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GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

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What is GIS
Principle of GIS
Function of GIS
Components of GIS
Type of GIS
Advantages of GIS
Applications of GIS
Organisation of GIS
Data structure GIS

GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their location.
A GIS is an organised collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data , and personnel to efficiently capture , store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information.

What is GIS
Principle of GIS
Function of GIS
Components of GIS
Type of GIS
Advantages of GIS
Applications of GIS
Organisation of GIS
Data structure GIS

GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their location.
A GIS is an organised collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data , and personnel to efficiently capture , store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information.

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GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

  1. 1. By: Mahendra Pratap Swain Regd. No.: B.Pharma-1103267027 Geographical Information System GIS
  2. 2. What is Principle of Function of Components of Type of Advantages of Applications of Organisation of Data structure POINTS ARE COVERED GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  3. 3. M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  4. 4.  GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their location.  A GIS is an organised collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data , and personnel to efficiently capture , store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information. WHAT IS GIS??? GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE OF GIS A. Data capture:- Data sources are mainly obtained from manual digitization and scanning of aerial photographs, paper maps , and existing digital data sets. B. Database management and update:- Data security , data integrity , and data storage and retrieval , and data maintenance abilities. C. Geographic analysis:- The collected information is analysed and interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively . D. Preparing result:- One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different ways in which the information can be presented. M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  6. 6. A. Data capture:- The input of data into a GIS can be achieved through many different methods of gathering .For examples aerial photography , scanning , digitizing , GPS or global positioning system is just a few of the ways a GIS user could obtain data . B. Data storage:- Some data is stored such as a map in a drawer , while others ,such as digital data , can be as a hard copy, stored on CD or on your hard drive . C. Data manipulation:- The digital geographical data can be edited , this allows for many attribute to be added , edited , or deleted to the specification of the project. D. Query and analysis:- GIS was used widely in decision making process for the new commission districts. We use population data to help establish an equal representation of population to area for each district . E. Visualization:- This represents the ability to display data , maps and information FUNCTIONS OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  7. 7. ORGANISATION OF GIS  Some definitions of GIS focus on the hardware, software, data and analysis of components. However, no GIS exist in isolation from the organizational context, and there must always be people to plan, implement and operate the system as well as make decision based on the output.  A Geographic Information System is not only about computers, software and electronic data.  A GIS is an organised collection of :  Hardware  Software  Network  Data  Procedures  people M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  8. 8. A. Hardware:- Computer system, scanner, printer, plotter , flat board. B. Software:- GIS software in use are MapInfo , ARC/info, AutoCAD map, etc. The software available can be said to be classification specific. C. People:- GIS uses range from technical specialists who design and maintain. D. Data:- A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and can even use a DBMS, used by organization to maintain their data , to manage spatial data . Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in house or purchased from a commercial data provider . E. Method:- The map creation can either be automated raster to vector creator or it can be manually victories using the scanned images. COMPONENTS OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  9. 9. COMPONENTS OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  10. 10.  There are 2 types of data:- A. Spatial Data (Which describe location- WHERE) B. Attribute Data (Which specifies characteristics at that location- WHAT, HOW MUCH & WHEN)  There are 2 methods to represent these data:- A. Vector B. Raster DATA TYPES OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  11. 11. DATA TYPES OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  12. 12. A. Data are associated with points , lines, or polygon. B. Points are located by coordinates. C. Lines are described by a series of connecting vectors( line segments described by the coordinates of the start of the vector , its direction , and magnitude or length). D. Areas or polygons are described by a series of vectors enclosing the area. VECTOR TYPE M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  13. 13. A. Good representation of data. B. Use small file size. C. Accurate map output. D. The vector model is better suited to supporting graphics that closely approximate hand drawn maps. E. It provides a compact data structure ADVANTAGES OF VECTOR M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  14. 14. A. Expensive technology. B. Analysis is complex. C. It is more complex data than a simpler raster. D. The representation of high spatial variability is insufficient. E. Manipulation and enhancement of the digital images can not be effectively done in the vector domain. DISADVANTAGES OF VECTOR M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  15. 15. A. Data are divided into cell, pixels , or elements. B. Cells are organized in arrays. C. Each cell has a single value. D. Row and column numbers are used to identify the location of the cell within the array. E. Perhaps the most common example of raster data is a digital image. RASTER TYPE M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  16. 16. A. Simple data structure. B. Cheap technology. C. Analysis is simple. D. Same grid cell for several attributes. E. The raster format is more or less required for efficient manipulation and enhancement of digital images ADVANTAGES OF RASTER M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  17. 17. A. Large data volume. B. Inefficient use of computer storage. C. Difficult network analysis. D. Less accurate or attractive maps. E. Loss of information when using large cells. F. Topological relationships are more difficult to present DISADVANTAGES OF RASTER M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  18. 18. A. GIS allows use to view , understand and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships , patterns and trends in the form of maps , globes reports and charts. B. A GIS help you answer question and solve problem why looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. C. GIS give the accurate data. D. Better prediction and analysis. E. Improves/enhances the effects of physical/environmental growth F. Higher quality analysis G. Better management of resources /Better information management adding new value-added services H. Perform analysis on spatial and non spatial components I. Fast recall of data J. Ability for complex analysis ADVANTAGES OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  19. 19. A. Excessive damage in case of internal fault. Long outage periods as repair of damaged part at site may be difficult. B. Expensive software. C. Integration with traditional map is difficult. DISADVANTAGES OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  20. 20. APPLICATION OF GIS A. Urban Planning, Management & Policy B. Environmental Sciences C. Political Science D. Civil Engineering/Utility E. Business F. Education Administration G. Real Estate H. Health Care I. Meteorology J. Geography M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  21. 21. APPLICATION OF GIS M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )
  22. 22. Mahendra Pratap Swain M A H E N D R A P R A T A P S W A I N ( 1 1 0 3 2 6 7 0 2 7 - R I P S - B A M )

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