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Aircraft seat comfort requirements
based on scientific literature




prof dr Peter Vink
The passenger experiences comfort
therefore, use as well:

• tests with passengers in various design stages

• human models

• guidelines developed by e.g. Boeing and Airbus

this presentation: some measurable literature based data
This presentation


  3.
back-
 rest
           2.          1.
        seatpan     legroom
1. Legroom: priority nr one



minimal 665 mm = 26.2”
(p95 world population, ww.dined.nl)
for p95 male Dutch it’s: 705 mm = 27.8”


=the biggest problem according to
10,032 passengers (Vink et al., 2012)
1. Legroom




+ enough shin clearance and footspace
see also Boeing guidelines (Vink & Brauer, 2011)
1. Legroom


     166 mm = 6.5”

distance between tray table
and top of seat pan
(p95 Dutch population
 31-60 years, ww.dined.nl)
2. Seatpan

Seat pan front upwards, angle dependent on backrest angle:
avoid shear forces (Goossens & Snijders, 1995)




Pressure distribution
according to Zenk
et al.(2012): Load
in % of body mass
2. Seatpan

Width between armrests:



hip width p95 Dutch male:
• 1982: 408 mm = 16.1”
• 2004: 440 mm = 17.3”      440mm
• 2026: ?472mm?

Source: www.dined.nl
3. Backrest                                      100-130o

Recline angle according to some studies:
________________________________________________
130o Rosmalen et al., 2009        lounge seat experiment
117o Park et al., 2000            observing Korean drivers
120o Hosea et al., 1986           EMG of back muscles
109o Knijnenburg, 2007            truck comfort experiment
114o Gscheidle, 2004              prefered office seat
                                  positions
100o Harrison, 2000               literature review
________________________________________________
3. Backrest: lumbar support


               max 30 mm = 1.18”
                (Carcone & Keir, 2007)

                  South-African
                  middle of lumbar support
                  120-280 mm above seat pan
                    avg 192 mm = 7.56”
                    (Korte, 2013)
3. Backrest: headrest


                        shoulder height sitting
                          Dutch 2004 20-60 years:
                           p95: 664 mm = 26.1”
Foam:                       p5: 523 mm = 20.6”
at neck level                (www.dined.nl)
stiffnes <1kPa (soft)
At head level
stiffnes +/- 5.6 kPa
(Franz et al., 2012)
More factors influence comfort, like
Preflight/postflight and service

In the seat itself:
        seat pan length
        form of seat pan
        free shoulder space
        in- and egress
        support for device use
        foam/net,
        texture/color
        etc
Conclusion

Tests with passengers inevitible in increasing comfort
also, because many factors influence comfort
First priority: leg room
Hip width will increase




more info: p.vink@tudelft.nl   +
References
-Carcone SM, Keir PJ. Effects of backrest design on biomechanics and comfort during seated work .Applied
Ergonomics 2007;38: 755-764
-Franz M, Durt A, Zenk R, Desmet PMA. Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support .Applied
Ergonomics 2012;43(2):336-343
-Goossens RHM, Snijders CJ. Design criteria for the reduction of shear forces in beds and seats. Journal of
Biomechanics 1995; 28: 225-230
-Gscheidle GM, Reed MP, Sitter-selected postures in an office chair with minimal task constraints. In:
proceedings of the HFES 48th annual meeting 2004: 1086-1090, cd-rom 2004
-Harrison DD, Harrison SO, Croft AC, Harrison DE, Troyanovich SJ, Sitting Biomechanics, Part II: Optimal Car
Driver's Seat and Optimal Driver's Spinal Model. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2000;
23: 37-47,
-Hosea TM, Simon SR, Delatizky J, Wong MA, Hsieh CC. Myoelectric analysis of the paraspinal musculature in
relation to automobile driving. Spine 1986; 11:928-36
-Knijnenburg, R, Future passengers side truck seats for DAF. Confidential, TU-delft, Delft, 2007
-Korte J. South African anthropometric dimensions for the design of an ergonomic office chair, Rhodes
University, Grahamstown, 2013
-Park SJ, Kim Ch, Kim CJ, Lee JW. Comfortable driving postures for Koreans. In J of Industrial Ergonomics
2000; 26: 489-497
-Rosmalen D van, Groenesteijn L, Boess S, Vink P. Using both qualitative and quantitative types of research to
design a comfortable television chair. J. of Design Research 2009; 8: 87–100
-Vink P, Bazley C, Kamp I, Blok M. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience. Applied
Ergonomics 2012;43:354-359
-Vink P, Brauer K, Aircraft interior comfort and design, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011
-Zenk R, Franz M, Bubb H, Vink P. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating. Applied
Ergonomics 2012;43:290-295

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Aircraft seat comfort requirements hamburg expo april 9th 2012

  • 1. Aircraft seat comfort requirements based on scientific literature prof dr Peter Vink
  • 2. The passenger experiences comfort therefore, use as well: • tests with passengers in various design stages • human models • guidelines developed by e.g. Boeing and Airbus this presentation: some measurable literature based data
  • 3. This presentation 3. back- rest 2. 1. seatpan legroom
  • 4. 1. Legroom: priority nr one minimal 665 mm = 26.2” (p95 world population, ww.dined.nl) for p95 male Dutch it’s: 705 mm = 27.8” =the biggest problem according to 10,032 passengers (Vink et al., 2012)
  • 5. 1. Legroom + enough shin clearance and footspace see also Boeing guidelines (Vink & Brauer, 2011)
  • 6. 1. Legroom 166 mm = 6.5” distance between tray table and top of seat pan (p95 Dutch population 31-60 years, ww.dined.nl)
  • 7. 2. Seatpan Seat pan front upwards, angle dependent on backrest angle: avoid shear forces (Goossens & Snijders, 1995) Pressure distribution according to Zenk et al.(2012): Load in % of body mass
  • 8. 2. Seatpan Width between armrests: hip width p95 Dutch male: • 1982: 408 mm = 16.1” • 2004: 440 mm = 17.3” 440mm • 2026: ?472mm? Source: www.dined.nl
  • 9. 3. Backrest 100-130o Recline angle according to some studies: ________________________________________________ 130o Rosmalen et al., 2009 lounge seat experiment 117o Park et al., 2000 observing Korean drivers 120o Hosea et al., 1986 EMG of back muscles 109o Knijnenburg, 2007 truck comfort experiment 114o Gscheidle, 2004 prefered office seat positions 100o Harrison, 2000 literature review ________________________________________________
  • 10. 3. Backrest: lumbar support max 30 mm = 1.18” (Carcone & Keir, 2007) South-African middle of lumbar support 120-280 mm above seat pan avg 192 mm = 7.56” (Korte, 2013)
  • 11. 3. Backrest: headrest shoulder height sitting Dutch 2004 20-60 years: p95: 664 mm = 26.1” Foam: p5: 523 mm = 20.6” at neck level (www.dined.nl) stiffnes <1kPa (soft) At head level stiffnes +/- 5.6 kPa (Franz et al., 2012)
  • 12. More factors influence comfort, like Preflight/postflight and service In the seat itself: seat pan length form of seat pan free shoulder space in- and egress support for device use foam/net, texture/color etc
  • 13. Conclusion Tests with passengers inevitible in increasing comfort also, because many factors influence comfort First priority: leg room Hip width will increase more info: p.vink@tudelft.nl +
  • 14. References -Carcone SM, Keir PJ. Effects of backrest design on biomechanics and comfort during seated work .Applied Ergonomics 2007;38: 755-764 -Franz M, Durt A, Zenk R, Desmet PMA. Comfort effects of a new car headrest with neck support .Applied Ergonomics 2012;43(2):336-343 -Goossens RHM, Snijders CJ. Design criteria for the reduction of shear forces in beds and seats. Journal of Biomechanics 1995; 28: 225-230 -Gscheidle GM, Reed MP, Sitter-selected postures in an office chair with minimal task constraints. In: proceedings of the HFES 48th annual meeting 2004: 1086-1090, cd-rom 2004 -Harrison DD, Harrison SO, Croft AC, Harrison DE, Troyanovich SJ, Sitting Biomechanics, Part II: Optimal Car Driver's Seat and Optimal Driver's Spinal Model. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2000; 23: 37-47, -Hosea TM, Simon SR, Delatizky J, Wong MA, Hsieh CC. Myoelectric analysis of the paraspinal musculature in relation to automobile driving. Spine 1986; 11:928-36 -Knijnenburg, R, Future passengers side truck seats for DAF. Confidential, TU-delft, Delft, 2007 -Korte J. South African anthropometric dimensions for the design of an ergonomic office chair, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 2013 -Park SJ, Kim Ch, Kim CJ, Lee JW. Comfortable driving postures for Koreans. In J of Industrial Ergonomics 2000; 26: 489-497 -Rosmalen D van, Groenesteijn L, Boess S, Vink P. Using both qualitative and quantitative types of research to design a comfortable television chair. J. of Design Research 2009; 8: 87–100 -Vink P, Bazley C, Kamp I, Blok M. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience. Applied Ergonomics 2012;43:354-359 -Vink P, Brauer K, Aircraft interior comfort and design, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2011 -Zenk R, Franz M, Bubb H, Vink P. Technical note: Spine loading in automotive seating. Applied Ergonomics 2012;43:290-295