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ThallusOrganization and
Morphological
Variations:Ecological and
Evolutionary TrendsOf
Algae
INTRODUCTION
• Algae are chlorophil bearing organisms which are thalloid.
• They are important member in plant world.
• Plant body shows no differenciation into true tissues.
• It never forms true roots, stems and leaves.
• This plant body is called thallus.
• The thallus is non vascular and thus has a no element for the transport of fluids.
• They are active only in very most places.
ORGANIZATION OF THALLUS
• They are exhibit a great diversity in the organization of the plant body.
• Simplest forms are motile or non – motile unicells (Chlamidomonas and chlorella).
• In many species, the cells are grouped into aggregations called colonies (Volvox,
Pediastrum).
• These assumes various forms and may be a hollow sphere, a flate plate or a filament.
• Filaments are multicellular and simple or branched or aggregation of filament.
• In some multicellular forms, the cells perform both functions of vegetative and
reproductive organism.
• While in another special reproductive cells are present (Chara ,Sargasam).
• Highly differenciated marine algae exhibit external differenciation and
considerabke size.
Eg: Sargasam, Laminaria.
• Some of them posses a plant kingdom consisting of parts that bear a
superficial resemblance to the roots, leaves and stem of higher plants.
• The length of main axis equal or surpasses the hight of tallest tree.
Eg: Thalli of Macrocystis purifera
THALLUS VARIATION
1. UNICELLULAR MOTILE FORMS
• Unicellular motile forms are found in all major groups
except phaeophyceae, rhodophyceaea,bacillariophyceae.
• The presence of unicellular plant body beaering means of
motility ie, flagella
Eg:Chlamidomonas
• Flagella may be equal as in chlorophyceae or unequal as
in xanthophyceae or Dinophyceae.
• Number of flagella may be one as in some chrysophyceae
to four as in some chlorophyceae.
2. Unicellular non – motile forms
• Unicellular non – motile thalli are found in many
algal groups including chlorophyceae,
chrysophyceae, cyanophyceae,
xanthophyceae,bacillariophyceae and
rhodophyceae.
• They posses unicellular plant body with no flagella
Eg: Chlorella
• Chlorella which posses microscopic sphereical cells
each with nucleus and cup shaped chloroplast.
Eg: Synechococcus of myxophyceae
MULTICELLULAR FLAGELLATED OR
COLONIAL FORMS
• These are colonial members of algae.
Whose cells bear flagella, colonial
habitat have been developed by the
other aggregation of many motile forms.
• Innumerable number of cells are present
in the body.
• Colony with defenite number of cells
and having constant shape and size is
callaed coenobium.
• Multicellular motile forms belonging
to chlorophyceae, chrysophyceae and
dinophyceae
Eg: Volvox
• In volvox, defenite number of cells
are interconnected with
protoplasmic connections.
Coenobium is hollow and spherical.
Eg: Ceratium and Gonyaulax of
Dinophyceae
MULTICELLULAR NON - FLAGELLATED FORMS OR
NON - FLAGELLATED COLONIES
• Plants bear definite number of cells and
represent a coenobium. The cells are non –
motile and do not have flagella.
Eg: Hydrodictyon
• In which the cells of net remain connected in
the forms of groups of 5 or 6 forming
pentagonal or hexagonal.
• Non – flagellated collonial habitat developed
by the aggregation of unicellular non – motile
cells.
PALMELLOID FORMS
• These are the collonial members of algae in which in non –
moltile cells remain embeded in an amorphous gelatinous.
• In this form neither the number nor the shape and size is
constant.
• Cells aggregated in mucilaginous envelop.
Eg: Chlamidomonas, Chromulina
• According to Klebs(1886), Scroder and Virieux(1910) the
mucillage in palmoid forms is secreted eigther by the
protoplast of the cell or develop by gelatinization of their
membraines.
DENDROID FORMS
• Dendroid means tree – like.
• In prasinocladus, Eebollocystis etc the
plant body appears like a microscopic
tree.
• Mucillage in such cases is restricted
only locally, generally at the base of
cell.
FILAMENTOUS FORMS
• Many cells arranged one upon the
other in a defenite sequence or
uniseriate row constitute a filament.
• Filamentas may be unbranched and
branched.
• Unbranched filament found spirogyra
zyngenea, Mongeotia, Ulothrix,
Oedogonium, Nostoc etc
• In ulothrix, oedogonium etc the filaments
remain attached the substratum with basal
specialized cell but in zygnema, Spirogyra
they are free flotting.
• Branched filamentous are found in
chladophoro, phecothamnion etc.
• In some genera of myxophyceae such as
scytonema, false branching is observed.
HETEROTRICHOUS FORMS
• “Hetero” means differenciated and “trichous” denote
filament.
• In some algae plant body exhibit more than one type of
filament and thus represent heterotrichous habit.
• It is characterestic feature of chaetophorales of
chlorophyceae.
• In general, the plant body of prostrate system develop an
erect system of filaments. The errect system is called primary
projecting , this may be devided into many branches is
secondary projecting system and tertiary projecting system.
Eg: Erythrotrichia, Draparnaldia,Tilopteris
SIPHONOUS FORMS
• In siphonous forms the plant siphon body enlarges
considerably without the formation of any septa
because the presence of many nuclei ie,coenocyte.
• A large central siphon like vacuole is present in the
thallus.
• This algal thalli are found only in some
chlorophyceae and xanthophyceae.
Eg: Voucheraria- coenotypic plant (boby
encloses a siphon like vacuole.), Botrydium, Valonia,
Codium,Bryopsis.
Botrydium
UNIAXIAL FORMS
• Uni means one and axial pertains to axial.
• In some rhodophyceae, plant body is made up of such pseudo
parenchymatous thalli and there is present on the main axis
and all other side branches.
Eg: Batrachospermum
• Uniaxial forms of thalli must have been originated from the
filamentous habit during the cource of evolution.
MULTIAXIAL FORMS
• Multi stands for more than one and axia
pertains to axis.
• In some algae the thallus construction
present a number of threads in close
juxtaposition giving the appearance of
more than one axis.
• Different filament of the central and side
axis form more or less a compact cortex.
Eg: Codium, Polysiphonia, Nemalion
PARENCHYMATOUS FORMS
• Abundant septation of filament in two or more planes results
in the formation of parenchymatous body in some algae.
• Such plants may ultimately be foliose and flat (Ulva) or
tubular (Entermorpha).
Eg: Chara, Porphyra, Dictyota, Sargassum
ECOLOGY OF ALGAEECOLOGY OF ALGAE
•Algae are almost throughout the world,being most common in
aquatic and are found in fresh or salt waters.
•Algae can be categorized ecologically by their habitates.
Aquatic AlgaeAquatic Algae
•Aquatic algae usually occur in ponds, pools, tanks, ditches, streams.
•Most of the marine forms are sea weeds. In marine forms are either
floating on the surface or attached with rocks or any other substratum.
•Planktonic microscopic algae grow suspended in the water. Where as
newstonic algae grow on the water surface.
•Example:
Hydrodictyon
Terristrial AlgaeTerristrial Algae
•The algae forms occuring on the surface of moist soil.
•Example: Voucharia, Botrydium, Fritschiellia
AerophyticAerophytic
•Some algal forms are adapted for aerial mode of life and get
their water and carbondioxide requirments directly from
atmosphere.
•Trentepohlia is found on the bark of trees in miost condition.
•Scytonema and Hapalosiphon grow on bark of tee along with
Bryophytes.
CryophytesCryophytes
•The algal genera occuring in snow and ice.they occur in mountain
peaks and gives attractive colour to the mountain,Haematococcus
nivalis give red colour to Aretic and Alpine region.
•Clamydomonous yellow stonensis along with some spaces give
green colour to the mountains of Europian countries.
ThermophytesThermophytes
•The algal genera occuring in hot spring at quit high
temperature.
•Example:Oseillatoria,Haplosiphon.
ALGAE OF UNUSUAL HABITSOF UNUSUAL HABITS
Halophytic algae
•Algae found in saline water containing high percentage
of salts.
•Example:Dunaliella,Stephanoptere.
Lithophytic algaeLithophytic algae
•The algae gorw on moist rocks,wet walls and other rocky
surfaces.
•Example: Rivularia,Gloreocapsa,
Epiphytic algaeEpiphytic algae
•Some algal forms which grow on the other aquatic plants.
•Example:Oedogonium, Bulbochaeta.
•Greenalgae Coleochacta nitellarum occurs on Chara and
Netella.
•Some aregrowonAngiospermicplant,
•Chaetophora is found on the leaves of Nelumbo and
Vallisneria.
Epizoic algaeEpizoic algae
•Many algae grow on the shells of molluscs,turtles and fins of
fishes.
•Chladophora is found on snails and shells of bivalves.
Endozoic algaeEndozoic algae
•The algae are found inside the aquatic animals.
•Zoochlorella is found inside Hydra viridis.
•Zooxanthella is occur inside the fresh water sponges.
•About 15 species of blue-green algae occur in the digestive and
respiratory tracts of vertebraates.
Parasitic algaeParasitic algae
•Cephaleuros virescens which causes red rust of tea foliage in
assam and near by states.
•Other examples are Chlorochtrium,Phyllosiphon.
Symbiotic algaeSymbiotic algae
•Several members of algae grow in association with other
plans.
•Lichens exhibit good example.
•Nostoc is found with in the thalli of Anthoceros and
Notothylas.
•Anabaena cycadeae is present in the corolloid root of
cycas.
Algal abundance and diversity vary from one environmend
to the next.
• Abundance and diversity vary from tropical to deserts
• Terrestrial vegetation is infiuenced most by precipitation
and temprature .
• Aquatic vegetation is influenced by light and nutrients.
• When nutrients are abundant as in some polluted
waters,algal cells numbers can become great enough to
produce patches of aigae called blooms
Evolutionary trends in algaeEvolutionary trends in algae
•The fossil record for some group of algae has hindered
evolutionary studies , and the realization some algae are
closely related to protozoa or fungi than they are to other
algae came late.
•Producing confusion in evolutionary thought and delaysin
understanding the evolution of the algae.
•The colourless englenophyceae are believed to an ancient
lineage of algae.
• Some scientist consider the red algae , which little
resemblance to any other group of organisms to be very
primitive eukaryotes that evolved from the prokaryotic blue
green algae evidence support is photosynthetic pigments and
similar starches among the red algae and blue green algae.
• Red algae evolved from the cryptophyceae with the loss of
flagella,or from fungi by obtaning chloroplast.
• The green algae classes are evolutionarily selated,but their
orgins are unclear.
• The cryptophyceae are an evolutionary enigma,they have
no fossil record and phylogenetic data are conflicting.
• Some workees align them are near the red algae,because
both group posses phycobiliproteins in their chloroplasts.
• Some of the green algal classes are also very old .
• Specific groups of algae share features with protozoa and
fungi.
• That without the presence of chloroplasts and
photosynthesisas.
Algae seminar

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Algae seminar

  • 1.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Algae are chlorophil bearing organisms which are thalloid. • They are important member in plant world. • Plant body shows no differenciation into true tissues. • It never forms true roots, stems and leaves. • This plant body is called thallus. • The thallus is non vascular and thus has a no element for the transport of fluids. • They are active only in very most places.
  • 4. ORGANIZATION OF THALLUS • They are exhibit a great diversity in the organization of the plant body. • Simplest forms are motile or non – motile unicells (Chlamidomonas and chlorella). • In many species, the cells are grouped into aggregations called colonies (Volvox, Pediastrum). • These assumes various forms and may be a hollow sphere, a flate plate or a filament. • Filaments are multicellular and simple or branched or aggregation of filament. • In some multicellular forms, the cells perform both functions of vegetative and reproductive organism. • While in another special reproductive cells are present (Chara ,Sargasam).
  • 5.
  • 6. • Highly differenciated marine algae exhibit external differenciation and considerabke size. Eg: Sargasam, Laminaria. • Some of them posses a plant kingdom consisting of parts that bear a superficial resemblance to the roots, leaves and stem of higher plants. • The length of main axis equal or surpasses the hight of tallest tree. Eg: Thalli of Macrocystis purifera
  • 7. THALLUS VARIATION 1. UNICELLULAR MOTILE FORMS • Unicellular motile forms are found in all major groups except phaeophyceae, rhodophyceaea,bacillariophyceae. • The presence of unicellular plant body beaering means of motility ie, flagella Eg:Chlamidomonas • Flagella may be equal as in chlorophyceae or unequal as in xanthophyceae or Dinophyceae. • Number of flagella may be one as in some chrysophyceae to four as in some chlorophyceae.
  • 8. 2. Unicellular non – motile forms • Unicellular non – motile thalli are found in many algal groups including chlorophyceae, chrysophyceae, cyanophyceae, xanthophyceae,bacillariophyceae and rhodophyceae. • They posses unicellular plant body with no flagella Eg: Chlorella • Chlorella which posses microscopic sphereical cells each with nucleus and cup shaped chloroplast. Eg: Synechococcus of myxophyceae
  • 9. MULTICELLULAR FLAGELLATED OR COLONIAL FORMS • These are colonial members of algae. Whose cells bear flagella, colonial habitat have been developed by the other aggregation of many motile forms. • Innumerable number of cells are present in the body. • Colony with defenite number of cells and having constant shape and size is callaed coenobium.
  • 10. • Multicellular motile forms belonging to chlorophyceae, chrysophyceae and dinophyceae Eg: Volvox • In volvox, defenite number of cells are interconnected with protoplasmic connections. Coenobium is hollow and spherical. Eg: Ceratium and Gonyaulax of Dinophyceae
  • 11. MULTICELLULAR NON - FLAGELLATED FORMS OR NON - FLAGELLATED COLONIES • Plants bear definite number of cells and represent a coenobium. The cells are non – motile and do not have flagella. Eg: Hydrodictyon • In which the cells of net remain connected in the forms of groups of 5 or 6 forming pentagonal or hexagonal. • Non – flagellated collonial habitat developed by the aggregation of unicellular non – motile cells.
  • 12. PALMELLOID FORMS • These are the collonial members of algae in which in non – moltile cells remain embeded in an amorphous gelatinous. • In this form neither the number nor the shape and size is constant. • Cells aggregated in mucilaginous envelop. Eg: Chlamidomonas, Chromulina • According to Klebs(1886), Scroder and Virieux(1910) the mucillage in palmoid forms is secreted eigther by the protoplast of the cell or develop by gelatinization of their membraines.
  • 13. DENDROID FORMS • Dendroid means tree – like. • In prasinocladus, Eebollocystis etc the plant body appears like a microscopic tree. • Mucillage in such cases is restricted only locally, generally at the base of cell.
  • 14. FILAMENTOUS FORMS • Many cells arranged one upon the other in a defenite sequence or uniseriate row constitute a filament. • Filamentas may be unbranched and branched. • Unbranched filament found spirogyra zyngenea, Mongeotia, Ulothrix, Oedogonium, Nostoc etc
  • 15. • In ulothrix, oedogonium etc the filaments remain attached the substratum with basal specialized cell but in zygnema, Spirogyra they are free flotting. • Branched filamentous are found in chladophoro, phecothamnion etc. • In some genera of myxophyceae such as scytonema, false branching is observed.
  • 16. HETEROTRICHOUS FORMS • “Hetero” means differenciated and “trichous” denote filament. • In some algae plant body exhibit more than one type of filament and thus represent heterotrichous habit. • It is characterestic feature of chaetophorales of chlorophyceae.
  • 17. • In general, the plant body of prostrate system develop an erect system of filaments. The errect system is called primary projecting , this may be devided into many branches is secondary projecting system and tertiary projecting system. Eg: Erythrotrichia, Draparnaldia,Tilopteris
  • 18. SIPHONOUS FORMS • In siphonous forms the plant siphon body enlarges considerably without the formation of any septa because the presence of many nuclei ie,coenocyte. • A large central siphon like vacuole is present in the thallus. • This algal thalli are found only in some chlorophyceae and xanthophyceae. Eg: Voucheraria- coenotypic plant (boby encloses a siphon like vacuole.), Botrydium, Valonia, Codium,Bryopsis. Botrydium
  • 19. UNIAXIAL FORMS • Uni means one and axial pertains to axial. • In some rhodophyceae, plant body is made up of such pseudo parenchymatous thalli and there is present on the main axis and all other side branches. Eg: Batrachospermum • Uniaxial forms of thalli must have been originated from the filamentous habit during the cource of evolution.
  • 20. MULTIAXIAL FORMS • Multi stands for more than one and axia pertains to axis. • In some algae the thallus construction present a number of threads in close juxtaposition giving the appearance of more than one axis. • Different filament of the central and side axis form more or less a compact cortex. Eg: Codium, Polysiphonia, Nemalion
  • 21. PARENCHYMATOUS FORMS • Abundant septation of filament in two or more planes results in the formation of parenchymatous body in some algae. • Such plants may ultimately be foliose and flat (Ulva) or tubular (Entermorpha). Eg: Chara, Porphyra, Dictyota, Sargassum
  • 22. ECOLOGY OF ALGAEECOLOGY OF ALGAE •Algae are almost throughout the world,being most common in aquatic and are found in fresh or salt waters. •Algae can be categorized ecologically by their habitates.
  • 23. Aquatic AlgaeAquatic Algae •Aquatic algae usually occur in ponds, pools, tanks, ditches, streams. •Most of the marine forms are sea weeds. In marine forms are either floating on the surface or attached with rocks or any other substratum. •Planktonic microscopic algae grow suspended in the water. Where as newstonic algae grow on the water surface. •Example: Hydrodictyon
  • 24. Terristrial AlgaeTerristrial Algae •The algae forms occuring on the surface of moist soil. •Example: Voucharia, Botrydium, Fritschiellia
  • 25. AerophyticAerophytic •Some algal forms are adapted for aerial mode of life and get their water and carbondioxide requirments directly from atmosphere. •Trentepohlia is found on the bark of trees in miost condition. •Scytonema and Hapalosiphon grow on bark of tee along with Bryophytes.
  • 26. CryophytesCryophytes •The algal genera occuring in snow and ice.they occur in mountain peaks and gives attractive colour to the mountain,Haematococcus nivalis give red colour to Aretic and Alpine region. •Clamydomonous yellow stonensis along with some spaces give green colour to the mountains of Europian countries.
  • 27. ThermophytesThermophytes •The algal genera occuring in hot spring at quit high temperature. •Example:Oseillatoria,Haplosiphon.
  • 28. ALGAE OF UNUSUAL HABITSOF UNUSUAL HABITS Halophytic algae •Algae found in saline water containing high percentage of salts. •Example:Dunaliella,Stephanoptere.
  • 29. Lithophytic algaeLithophytic algae •The algae gorw on moist rocks,wet walls and other rocky surfaces. •Example: Rivularia,Gloreocapsa,
  • 30. Epiphytic algaeEpiphytic algae •Some algal forms which grow on the other aquatic plants. •Example:Oedogonium, Bulbochaeta. •Greenalgae Coleochacta nitellarum occurs on Chara and Netella. •Some aregrowonAngiospermicplant, •Chaetophora is found on the leaves of Nelumbo and Vallisneria.
  • 31. Epizoic algaeEpizoic algae •Many algae grow on the shells of molluscs,turtles and fins of fishes. •Chladophora is found on snails and shells of bivalves.
  • 32. Endozoic algaeEndozoic algae •The algae are found inside the aquatic animals. •Zoochlorella is found inside Hydra viridis. •Zooxanthella is occur inside the fresh water sponges. •About 15 species of blue-green algae occur in the digestive and respiratory tracts of vertebraates.
  • 33. Parasitic algaeParasitic algae •Cephaleuros virescens which causes red rust of tea foliage in assam and near by states. •Other examples are Chlorochtrium,Phyllosiphon.
  • 34. Symbiotic algaeSymbiotic algae •Several members of algae grow in association with other plans. •Lichens exhibit good example. •Nostoc is found with in the thalli of Anthoceros and Notothylas. •Anabaena cycadeae is present in the corolloid root of cycas.
  • 35. Algal abundance and diversity vary from one environmend to the next. • Abundance and diversity vary from tropical to deserts • Terrestrial vegetation is infiuenced most by precipitation and temprature . • Aquatic vegetation is influenced by light and nutrients. • When nutrients are abundant as in some polluted waters,algal cells numbers can become great enough to produce patches of aigae called blooms
  • 36. Evolutionary trends in algaeEvolutionary trends in algae •The fossil record for some group of algae has hindered evolutionary studies , and the realization some algae are closely related to protozoa or fungi than they are to other algae came late. •Producing confusion in evolutionary thought and delaysin understanding the evolution of the algae. •The colourless englenophyceae are believed to an ancient lineage of algae.
  • 37. • Some scientist consider the red algae , which little resemblance to any other group of organisms to be very primitive eukaryotes that evolved from the prokaryotic blue green algae evidence support is photosynthetic pigments and similar starches among the red algae and blue green algae. • Red algae evolved from the cryptophyceae with the loss of flagella,or from fungi by obtaning chloroplast. • The green algae classes are evolutionarily selated,but their orgins are unclear.
  • 38. • The cryptophyceae are an evolutionary enigma,they have no fossil record and phylogenetic data are conflicting. • Some workees align them are near the red algae,because both group posses phycobiliproteins in their chloroplasts. • Some of the green algal classes are also very old . • Specific groups of algae share features with protozoa and fungi. • That without the presence of chloroplasts and photosynthesisas.