experiments in order to formulate a verifiable conclusion or law that serves as basis of technology for the benefit of man and his environment.
- 5. It is a systematized body of knowledge that is based on facts gathered through observations, experiences and experiments in order to formulate a verifiable conclusion or law that serves as basis of technology for the benefit of man and his environment.
- 6. It is the application of the theoretical sciences.
- 8. It deals with the human behavior primarily in its social and cultural needs.
- 9. It deals with the human behavior primarily in its social and cultural needs.
- 10. It deals with the human behavior primarily in its social and cultural needs.
- 12. It deals with the understanding and description of nature,
- 13. It deals with the understanding and description of nature
- 14. It deals with the understanding and description of nature,
- 16. Biological Science It deals with the study of living things.
- 20. Physical Science It deals with the study of non living things.
- 22. 1.2 PHYSICS AND ITS BRANCHES WHAT IS Physics? This is the study of matter and energy and their relationship. Physicists believe that most everyday phenomena can, in one way or another, be explained through physics, as matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world. We may not be aware of it, but everything we see and don’t see is simply matter and the energy it possesses.
- 23. This is also divided into two main branches – CLASSICAL PHYSICS and MODERN PHYSICS. CLASSICAL PHYSICS – refers to the traditional topics in physics that were recognized and developed before the beginning of the 20th century. MODERN PHYSICS – refers to concepts in physics that have surfaced since the beginning of the 20th century. This is mostly concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions(the very large or the very small)
- 24. SUBBRANCHES OF PHYSICS • Classical Physics •Mechanics – the study of forces acting on bodies whether at rest or in motion. •Statics – on forces acting on bodies at rest. •Kinematics – on motion without regard to its cause. •Dynamics – on motion and the forces that affect it •Acoustics – the study of the production and propagation of sound waves. • Optics – the study of light. •Physical optics – on the production, nature and properties of light. •Physiological optics – on the part played by light in vision. •Geometrical optics – on the reflection and refraction of light as encountered in the study of mirrors and lenses. •Thermodynamics – the study of the relationship between heat and other forms of energy. •Electromagnetism – the study of the properties of electric current and magnetism, and their relationship. - Electrostatic - Electrodynamics - Magnetostatics
- 25. •Modern Physics •Atomic and Nuclear Physics – the study of the components, structure, and behavior of the nucleus in the atom. •Quantum Physics – the study of the discrete nature of phenomena at the atomic and subatomic levels. •Relativistic Physics – the study of phenomena that take place in a frame of reference that is in motion with respect to an observer. •Solid State Physics – the study of all properties of solid materials. •Condensed Matter Physics – the study of the properties of condensed materials with the ultimate goal of developing new materials with better properties. •Plasma Physics – the study of the fourth state of matter. •Low – Temperature Physics - the study of the production and maintenance of temperature down to almost absolute zero, and various phenomena that occurs only at such temperature.
- 26. 1.3 PHYSICS IS MORE THAN JUST A NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Physics was separated from philosophy because of one important factor – it employed an approach known as scientific method. Scientific Method – is the application of a logical process reasoning to arrive at a certain law or principle that is consistent with experimental results. 1.4 PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY : PARTNERS FOR PROGRESS Physics, which attempts to understand nature and its laws, has become a very important field of human knowledge. It has helped us change both the physical and social dimension s of our environment through the development of technology in the form of new tools, or gadgets, new products and new processes.
- 27. PHYSICS IS MORE THAN JUST A NATURAL PHILOSOPHY Physics was separated from philosophy because of scientific method. Module 2 one important factor – it employed an approach known as Scientific Method – is the application of a logical process of Nature’s Laws are reasoning to arrive at a certain law or principle that is consistent with experimental results. Mathematical and PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: PARTNERS FOR PROGRESS Simple Physics, which attempts to understand nature and its laws, has become a very important field of human knowledge. It has helped us change both physical and social dimensions of our environment through development of technology in the form of gadgets, new products and new processes.
- 28. 2.1 MATHEMATICS: AN ESSENTIAL TOOL Physics without mathematics is unthinkable. We will find out that the basic rules governing the behavior of nature are readily expressed in mathematical form throughout the study of physics. 2.1.1 Scientific Notation Physics involves concepts which are described by very large or very small quantities. Consider the following: Mass of the earth : 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg Mass of an electron: 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg
- 29. These very huge and minute magnitudes will take up much space when written down and are difficult to use in calculations. To work with these quantities more easily, you can express them in a compact way of writing over a wide range of values known as scientific notation. In scientific notation, the numbers are represented by the product of a multiplying factor and a power of ten. In adding or subtracting numbers expressed in scientific notation, quantities must have the same exponents as well as units. If the powers of ten are not the same, they must be made the same. In multiplying numbers using scientific notation, the product of these must be the product of the base numbers and 10 raised to the sum of their exponents. In dividing numbers written in scientific notation, the quotient of these id the quotient of the base numbers and 10 raised to the difference of their exponents.
- 30. 2.1.2 Significant Figures In studying physics, we will do a lot of measurements of physical quantities. When we record and report the numerical values of measurements, we must express them in a numerical form which is composed of digits that are known with certainty plus the first uncertain digit. These digits are known as significant digits or significant figures. In general, the number of significant figures of a numerical quantity is the number of reliably known digits it contains and is based on the precision of the instrument used in measuring the quantity. Rules in determining significant figures 1.Leading zeros are not significant, they simply locate the decimal point. Ex. 0.000143 has three significant figures. 2. Zeros between two nonzero digits are significant. Ex. 105.03 has five significant figures. 3. Trailing zeros are usually significant, but can be ambiguous. Ex. 100. has three significant figures. 1.00 has three significant figures. 100 is ambiguous.
- 31. In multiplication or division of numbers using significant figures , the general rule is that the results are as precise as the least precise value, that is, the value with the fewest significant figures. In addition or subtraction, the precision of the result is no better than that of the least precise quantity being calculated. It means that the result occupies the same position relative to the decimal point as the position in the number whose last significant figure is the farthest to the left. 2.2 MEASUREMENT: A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE Measurement are used to describe such quantities as length, weight, area, volume, and time. It is a quantitative description of a fundamental property or physical phenomenon. When we measure, we compare an unknown quantity with a certain standard called unit of measurement.
- 32. 2.2.1 Standard Units of Measure This table shows the different quantities with their corresponding units. A. FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES
- 33. B. DERIVED QUANTITIES → v → a
- 34. 2.2.2 Conversion of Units Units in different system or even different units in the same system can express the same quantity. To avoid confusion, it is therefore necessary to convert the units of a quantity from one unit to another. Conversion of units can be done by multiplying the original unit by an appropriate conversion factor. Conversion factors are simply equivalence statements expressed in the form of ratios equal to 1. In converting units, we must take advantage of unit analysis. That is, choosing the appropriate form of conversion factor that will allow cancellation of unwanted units and thus give the answer in the desired unit.
- 35. 2.2.3 Minute and Huge Measurement A better method of measuring small distances is by the use of the micrometer and the vernier caliper. Micrometer are used to make accurate measurements of the thickness of a sheet of paper and the external diameter of thin wires. Vernier caliper is used for measuring wither the internal or external diameters of tubes, pipes , rods, etc. The distance between the jaws of the caliper is read on a scale attached to the instrument. 2.2.4 Not All is Certain: The Limits of Measurement There is no such thing as a perfect measurement. Every measurement, whether made by a student or a professional scientist, contains a certain degree of uncertainty.
- 36. Uncertainty in measurements can result from limitations in accuracy or precision. These limitations can be attributed to systematic errors and random errors. Systematic errors are due to the limitations of the measuring instruments and the skill or carefulness of the experimenter. Random errors are caused by external factors beyond the control of the experimenter such as vibrations, noise, changes in atmospheric pressure and friction. Accuracy of measurement describes how well the results agree with an accepted value of the quantity being measured. Precision refers to the degree of exactness to which a measurement can be reproduced.
- 37. 2.3 EQUATIONS; RELATIONSHIPS IN A CAPSULE On e of the most important and useful ideas in mathematics is the idea that two variables may be related to each other. This idea, known as proportion or variation, finds frequent applications in physical sciences. 2.3.1 Direct Proportion In direct proportionality, one quantity varies directly as the other quantity. In symbols, y = kx or k = y where k is the constant of variation. x 2.3.2 Inverse Proportion An inverse proportion is on wherein an increase in one quantity means a decrease in the other. In symbol, y = k or k = xy where k is the constant of variation. x
- 38. 2.3.3 Direct Square proportion In some cases, we can see both quantities are increasing but one quantity increases faster than the other. This relationship is known as y direct square proportion. In symbols, y = kx 2 ork = 2 where k is the constant of variation. x 2.3.4 Inverse Square Proportion Another kind of relationship is where one quantity decreases faster as the other quantity increases. This is known as inverse square proportion. In symbol, y = k2 or k = x y where k is the 2 constant of variation. x 2.3.5 Manipulating Equations An unknown variable can be solved by manipulating equations.