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1813 a turnig point in indian education

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1813 turning point in indian education

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1813 a turnig point in indian education

  1. 1. Harish Rawat Kamal Krishna Prabhat Ravindra Vikash Vipin Negi Yogendra Singh Rawat
  2. 2.  Native system of education was followed in the Indian sub continent.  The Hindus and Muslims had their own educational institutions.  The pathsalas were the educational institutions of the Hindus and the instruction was provided by Pandits in Sanskrit.  In Mosques Muslim Maulvis taught Persian and Theology.  The Religion was linked with the educational institutions of the Hindus and Muslims.  In 1781 Warren Hastings established Calcutta Madarssa, To qualify the sons of Muslim gentlemen for the responsible and lucrative offices in the state. Here Theology, Logic, Rhetoric, Grammar Law, Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Geometry and Arithmetic were instructed.  In 1785 Sir William Jones with the assistance of Warren Hastings established the Bengal Asiatic Society in order to encourage the Historical Researches.  In 1792 at Banares Sanskrit School was started by Johnathan Duncan.  It's main aim was to qualify the sons of the Hindus and supplying them as assistance to the European judges.  Missionaries and various religious groups had brought some basic education non-officially to the Indian masses.
  3. 3.  They did not allow the missionaries for the propagation of the religious education to the common people in India. › Reason :  They felt that the missionaries would encourage the religious sentiments among the people in India that could affect the business policy and the diplomatic role of the East India Company. › Result:  Thus, it created an agitation against the East India Company that the Company was opposed to the teachings of Christ and neglected to provide education for the Indians.  Interestingly, the agitation was supported by many in England and ultimately made a conclusion by introducing an education clause which is known as Charter Act of 1813. Hence, this Act ultimately made a State system of Education in India.
  4. 4.  The East India Company Act 1813, also known as the Charter Act of 1813, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company, and continued the Company's rule in India.  The Act expressly asserted the Crown's sovereignty over British India.  It allotted Rs 100,000 to promote education in India.  Christian missionaries were allowed to come to British India and preach their religion.  Financial provision was also made to encourage a revival in Indian literature and for the promotion of science.
  5. 5.  A sum of not less than Rs 100000/- (Rupees One Lac) each year shall be set apart for the revival and improvement of literature and encouragement of the learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the science among the inhabitants of the British territories in India. But the Act did not clarify whether the money was to be spent on western education or Indian education. › Result :  First time in the Indian soil; official money of rupees one lac was allotted to expand the education of the Indians.  Compelled the East India Company to accept responsibility for the education of the Indian people.  As a result, from 1813 to 1857, the company opened many schools and colleges under their control which laid the foundation of the English system of education in India.
  6. 6.  Although it was the first act a, yet it had created a controversy between the Orientalist ¼izkP;oknh½ and Occidentalist¼ik'pkR;oknh½ on  the medium of instruction  objectives of education  Methods for improvement of literature of the learned natives in India. › Orientalist ¼izkP;oknh½  Mostly senior and experienced officers of East India Co.  Favour with Sanskrit, Hindi and Arbi languages  India Literature, Knowledge and Science  General knowledge of Western knowledge and science  The native type of education and the instruction through the vernaculars were advocated by the orient lists. H.H. Wilson headed this group. › Occidentalist¼ik'pkR;oknh½  Young officer of East India co. and missionaries.  Favour with English language.  Knowledge of western languages and literature.  Compulsory education of Christian Religion.  Macaulay was the leader of this group and they were called as Anglicists.
  7. 7.  Orientalist ¼izkP;oknh½ Logics :  According to Prinsap - Indians are not competent to learn the western languages, literature knowledge and science.  According to Wilson - Indian may against Britishers.  Indian will become equal to Europian.  If they know the western literature, language, knowledge and science they will throw the British Rule.  Occidentalist¼ik'pkR;oknh½ Logics :  According to Raja Ram Mohan Roy – Indian will know the latest knowledge and science and develop themselves.  Western culture can be developed in India.  Person may be prepared for trade and administration work.  People may follow Britishers but will be Indian by birth.  In 1835, Lord William Bentick solved this controversy and he accepted the Anglicists' view points.
  8. 8.  Given stress on allotting the one lakhs rupees only; no specific regulations were granted for establishing the schools and colleges in India.  Aims: Regarding the aims of education during that time, groups of people had different opinions.  One group preferred the propagation of oriental literature,  Other group stressed the need to introduce western literature among the Indian people.  Organizing : In terms of agencies to be employed.  That missionaries should be an agency for educational management  Will be better if Indians themselves played the role for conducting the educational institutions.  Recommended the establishment of the schools by the company itself.  Medium of instruction there were also three opinions.  Western sciences and knowledge should be promoted through the classical language as a medium of instruction, namely Sanskrit and Arabic.  Favoured to the modern Indian language  Education should be given through the medium of English.  Methods of education.  Education always filters down from the upper classes of the society to the common masses. It was known as ‘Downwards Filtration Theory’.  The company should themselves take the responsibility for educating the masses.
  9. 9.  Europian Christian Missionaries are permitted openly to come India and resulted fasten the expansion education and Christian religion.  Inspiring that many non missionaries organisation established and help to develop the education system in India.  Due to non policy it was not benefited as should be.
  10. 10.  Bengal region :  In 1817 Bestist Missionaries - ‘Shirampur College’  Proper arrangement for education of Western Languages, Literature, Science and Knowledge and made the centre for religious publicity.  During 1814-1818  Church Missionaries Society - 26 School in Chinsura.  Landon Missionaries Society - 10 school in Vardhman and Bishap College in Shivpur in 1820.  Bombai region :  In 1815 American Mission - school for boys and in 1824-26 9 school for girls.  In 1829 Scotch Missionaries (Dr. Wilson) - school for Girls and in 1832 for boys.  Landon Missionaries Society - many school in Gujrat and Konkarn.  Irish Pravsterian Missionaries Society - schools in Kathiawarh region.  Church Missionaries Society - in Bombai, Thana, Nasik and Surat.
  11. 11.  Madras region :  In 1815-1830 Church Missionaries Society - 107 schools.  In 1817 Isai Jan Pracharak Samity - 9 school.  In 1819 Vaslien Mission - 2 School.  Many more Schools - in Koyambatoor, Vishakhapatnam, Billari, Kumbhkoram, Chittoor and Selam.  Other region :  Some schools - in Ludhiyana, Jaunpur, Banaras, Ajamgar, Agra, Mathura and Merrut.  5 Schools of ‘Lanka Strian System’ - in Ajmer City.
  12. 12.  Raja Ram Mohan Roy :  In 1817 established ‘Hindu College’ in Calcutta for High quality English education for Hindu Religion people.  In this college the education of Bangla, Sanskrit, English, History, Geography, Math and Astrology subjects in English medium.  In 1817 Forms ‘Calcutta Samaj’ for providing low cost books and study materials.  In 1819 forms ‘Calcutta Vidyalaya Samaj’ through which 115 schools were opened.  Shri Jai Narayan Ghosal :  In 1818 donated Rs 20000/- and established ‘Jai Narayan School’ in Banaras.  In this School Sanskrit, Hindi, Bangla, Persian and English languages education was arranged including History, Geography and Maths.
  13. 13.  Pandit Gangadhar Shastri :  By donating Rs 150000/- converted the ‘Agra Sanskrit College’ in ‘Agra College’  Made arrangements for English language and western literature including Sanskrit language and Literature and western knowledge and science.  East India Company:  According to Charter Act 1813 Made full freedom to Christian Missionaries.  Established ‘Puna Sanskrit College’ with the help of part of donation fund which were being donated to Dakshin Branhmins.  To satisfy Dakshin Branhmins.  To arrange English Language and Literature, western knowledge and Science including Sanskrit Language and Literature.
  14. 14.  A separate fund was allotted for Rs 100000/- first time in Indian History of Education.  A no. of Schools were opened by Christian missionaries for Boys and Girls in All part of India.  Introducing English medium had some advantage from the view points of the Indian.  could get government jobs.  it brought the Indians in contact with the western sciences and literature. It widened their mental horizon.  English became the "Lingua Franca" of educated Indians and thereby helped in the development of nationalism in the long run.  Lord Harding passed the resolution of 1844 to preferred the people educated in the western science and English language. Public employment this created economic interest in the study of English language.  Many non Christian Missionaries were also came forward and opened many schools.  The education was available in regional languages including English.
  15. 15.  The literacy was only about 7% and increased to 14% in 1947 with the total educational expenditure was just about Rs. 570 million  In 1947 we had 218165 Schools and 17748802 enrolments.  17 universities & 636 colleges with 238,000 students  5,297 secondary schools with 870,000 pupils  12,843 middle schools with two million pupils  1,72,661 primary schools with fourteen million pupils.  Free education for poor children.  Scholarship motivated many children for higher education.  We could establish ourselves in world map in terms of Science and technology.  Our children could get chance to study in abroad top class universities.  All caste of all religion could get education and uplifted their status.
  16. 16.  Proportion of Enrolment Of Scheduled Castes to Total Enrolment in 1960 could reach 10.4 %  Proportion of Enrolment Of Scheduled Tribes to Total Enrolment in 1960 could 4%  New interesting teaching systems were introduced.  After learning English Indian could get the Job in British Government.  After getting job in British Government the Indian could get freedom by knowing their strategy.  Trained teachers were provided for education.  Good qualities basic amenities were provided in the Schools.  Discipline was maintained in the schools.  Higher education institution were promoted.  Emphasis on Women Education.
  17. 17.  Hkkjrh; f'k{kk dk bfrgkl] fodkl ,oe~ leL;k,¡ ¼jeu fcgkjh yky ,oe~ d`’.kk dkUr “kekZ½  Wikipedia  Planning Commission of India  POLICY AND PERFORMANCE IN INDIAN EDUCATION (1947-74) By J. P. NAIK, Member- Secretary,Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi  Education scenario and needs in India: Building a perspective for 2025 by Suman Sachdeva