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Missions

This document is meant to spark conversations and stimulate thinking around the mission-oriented framework, including the fundamentals about "mission": evolution, concept and some lessons. This deck also serves the purpose of systematising questions from Camden Council, step-by-step implementation recommendations and case studies.

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Missions

  1. 1. Mission-oriented innovation in the urban context Camden Council IIPP Placement project
  2. 2. Content and purpose of the document This document is meant to spark conversations and stimulate thinking around the mission-oriented framework, including the fundamentals about "mission": evolution, concept and some lessons. This deck also serves the purpose of systematising questions and concerns from Camden Council teams, step-by-step implementation recommendations and case studies. Mission-Oriented Policy: The basics Evolution, concept, lessons, and structure Step-by-step recommendations Framing missions, engagement, participation and collaboration, organisational capabilities, finance and funding, and monitoring and success measurement Manchester case study Case studies to provide grounded context to illuminate how a mission-oriented approach can be implemented by subnational governments 2 3 - 12 13 - 26 F 27 - 36
  3. 3. Mission-oriented Policy: The basics 3
  4. 4. 4 “The Moon and the Ghetto”: evolution of mission-oriented policy ● When referring to “mission-oriented” policy and organisations, the Apollo program - that put a man on the Moon - and the Manhattan Project are often cited as examples ● In fact, they represent a “first generation” of mission-oriented policy, in which public funding, R&D, cross-sectoral collaboration and public-private partnerships were directed to particular technological achievements ● These missions were set “top-down” by the authorities, but involved “bottom-up” experimentation and innovation, with many “spill-overs” that transcended the missions. Some textiles and food developed for astronauts are now part of our daily lives!
  5. 5. 5 “The Moon and the Ghetto”: evolution of mission-oriented policy ● However, today’s more pressing challenges, from economic inequality to pandemics, from loneliness to climate change, have their own dynamics ● As Richard Nelson put in his essay “The Moon and the Ghetto”, technology alone is not sufficient to address complex social problems. What served for the moonshot challenges may not help for the ones in the ghetto! ● Nonetheless, there’s much to learn and apply from the early technology-focused efforts. The “mission-oriented policy” approach provides a useful framework and policy-design principles to tackle these “wicked problems” through innovation
  6. 6. 6 Mazzucato & Dibb (2019:3). Modified version of Table 5 in Soete & Arundel (1993: 51).
  7. 7. Conceptualising mission-oriented policy Rather than focusing on particular sectors – as in traditional industrial policy – mission-oriented policy focuses on problem-specific societal challenges, which many different sectors interact to solve. The focus on problems, and new types of collaborations between public and private actors to solve them, creates the potential for greater spillovers than a sectoral approach… … The new framework seeks to better envision, justify, measure and assess public investments, working within an ecosystem of public, private and third sector actors across the innovation chain. It focuses on the role of the state as shaping and creating markets, not only fixing them. 7 Mariana Mazzucato “ ”
  8. 8. Key lessons for missions (Mazzucato 2018) Missions should be: 1. Picking the willing → not about picking “winners”, but taking strategic decisions and directions in shaping sectors 2. Co-shaping markets → markets don’t exist in a vacuum, but are co-shaped by public and private actors. Public sector requires internal capabilities to play its strategic part 3. Welcoming experimentation → and fundamental uncertainty as a starting point, by having a “portfolio” approach 4. Focusing on the quality of finance → different sources, for every stage 5. Conducting proper engagement → in setting, governing and evaluating missions 6. Sharing risks and rewards → not privatising the latter and socialising the former 8
  9. 9. “Market-shaping” vs. “Market-fixing” approaches Kattel, Mazzucato, Ryan-Collins & Sharpe (2018) 9
  10. 10. Mission’s structure Addressing a “grand challenge” (eg. transitioning to a zero carbon economy, or an ageing population) may result in different “missions”, with clear targets and whose achievement can be measured. For every mission, in turn, different sectors (eg. transport, health, AI) must be involved, as well as a portfolio of “bottom-up” projects. 10
  11. 11. A new policy framework for missions (Mazzucato 2018) Missions should: - Be well-defined - Comprise a portfolio of projects - Involve different sectors and types of actors - Require joined up policy making 11
  12. 12. Some examples... 12
  13. 13. Step-by-step recommendations 13
  14. 14. Pillars 14 Mission framing Engagement, participation and collaboration Organisational capabilities Finance and funding Dynamic measurement
  15. 15. Framing missions Guidelines for mission development. When setting up to create a mission, remember to be these five things: 1. Be bold, inspirational, with wide societal relevance 2. Have a clear direction: targeted, measurable, and time-bound 3. Be ambitious but realistic with research and innovation actions 4. Be cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral, and cross-actor innovation 5. Drive multiple, bottom-up solutions. 15
  16. 16. Framing missions Guidelines for mission development. 16 Further considerations for Camden ● How to set up missions when agency is limited? Particularity of local-level mission setting vs. national-level ● What do you do when a mission can't feasibly be achieved within the existing confines/ levers of local government? ● Should you still aim to advance towards a mission that cannot be achieved in existing structures? ● Is there a gold standard for a mission's size/scope (in the local government context)? ● What are the features of a ‘good’ mission scope? ● How can we relate the Camden 2025 strategy to “missions”? How do these five criteria for framing them apply to the goals considered there?
  17. 17. Engagement, participation and collaboration How to engage citizens in co- designing, co-creating, co-implementing and co-assessing missions? Missions should be designed hand-in-hand with the citizens to harness the drive for change ● Requirement: a sound and transparent co-design process to select and frame missions → to obtain legitimacy ● Start with acknowledging that research and innovation are not separate to society, only populated by academics and experts ● Include citizen participation at all key stages: (1) mission selection and definition, (2) implementation, (3) assessment (evaluation, review and monitoring process) ● Include multiple perspectives: citizens, civic organisations, policymakers, researchers, business/industry ● Be open to possible contestation and debate ● Mind the challenge: avoid the capture of missions by vested interests, and recognising the differences between long term civic needs, and passing trends and phases 17
  18. 18. Engagement, participation and collaboration How to engage citizens in co- designing, co-creating, co-implementing and co-assessing missions? Missions should be designed hand-in-hand with the citizens to harness the drive for change 18 Further considerations for Camden ● How might you collectively agree a mission with the wide array of partners that need to be part of achieving it? ● How to create legitimacy and early buy-in when developing missions? ● How to incorporate innovative, digital participatory tools (seen in responses to Covid-19) into mission framing and engagement? ● How to bring about citizen deliberation in the COVID-19 and Post COVID-19 scenario? ● How should participation look like in each distinct stage (i.e: mission selection, implementation, assessment)? What guiding principles and mechanisms should reign them? ● How do existing participation mechanisms reflect the variety of voices of Camden citizens? What limitations exist?
  19. 19. Organisational capabilities What are the public sector capabilities and instruments needed to foster a dynamic innovation ecosystem, including the ability of civil servants to welcome experimentation and help governments work outside silos? From a governance perspective, the following capabilities need to be nurtured and developed: ● Experimentation, learning-by-doing ● Cross-sectoral collaboration, coordination between various policy fields, synergies and breaking ‘silos’ ● Management of bottom-up citizen science and innovation initiatives such as accelerators, grants, prize schemes and other types of rewards and incentives ● Dynamic public procurement (used as a demand-side stimulus to create new markets, not for cost-savings only) ● Project portfolio management ● Leadership that encourages risk- taking and adaptive explorative capacities Key words: trust, agile, experimentation, collaboration, risk-taking instead of de-risking, breaking siloes 19
  20. 20. Organisational capabilities What are the public sector capabilities and instruments needed to foster a dynamic innovation ecosystem, including the ability of civil servants to welcome experimentation and help governments work outside silos? 20 Further considerations for Camden ● What capabilities and experiences does Camden already have? ● What role(s) should Camden play in a “mission-oriented” framework. What skills do they demand (e.g. to be a “match-maker” of citizens needs and resources?) ● What do we need to strengthen/develop/build? ● How to set up appropriate lines of accountability in the context of local policymaking? ● How to embed collaborative systems and human learning partnerships into a public value approach which regards missions as an important part of strategy setting?
  21. 21. Finance and funding How can mission-oriented finance and funding leverage and crowd-in other forms of finance, galvanising innovation across actors (public, private and third sector), different manufacturing and service sectors, and across national and transnational levels? ● Create an ecosystem of financing between public and private actors ● Recognise that public financing can crowd-in and galvanize other forms of investment ● The public part of the ecosystem will include research funding, public venture capital funds as well as procurement instruments aimed at SMEs, national and regional public banks ● Apply a wide range of funding instruments available to suit different areas of this risk landscape. ● As the private sector tends to be risk-averse, use bold mission-oriented funds that are willing to invest in the more uncertain part of the technological and market landscape (and areas with high capital intensity). ● Share not only risks but also the rewards 21
  22. 22. Finance and funding How can mission-oriented finance and funding leverage and crowd-in other forms of finance, galvanising innovation across actors (public, private and third sector), different manufacturing and service sectors, and across national and transnational levels? 22 Further questions ● What different financial sources could fund Camden’s missions? ● How the existing funding mechanisms for local government favour or difficult “mission-oriented” policies? ● How should “portfolio” of “bottom-up” projects be funded? ● Should citizen crowdfunding have a part in funding missions? If yes, which space should it have, and how it could be harmoniously incorporated along with other sources of funding? ● How should risk be assessed? ● What are the implications of the different time frames of a mission (short, medium and longer term) for their finances?
  23. 23. Dynamic measurement How to move beyond simple, budget-constrained, static, allocative efficiency measurement but instead capture the whole extent of missions’ reach? ● Adopt a participatory, transparent, open data policy ● Move beyond simple CBA (cost-benefit analysis) ● Assess the performance of mission-oriented investments in terms of creation of public value, dynamic efficiency and their ‘additionality’, meaning the extent to which they have been successful at catalysing activity that otherwise would not have happened (dynamic spillovers) ● Base public policy appraisal and evaluation on a wider understanding of public value ● Adapt the evaluation to the specific characteristics of the mission, such as a portfolio of projects, taking into account the contribution of non-governmental actors ● Capture the positive side- effects of missions (innovations that develop through the mission agenda, but are deployed outside of the direct mission remit) 23
  24. 24. Dynamic measurement How to move beyond simple, budget-constrained, static, allocative efficiency measurement but instead capture the whole extent of missions’ reach? 24 Further questions ● What success measurement frameworks have worked at Camden in the past? ● What “spill-overs” are usually produced but not fully captured when evaluating the Council’s policies? What kind of evaluation frameworks would make them visible? ● What are the rhythms/ methods by which you might want to revisit a mission’s scope along the course of programme of work? ● How do you evaluate a mission's success? (particularly in an ongoing way, as opposed to simply assessing whether the mission was achieved or not) ● How do you deal with the problem of target driven approaches and how they are perceived at a local level when the experience is often of national government setting approaches which lead us to ‘hit the target but miss the point’? ● What oversight mechanisms could be established to evaluate progress? How could stakeholders be engaged in this?
  25. 25. Measurement Guidelines for mission development 25 How to measure progress towards the achievement of a mission? Frameworks in which costs and benefits are knowable, quantifiable and linear will not suffice for complex/systemic problems Instead, acknowledging uncertainty, contingency, disproportionate effects, the importance political decision and quantitative assessment become crucial Source: Simon Sharpe
  26. 26. Missions in the context of local government? Specific features of local governments as organisations, with their opportunities and challenges in relation to m-o framework. Agency Funding Flexibility Closer to citizens and users CONSTRAINS OPPORTUNITIES Implications of different time Collaboration between various fields Appraisal and evaluation Dynamic monitoring Cross-sectoral cooperation 'Bottom-up' engagement Innovations that develop through the mission agenda Participative co-design processes
  27. 27. Manchester Case study 27
  28. 28. Case studies We have chosen several case studies to bring into the discussion on the mission-oriented approach. They are cases in which the UCL Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose has been involved, and from which some valuable lessons can be extracted. Each of them can provide grounded context to illuminate how a mission-oriented approach can be implemented by subnational governments, through learning context-specific lessons as to what went well, what challenges arose and how they were dealt with. Case studies featured • Greater Manchester - A mission oriented approach to clean growth • Basque Country - (1) Building a network for a green transition in Debagoiena Valley • Basque Country - (2) Bizkaia Egiten (“Making Biscay” plan)
  29. 29. Greater Manchester- A mission oriented approach to clean growth A clean growth mission for Greater Manchester-The importance of mission-setting for Greater Manchester Combined Authority. Overview: Greater Manchester is a city region comprised of ten local authorities in the North West of the UK. In January 2019, Greater Manchester started the consultation process on the target of achieving carbon neutrality by 2038, one of the most ambitious targets of any city region in Europe, and 12 years earlier than the previous Greater Manchester goal of 2050. key challenges– how to reduce carbon emissions, how to improve air quality, how to enhance the natural environment and how to increase the efficiency with which resources are used. “It is helpful to think of societal grand challenges as complex design problems that require radical innovations and multiple areas of the economy to alter their trajectory” Mission: Carbon neutral living within the Greater Manchester economy by 2038 29
  30. 30. Step by step approach in practice: • Convert an aim into a mission • Understand the context and results of recent evidence and research • Plotting our research, underpinned by IIPP's recent experiences in working with the UK • Populating on mission roadmap the key hypothetical mission projects that can grow, through bottom-up experimentation on experience When approaching the aim of carbon neutrality in Greater Manchester from a mission-oriented perspective, they used the following methodology:
  31. 31. The mission roadmap for Greater Manchester: Carbon neutral city region by 2038
  32. 32. Mission projects These mission projects are hypothetical and have been developed based on recent sectoral and cross-sectoral studies undertaken by GMCA. In reality projects would ideally emerge from participative co-design processes, reinforcing 'bottom-up' engagement as a core principle of mission-oriented innovation. Project 1: Carbon neutral retrofit and new-build for residents and industries Project 2: Climate resilient public realm Project 3: Citizen-oriented Circular Economy and Sharing Economy Initiatives Project 4: 21st Century energy supply Project 5: Walkability, cycle-ability and demography-led clean transit links Project 6: Behaviour change for carbon neutral living
  33. 33. Basque Country - (1) Building a network for a green transition in Debagoiena Valley Overview: The Debagoiena 2030 Plan is looking to establish a mission-oriented perspective for the development of this industrialised valley in the Basque Country. The goal is carry on a social, industrial, and green-focused transformation of the region. In order to achieve this, a governance structure integrated by local governments, citizens and cooperatives (as the world famous Mondragón Cooperative) has taken place. IIPP is currently working with the governments of the Biscay and Guipúzcoa provinces on topics as social innovation, public sector development, and Sustainable Development Goal-driven policy plans key challenges– “The Basque country is in many ways at the forefront of reinventing capitalism. It has a great tradition of cooperative-owned firms, and a policymaking tradition focused on co-creation. Such socially embedded capacities and capabilities should set the region up for successfully transitioning into digital capitalism, where data is owned by citizens and business models add (rather than subtract) public value.” Prof. Kattel Mission: The social, industrial, and green-focused transformation of the Debagoiena Valley
  34. 34. Basque Country - (2) Bizkaia Egiten (“Making Biscay” plan) Overview: The Bizkaia Egiten plan focuses on three challenges: the demographic (ageing population and gender equality), climate change (environmental issues, social welfare, regeneration, reorientation of the economy, recovery of waters and rivers), and develop the economic activity through innovation, entrepreneurship, and reconversion of industrial firms. key challenges IIPP is helping Biscay provincial government in relation to: ● Institutional transformation and capabilities ● Matching financial resources with the SDGs ● Rethink the tax system for that purpose ● Conditions for public funding recipients in relation to SDGs Mission: Being developed, but related to demographic challenges, climate change and reorientation of the economy
  35. 35. Case reflection: Directions: How to choose directions, and what should the future 'missions' be? What is the role of local government? Evaluation: How would a mission-oriented framework, as opposed to a market failure framework, translate into new indicators and assessment tools for evaluating public policies, beyond the micro-economic cost/benefit analysis? How does this alter the crowding in/out narrative? Organisational change: How should public organizations be structured to accommodate the risk-taking and explorative capacity, and the capabilities needed to envision and manage contemporary challenges? Risks and rewards: How can this alternative conceptualization be put into practice so investment tools are framed to socialize both risks and rewards and growth is not only 'smart' but also 'inclusive'?
  36. 36. Implementation/governance questions • Inherently exploratory process - Framework just finalised in 2 years • Uptake, ongoing and in the very early stage • Learning process - uncertainties • Completely new way of innovating • Practice-based learning
  37. 37. Missions and Camden brainstorming session 37
  38. 38. Q1: How is this similar/ different to other approaches that we used? ● … ● 38 Q2: Which areas do we feel confident about? ● … ● Q3: Which are areas for development? ● … ● Mission framing Engagement, participation & collaboration Organisational capabilities Finance and funding Dynamic measurement PILLARS GROUP 3
  39. 39. Q4. What are the particularities of local government/ Camden in relation to this framework? DISADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS ADVANTAGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Other thoughts ● … ● GROUP 3
  40. 40. Q5: What financial levers do we have available to us? ● … ● 40 Funds from central government Venture capital Crowdfunding Grants and prizes R&D funding SOURCES Funding from community Council Tax Business loans LEVERS GROUP 3
  41. 41. Next steps? 41

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