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Plant structure, 
growth, and 
reproduction
Plants, like multi-cellular 
animals, have organs 
composed of different 
tissues, which are in turn 
are composed of cells.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 
2 Major groups of Angiosperm: 
1. Monocots 
2. Eudicots/Dicots
3 Basic organs: 
1. Roots 
2. Stems 
3. Leaves
2 types of buds
Modified roots, stems, and leaves
Modified roots, stems, and leaves
Modified roots, stems, and leaves
3 TISSUE SYSTEMS 
Tissue? 
Xylem tissue- contains water-conducting cells 
that convey water and dissolved minerals upward 
from the roots 
Phloem tissue- contain cells that transport 
sugars and other organic nutrients from leaves 
or storage tissues to other parts of the plant
3 types of tissues 
• Dermal 
• Vascular 
• Ground 
TISSUE SYSTEM* 
- *A functional unit connecting all of the 
plant’s organs 
- Each tissue system is continuous throughout 
the entire plant body, but the systems are 
arranged differently in leaves, stems, and 
roots.
DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM 
- Plant’s outer protective covering. 
- In many plants, the dermal tissue system consists 
of a single layer of tightly packed cells called 
epidermis.
VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM 
- It is made up of xylem and phloem tissues and 
provides support and long-distance transport 
between the root and the shoot system.
GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM 
- It accounts for most of the bulk of young 
plant, filling the spaces between the 
epidermis and vascular tissue system. 
- Ground tissue internal to the vascular tissue 
is called pith, and ground tissue external to 
the vascular tissue is called cortex.
5 major types of Plant cells 
1. Parenchyma cells 
- Are the most abundant type of cell in most plants. 
- It performs most metabolic functions of a plant, 
such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, and 
food storage.
5 major types of Plant cells 
2. Collenchyma cells 
- These cells provide flexible support in 
actively growing parts of the plant; young 
stems and petioles.
5 major types of Plant cells 
3. Sclerenchyma cells 
- Have thick secondary cell walls usually 
strengthened with lignin, the main chemical 
component of wood. 
- Mature sclerenchyma cells cannot elongate and 
thus are found only in regions of plant that have 
stopped growing in length. 
- 2 TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA CELLS: FIBER, is long 
and slender and is usually arranged in bundles. 
SCLEREIDS, which are shorter than fiber cells, 
have thick, irregular, and very hard secondary 
walls.
5 major types of Plant cells 
4. Water-conducting 
cells 
2 types: 
Tracheids, are long, thin 
cells with tapered ends. 
Vessel elements are wider, 
shorter, and less tapered. 
- Both tracheids and vessel 
elements are dead when 
mature, with only their cell 
walls remaining.
5 major types of Plant cells 
5. Food-conducting cells (sieve-tube 
elements) 
- arranged end to end, forming tubes as part of 
phloem tissue. 
- It remains alive at maturity, though they lose 
most organelles, including ribosomes and 
nucleus.
PLANT GROWTH 
2 Kinds of growth: 
Determinate (animals) 
Indeterminate 
- allows plant to continuously 
increase its exposure to sunlight, air 
and soil.
3 categories of flowering plants: 
Annuals- 
Biennials- 
Perennials-complete 
their life cycle in a single year 
or less 
complete their life cycle in two years, 
with flowering and seed production 
usually occurring during second year. 
are plants that live and reproduce 
for many years.
Growth in all plants is made possible by 
tissues called MERISTEM. 
Meristem- consists of undifferentiated 
(unspecialized) cells that divide when 
conditions permit, generating additional 
cells
Meristems at the tips of 
the roots and in the buds 
of shoots are called 
APICAL 
MERISTEMS. 
A process called 
PRIMARY GROWTH 
produces the new cells 
that enable a plant to 
grow in length
3 zones of Root 
Primary growth: 
1. Zone of cell 
division 
2. Zone of 
elongation 
3. Zone of 
differentiation
Vascular cylinder 
differentiate into 
PRIMARY 
XYLEM and 
PRIMARY 
PHLOEM.
SECONDARY GROWTH 
- Is the thickening in older regions where 
primary growth has ceased. 
“the increase in thickness of stems and roots” 
- is caused by the activity of dividing cells in 
tissues that are called Lateral Meristems.
2 Cylinders: 
1. Vascular 
Cambium 
a cylinder of meristem cells one cell thick 
between the primary xylem and primary 
phloem
2 new tissues of Vascular Cambium: 
a. Secondary xylem (interior) 
b. Secondary phloem (exterior)
Cork- are dead cells and have thick, waxy walls that protect 
the underlying tissues of the stem from water loss, physical 
damage, and pathogens.
Cork is produced by meristem tissue called the 
Cork Cambium.
REPRODUCTION OF FLOWERING 
PLANTS
The flower is the organ 
of sexual reproduction in 
angiosperm. 
4 types of modified 
leaves (FLORAL ORGANS): 
1. Sepals 
2. Petals 
3. Stamens 
4. Carpels
Sepals- enclose and 
protect the flower bud 
Petals- are often 
colorful and advertise 
the flower to 
pollinators 
Stamen- consists of a 
stalk (filament) tipped 
by an anther. 
Carpel- has long 
slender neck (style) 
with a sticky stigma at 
its tip.
Life cycle of an Angiosperm

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Plant structure, growth, and reproduction by Campbell Biology 7th edition

  • 1. Plant structure, growth, and reproduction
  • 2. Plants, like multi-cellular animals, have organs composed of different tissues, which are in turn are composed of cells.
  • 3. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 2 Major groups of Angiosperm: 1. Monocots 2. Eudicots/Dicots
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. 3 Basic organs: 1. Roots 2. Stems 3. Leaves
  • 8. 2 types of buds
  • 12. 3 TISSUE SYSTEMS Tissue? Xylem tissue- contains water-conducting cells that convey water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue- contain cells that transport sugars and other organic nutrients from leaves or storage tissues to other parts of the plant
  • 13. 3 types of tissues • Dermal • Vascular • Ground TISSUE SYSTEM* - *A functional unit connecting all of the plant’s organs - Each tissue system is continuous throughout the entire plant body, but the systems are arranged differently in leaves, stems, and roots.
  • 14. DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM - Plant’s outer protective covering. - In many plants, the dermal tissue system consists of a single layer of tightly packed cells called epidermis.
  • 15. VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM - It is made up of xylem and phloem tissues and provides support and long-distance transport between the root and the shoot system.
  • 16. GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM - It accounts for most of the bulk of young plant, filling the spaces between the epidermis and vascular tissue system. - Ground tissue internal to the vascular tissue is called pith, and ground tissue external to the vascular tissue is called cortex.
  • 17. 5 major types of Plant cells 1. Parenchyma cells - Are the most abundant type of cell in most plants. - It performs most metabolic functions of a plant, such as photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, and food storage.
  • 18. 5 major types of Plant cells 2. Collenchyma cells - These cells provide flexible support in actively growing parts of the plant; young stems and petioles.
  • 19. 5 major types of Plant cells 3. Sclerenchyma cells - Have thick secondary cell walls usually strengthened with lignin, the main chemical component of wood. - Mature sclerenchyma cells cannot elongate and thus are found only in regions of plant that have stopped growing in length. - 2 TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA CELLS: FIBER, is long and slender and is usually arranged in bundles. SCLEREIDS, which are shorter than fiber cells, have thick, irregular, and very hard secondary walls.
  • 20.
  • 21. 5 major types of Plant cells 4. Water-conducting cells 2 types: Tracheids, are long, thin cells with tapered ends. Vessel elements are wider, shorter, and less tapered. - Both tracheids and vessel elements are dead when mature, with only their cell walls remaining.
  • 22. 5 major types of Plant cells 5. Food-conducting cells (sieve-tube elements) - arranged end to end, forming tubes as part of phloem tissue. - It remains alive at maturity, though they lose most organelles, including ribosomes and nucleus.
  • 23.
  • 24. PLANT GROWTH 2 Kinds of growth: Determinate (animals) Indeterminate - allows plant to continuously increase its exposure to sunlight, air and soil.
  • 25. 3 categories of flowering plants: Annuals- Biennials- Perennials-complete their life cycle in a single year or less complete their life cycle in two years, with flowering and seed production usually occurring during second year. are plants that live and reproduce for many years.
  • 26. Growth in all plants is made possible by tissues called MERISTEM. Meristem- consists of undifferentiated (unspecialized) cells that divide when conditions permit, generating additional cells
  • 27. Meristems at the tips of the roots and in the buds of shoots are called APICAL MERISTEMS. A process called PRIMARY GROWTH produces the new cells that enable a plant to grow in length
  • 28. 3 zones of Root Primary growth: 1. Zone of cell division 2. Zone of elongation 3. Zone of differentiation
  • 29. Vascular cylinder differentiate into PRIMARY XYLEM and PRIMARY PHLOEM.
  • 30. SECONDARY GROWTH - Is the thickening in older regions where primary growth has ceased. “the increase in thickness of stems and roots” - is caused by the activity of dividing cells in tissues that are called Lateral Meristems.
  • 31. 2 Cylinders: 1. Vascular Cambium a cylinder of meristem cells one cell thick between the primary xylem and primary phloem
  • 32. 2 new tissues of Vascular Cambium: a. Secondary xylem (interior) b. Secondary phloem (exterior)
  • 33. Cork- are dead cells and have thick, waxy walls that protect the underlying tissues of the stem from water loss, physical damage, and pathogens.
  • 34. Cork is produced by meristem tissue called the Cork Cambium.
  • 35.
  • 37. The flower is the organ of sexual reproduction in angiosperm. 4 types of modified leaves (FLORAL ORGANS): 1. Sepals 2. Petals 3. Stamens 4. Carpels
  • 38. Sepals- enclose and protect the flower bud Petals- are often colorful and advertise the flower to pollinators Stamen- consists of a stalk (filament) tipped by an anther. Carpel- has long slender neck (style) with a sticky stigma at its tip.
  • 39. Life cycle of an Angiosperm

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Monocot– ex. Palms and lilies, orchids, bamboos, grains and other grasses Fibrous roots-- are well adapted to shallow soils where rainfall is light Eudicot– most flowering shrubs and trees, food crops, including fruits and vegetables Taproots– are well adapted to soils with deep groudwater.
  2. there are 2 diff. environment of plants: They must absorb water and minerals from the soil Obtain CO2 and light from above the ground
  3. A stem has nodes, the points at which leaves are attached and internodes, the portions of the stem between nodes. LEAVES– main photosynthetic organs in most plants, although green stems also perform photosynthesis.
  4. 2 types of buds: Terminal bud– (apical bud) is at the tip of the stem, has developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes Axillary bud– one of each angles formed by a leaf and the stem
  5. Tissue– is a group of cells that together perform a specialized function.
  6. These 3 categories forms a TISSUE SYSTEM…
  7. The epidermis of leaves and most stems has a waxy coating called the CUTICLE.
  8. -- have thin primary cell walls Ex. The soft parts a plant, such as the edible part of an apple or a potato, consist largely of parenchyma.
  9. -- have evenly thickened primary cell walls It allows plants to grow upward, thus enabling them to compete with other plants for available sunlight in a plant-crowded area (support for the plant body). Ex. “strings” in celery stalk (petiole) is consist of collenchyma cells
  10. Greek sclero- “hard”
  11. (FOUND in Xylem tissue of many non-woody plants..)
  12. Determinate– they stop growing after reaching a certain size Indeter– most species of plant continue to grow as long as they live
  13. Annuals- ex. Rice and corn grains, biennial- ex. From flower to seed, onion and carrots perennials– include trees, shrubs, and some grasses. Some die not because of old age but from infection or some environmental trauma such as fire, severe drought, or consumption by animals.
  14. Zone of cell division- new root cells are produced, including the cells of the root cap. Zone of elongation- root cells elongate, sometimes to more than 10 time their original length. Pushes the root tip farther into the soil. Zone of differentiation- the 3 tissue system of a mature plant complete their development.
  15. These dividing cells are arranged into two cylinders, known as..
  16. Vas Cam- (picture) this region of the stem is just beginning secondary growth. So secondary growth adds layers of vascular tissue on either side of the vascular cambium, as indicated by the black arrows.
  17. The drawings at the center and the right show the results of secondary growth. Tissues produce by secondary growth are called secondary tissues. (in the center drawing, the vascular cambium has given rise to two new tissues:… Each year, it gives rise to layers that are larger in circumference than the previous year. (Sec Xy– makes up the WOOD of trees, shrub, or vine).
  18. When secondary growth begins (center drawing), the epidermis is sloughed off and replaced with a new outer layer called cork (brown).
  19. Flower contains 4 types of modified leaves.
  20. Anther- are sacs in which pollen is produced via meiosis. Stigma- is the landing platform for pollen The base of the carpel is the ovary, which contains one or more ovules, each containing a developing egg and supporting cells. The term PISTIL- is sometimes used to refer to a single carpel or a group of fused carpel.
  21. Fertilization occurs in an ovule within a flower As the ovary develops into a fruit.. 3. the ovule develops into the seed containing the embryo 4. The fruit protects the seed and aids in dispersing it. Completing the life cycle 5. the seed then germinates (begins to grow) in a suitable habitat 6. the embryo develops into a seedling; and the seedling grows into a mature plant.